REFERENCES



Åkerstedt T: Work hours, sleepiness and accidents: introduction and summary. J Sleep Res 1995(a);4(2):1-3.

Åkerstedt T: Work hours, sleepiness and the underlying mechanisms. J Sleep Res 1995(b);4(2): 15-22.

Åkerstedt T: Work hours and sleepiness. Neurophysiol Clin 1995(c);25(6):367-75.

Åkerstedt T, Ficca G: Alertness-enhancing drugs as a countermeasure to fatigue in irregular work hours. Chronobiol Int 1997;14:145-58.

Åkerstedt T, Gillberg M: Subjective and objective sleepiness in the active individual. Int J Neurosci 1990;52:29-37.

Åkerstedt T et al.: The subjective meaning of good sleep, an intraindividual approach using the Karolinska Sleep Diary. Percept Mot Skills 1994;79:287-96.

Alaia S: Life effects of narcolepsy: measures of negative impact, social support, and physiological well-being. Loss Grief and Care 1992;5:1-22.

Aldrich M: Automobile accidents in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep 1989;12(6):487-94.

Alpert M et al.: Sleep-disordered breathing and car accidents in the elderly. J Sleep Res 1992;21:167.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: A policy on geometric design of highways and streets. Washington, DC: 1995.

American Thoracic Society: Sleep apnea, sleepiness, and driving risk. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;50:1463-73.

Arbus L et al.: Drowsiness and traffic accidents. Importance of diagnosis. Neurophysiol Clin 1991;21(1):39-43.

Broughton R et al.: Life effects of narcolepsy in 180 patients from North America, Asia and Europe compared to matched controls. Canadian Journal of Neurological Science 1981;8:299-304.

Broughton R et al.: Comparison of the psychosocial effects of epilepsy and narcolepsy/cataplexy: a controlled study. Epilepsia 1984;25:423-33.

Brown I: Driver Fatigue. Hum Factors 1994;36(2):298-314.

Buysse D et al.: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989;28:193-213.

Carskadon M: Adolescent sleepiness: increased risk in a high-risk population. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving 1990;5(4)/6(1):317-28.

Carskadon M: Sleepiness in adolescents and young adults. Proceedings of the Highway Safety Forum on Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Traffic Safety. State University of New York, Institute for Traffic Safety Management and Research; 1993(a) Dec 1. pp. 28-36.

Carskadon M: Evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness. Neurophysiol Clin 1993(b);23:91-100.

Carskadon M, Dement WC: Cumulative effects of sleep restriction on daytime sleepiness. Psychophysiology 1981;18:107-13.

Carskadon M, Dement WC: Daytime sleepiness: quantification of a behavioral state. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1987;11:307-17.

Carskadon M, Roth T: Sleep restriction. In: Monk T, editor. Sleep, sleepiness and performance. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1991. pp. 155-67.

Carskadon M et al.: Guidelines for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test: a standard measure of sleepiness. Sleep 1986;9:519-24.

Cassel W et al.: Risk of traffic accidents in patients with sleep-disordered breathing: reduction with nasal CPAP. Eur Respir J 1996;9(12):2606-11.

Ceutel C: Risk of traffic accident injury after a prescription for a benzodiazepine. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5(3):239-44.

Czeisler C et al.: Exposure to bright light and darkness to treat physiologic maladaption to night work. N Engl J Med 1990;322(18):1253-9.

Dinges D: Adult napping and its effects on ability to function. In: Stampi C, editor. Why we nap: evolution, chronobiology, and functions of polyphasic and ultrashort sleep. Boston: Birkhauser; 1992. pp. 118-34.

Dinges D: An overview of sleepiness and accidents. J Sleep Res 1995;4(2):4-14.

Dinges D et al.: Temporal placement of a nap for alertness: contributions of circadian phase and prior wakefulness. Sleep 1987;10:313-29.

