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The Maryland CIREN project is based at the National Study Center for Trauma and EMS, part of the University of Maryland’s Organized Research Center for Shock, Trauma and Anesthesiology Research. The Center was originally designated by Congress in 1986. The PI for the project is Dr. Thomas Scalea, Physician-in-Chief of the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center. The Maryland team includes a multidisciplinary staff, comprising trauma surgeons, epidemiologists, a social worker, a crash reconstructionist, and experts in database management. For several years, the team also included biomechanical engineers from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory.

Epidemiologic research contributed by the Maryland center has been directed by the Co-PI, Patricia Dischinger, PhD, since the inception of the CIREN program, and has included studies on lower extremity injuries, predictors of mortality, long-term outcomes, including PTSD, following injury, and injury and mortality trends by vehicle model year.

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Bibliography

2014

Burch C, Cook L, Dischinger P. A comparison of KABCO and AIS injury severity metrics using CODES linked data. Traffic Inj Prev. 2014 Aug 18;15(6)627-630


2013

Dischinger PC, Ryb GE, Kufera JA, Ho SM. Declining statewide trends in motor vehicle crashes and injury related hospital admissions. Ann Adv Automot Med. 2013;57:247-56

Ryb G, Dischinger P, Kerns T, Burch C, Rabin J, Ho S. Changes in the severity and injury sources of thoracic aorta injuries due to vehicular crashes. Ann Adv Automot Med. 2013;57:167-80

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kleinberger M, McGwin G, Griffin RL. Aortic injuries in newer vehicles. Accid Anal PRev. 2013 Oct;59:253-9.

Ryb GE, Dischinger P, Cooper C, Kufera JA. Does helicopter transport improve outcomes independently of emergency medical system time? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jan; 74(1):149-54.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Ho S. Causation and outcomes of diaphragmatic injuries in vehicular crashes. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Mar;74(3):835-8


2012

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Burch CA, Kerns TJ, Kufera J, Andersen D. Frailty and injury causation. Ann Adv Automot Med. 56: 175-81, 2012.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, McGwin G Jr, Griffin RL. Degree of urbanization and mortality from motor vehicular crashes. Ann Adv Automot Med. 56:183-90, 2012.

2011

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, McGwin G, Griffin RL. Crash-related mortality and model year: are newer vehicles safer? Ann Adv Automot Med. 55:113-21, 2011.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC. Improving trauma triage using basic crash scene data. Ann Adv Automot Med. 55:337-46, 2011.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC. Disparities in trauma center access of older injured motor vehicular crash occupants. J Trauma. Sep;71(3):742-7, 2011.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC. Scene mobility status as a predictor of injury severity and mortality due to vehicular crashes. J Trauma. Sep;71(3):737-41, 2011.

Stein DM, Kufera JA, Ho SM, Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, O’Connor JV, Scalea TM. Occupant and crash characteristics for case occupants with cervical spine injuries sustained in motor vehicle collisions. J Trauma. Feb;70(2):299-309, 2011.


2010

Anderson D, Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kufera J, Read KM. Self-Reported Health Indicators in the Year Following a Motor Vehicle Crash: A Comparison of Younger vs. Older Subjects. In Press, Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. 2010 54(10):359-366.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Burch C, Kerns T. Crash test rating and real-world frontal crash outcomes: a CIREN study. Journal of Trauma. 2010 May;68(5):1099-105.


2009

Braver ER, McCartt AT, Sherwood CP; Fraade-Blanar L, Scerbo M. "How often do front airbags fail to deploy in fatal frontal crashes?" (Accepted for presentation and paper in the proceedings of the ESV conference, June 2009)

Dischinger PC, Ryb GE, Kufera JA, Auman KM. Early predictors of postconcussive syndrome in a population of trauma patients with mild traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 66(2):289-97, 2009.

Martin PG, Ridella S, Dischinger PC, Ryb GE, Burch C, Ho S. Characteristics of fatalities in the CIREN database. Presented at Enhanced Safety Vehicles Annual Conference, June 2009, Paper number 09-0253.

O’Connor JV, Kufera JA, Kerns TJ, Stein DM, Ho SM, Dischinger PC, Scalea TM. Crash and Occupant Predictors of Pulmonary Contusion. Journal of Trauma 2009 Apr;66(4), 1091-1095

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Read KM, Kufera J. PTSD after Severe Vehicular Crashes. Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. 2009 53(10):177-194.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Ho S. Vehicle model year and crash outcomes: a CIREN study. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2009 Dec;10(6):560-6

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Burch CA. Expected Differences and Unexpected Commonalities in Mortality, Injury Severity and Injury Patterns between Near versus Far Occupants of Side Impact Crashes. J Trauma 2009 Feb