Dinges D et al.: Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night. Sleep 1997;20(4):267-77.

Dinges D, Kribbs N: Performing while sleepy: effects of experimentally-induced sleepiness. In: Monk T, editor. Sleep, sleepiness, and performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1991. pp. 98-128.

Douglass A et al.: The Sleep Disorders Questionnaire I: creation and multivariate structure of SDQ. Sleep 1994;17:160-7.

Douglass A et al.: Historical database, questionnaires, sleep and life cycle diaries. In Laughton E, Broughton R, editors. Medical monitor in home and work environment. New York: Raven Press; 1990.

Federal Register: Motor vehicle safety standards: hours of service of drivers; proposed rule. Part VI Department of Transportation, 49CFR Part 395, November 5, 1996.

Findley L: Vigilance and automobile accidents in patients with sleep apnea or narcolepsy. Chest 1995;108(3):619-24.

Findley L et al.: Automobile accidents involving patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988;138(2):337-40.

Findley L et al.: Driving simulator performance in patients with sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:529-30.

Fox S: Coffee, caffeine and health. In: Members reference book, Royal College of General Practitioners. London; 1993. pp. 419-22.

Frith W, Perkins W: The New Zealand graduated driver licensing system. New Zealand: Wellington; 1992. pp. 1-23.

Garder P, Alexander J: Fatigue related accidents and continuous shoulder rumble strips. Presented at the Transportation Research Board's 74th Annual Meeting; 1995 January 22-28.

Preprint Paper No. 95 01 32;1995. Gengo F, Manning C: A review of the effects of antihistamines on mental processes related to automobile driving. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:1034-9.

George et al.: Sleep apnea patients have more automobile accidents. Lancet 1987 Aug 22:447.

Gillberg M: Jet lag and sleepiness in aircrew. J Sleep Res 1995;4(2):37-40.

Gold D et al.: Rotating shift work, sleep, and accidents related to sleepiness in hospital nurses. Am J Public Health 1992;82(7):1011-4.

Griffiths R et al.: Low-dose caffeine discrimination in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;262:970-6.

Hamilton P et al.: A study of four days partial sleep deprivation. In: Colquhoun W, editor. Aspects of human efficiency. London: English Universities Press, Ltd.; 1972. pp. 101-13.

Hanning C, Welch M: Sleepiness, snoring and driving habits. J Sleep Res 1996;5(1):51-4.

Hansotia P: Sleep, sleep disorders and motor vehicle crashes. Wis Med J 1997;96(5):42-7.

Haraldsson P et al.: Driving vigilance simulator test. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 1990;110:136-40.

Haraldsson P et al.: Long-term effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on driving performance. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;121(1):90-4.

Harma M: Individual differences in tolerance to shift work: a review. Ergonomics 1993;36(1-3):101-9.

Hoddes E et al.: Quantification of sleepiness: a new approach. Psychophysiology 1973;10:431-6.

Horne J: Why we sleep. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1988. pp. 1-12.

Horne J, Baumber C: Time-of-day effects of alcohol intake on simulated driving performance in women. Ergonomics 1991;34(11):1377-83.

Horne J, Gibbons H: Effects on vigilance performance and sleepiness of alcohol given in the early afternoon ('post lunch') vs. early evening. Ergonomics 1991;34(1):67-77.

Horne J, Reyner L: Driver sleepiness. J Sleep Res 1995(a);4(2):23-9.

Horne J, Reyner L: Sleep related vehicle accidents. BMJ 1995(b) Mar 4;310:565-7.

Hublin C et al.: Daytime sleepiness in an adult, Finnish population. J Intern Med 1996;239:417-23.

Huntley M, Centybear T: Alcohol, sleep deprivation and driving speed effects upon control use during driving. Hum Factors 1974;16:19-28.

Johns MW: A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep 1991;14:540-5.

Kerr et al.: Separate and combined effects of the social drugs on psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacology 1991;104:113-19.

Kessler E: Shift work: family impact and employer responses. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs; 1992. BNA special report no. 32. pp. 1-32.

Knipling R, Wang J: Crashes and fatalities related to driver drowsiness/fatigue. Research Note from the Office of Crash Avoidance Research. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; 1994 Nov. pp. 1-8.

Knipling R, Wang J: Revised estimates of the U.S. drowsy driver crash problem size based on general estimates system case reviews. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 39th Annual Proceedings; 1995 Oct 16-18.

Kozena L et al.: Vigilance impairment after a single dose of benzodiazepines. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995;119(1):39-45.

Kribbs N, Dinges D: Vigilance decrement and sleepiness. In: Harsh J, Ogilvie R, editors. Sleep onset mechanisms. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1994. pp. 113-125.

Langlois P et al.: Temporal patterns of reported single vehicle car and truck accidents in Texas, USA during 1980-83. Chronobiol Int 1985;2:131-40.

Lavie P et al.: Frequency of sleep related traffic accidents and hour of the day. Sleep Res 1986;15:175.

Leveille et al.: Psychoactive medications and injurious motor vehicle collisions involving older drivers. Epidemiology 1994;5:591-8.

Lisper H et al.: Relation between time to falling asleep behind the wheel on a closed track and changes in subsidiary reaction time during prolonged driving on a motorway. Ergonomics 1986;29(3):445-53.

Lorist M et al.: Influence of caffeine on selective attention in well-rested and fatigued subjects. Psychophysiology 1994;31:525-34.

Lumley M et al.: Ethanol and caffeine effects on daytime sleepiness alertness. Sleep 1987;10:306-12.

McCartt A et al.: The scope and nature of the drowsy driving problem in New York state. Accident Analysis and Prevention 1996;28(4):511-17.

Marcus C, Loughlin G: Effect of sleep deprivation on driving safety in housestaff. Sleep 1996;19(10):763-6.

Martikainen K et al.: Daytime sleepiness: a risk factor in community life. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;86(4):337-41.

Maycock G: Sleepiness and driving: the experience of UK car drivers. J Sleep Res 1996;5(220):220-37.

Minors D, Waterhouse J: Anchor sleep as a synchronizer of rhythms on abnormal routines. Int J Chronobiol 1981;7:165-88.

Mitler M et al.: Catastrophes, sleep, and public policy: consensus report. Sleep 1988;11(1):100-9.

Mitler M et al.: Maintenance of wakefulness test: a polysomnographic technique for evaluating treatment efficacy in patients with excessive somnolence. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1982;53:658-61.

Mitler M, Miller J: Methods of testing for sleeplessness. Behav Med 1996;21:171-83.

Naitoh P: Minimal sleep to maintain performance: the search for sleep quantum in sustained operations. In: Stampi C, editor. Why we nap: evolution, chronobiology, and functions of polyphasic and ultrashort sleep. Boston: Birkhauser; 1992. pp. 199-216.

National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. Wake up America: a national sleep alert. 1993;1.

National Sleep Foundation. Use of continuous shoulder rumble strips: consensus report. 1997 June.

National Sleep Foundation. Survey: sleepiness in America. 1997.

National Sleep Foundation. Survey: sleep in America. 1995.

National Transportation Safety Board. Factors that affect fatigue in heavy truck accidents. Washington, DC: PB95-917001, NTSB/SS-95/01; 1995.

New York GTSC Sleep Task Force, Public Information and Education Subcommittee. Drowsy driving focus group study: final report. 1994 Aug.

New York State Task Force on Drowsy Driving. Status report. Institute for Traffic Safety Management and Research. 1996 May.

Novak R, Auvil-Novak S: Focus group evaluation of night nurse shiftwork difficulties and coping strategies. Chronobiology International 1996 13(6):457-463.

Ohayon M, Priest R, Caulet M, et al.: Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample. BMJ 1997;314(7084):860-3.

Pack A et al.: Characteristics of crashes attributed to the driver having fallen asleep. Accid Anal Prev 1995;27(6):769-75.

Peeke S et al.: Combined effects of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults. Psychopharmacology 1980;67:279-87.

Philip P et al.: Objective measurement of sleepiness in summer vacation long-distance drivers. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1997;102(5):383-89.

Philip P et al.: Determinants of sleepiness in automobile drivers. J Psychosom Res 1996;41(3):279-88.

Ray et al.: Psychoactive drugs and the risk of injurious motor vehicle crashes in elderly drivers. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:873-83.

Redelmeier D, Tibshirani R: Association between cellular telephone calls and motor vehicle collisions. N Engl J Med 1997;336(7):453-8.

Regina E et al.: Effects of caffeine on alertness in simulated automobile driving. J Appl Psychol 1974;59(4):483-9.

Richardson G et al.: Circadian variation of sleep tendency in elderly and young adult subjects. Sleep 1982;5:S82-S94.

Roehrs T et al.: Sleepiness and ethanol effects on simulated driving. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994;18(1):154-8.

Rosa R: Editorial: factors for promoting adjustment to night and shift work. Work & Stress 1990;4:201-2.

Rosekind M et al.: Alertness management: strategic naps in operational settings. J Sleep Res 1995;4(2):62-66.

Rosenthal L et al.: Level of sleepiness and total sleep time following various time in bed conditions. Sleep 1993(a);16:226-32.

Rosenthal L et al.: The Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory: a self-report measure of daytime sleepiness. Biol Psychiatry 1993(b);34:810-20.

Samel A et al.: Jet lag and sleepiness in aircrew. J Sleep Res 1995;4(2):30-6.

Sharpley A: Impact of daytime sleepiness underrated. Lancet 1996;338:71.

Stampi C: Sleep and circadian rhythms in space. J Clin Pharmacol 1994;34:518-34.

Stradling J et al.: Self reported snoring and daytime sleepiness in men aged 35-65 years. Thorax 1991;46(11):807-10.

Strohl KP, Redline S: State-of-the-art: recognition of obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:279-89.

Torsvali L, Åkerstedt T: Extreme sleepiness: quantification of EOG and spectral EEG parameters. Int J Neurosci 1988;38(3-4):435-41.

Treat J et al.: Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents: final report. Volume I: Causal factor tabulations and assessments. Institute for Research in Public Safety, Indiana University; 1979. DOT Publication No.: DOT HS-805085.

Van Laar M et al.: Acute and subchronic effects of nefazodone and imipramine on highway driving, cognitive functions, and daytime sleepiness in healthy adult and elderly subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;15(1):30-40.

Waller P: A graduated licensing system for beginning drivers. In: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: provisional licensing programs for young drivers. Washington, DC; 1989. pp. 35-51.

Wang J, Knipling R, Goodman M: The role of driver inattention in crashes: new statistics from the 1995 crashworthiness data system. Fortieth Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine; 1996 Oct 7-9. pp. 377-92.

Weirwille et al.: Research on vehicle-based driver status/performance monitoring: development, validation, and refinement of algorithms for the detection of driver drowsiness. Final Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; 1994 Dec.

Wewers M, Low N: A critical review of visual analogue scales in the measurement of clinical phenomena. Res Nurs Health 1990;13:227-36.

Wilkins J et al.: Sleep- and fatigue-related motor vehicle crashes, with and without alcohol involvement. Presented at the 11th annual meeting of the Association of Professional Sleep Societies; 1997 June.

Wilkinson R: Interaction of alcohol with incentive and sleep deprivation. J Exp Psychol 1968;76:632-9.

Williams H et al.: Impaired performance with acute sleep loss. Psychol Monogr 1959;73:1-26.

Wylie C et al.: Commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue and alertness study, technical summary. Montreal: Transportation Development Centre; 1996.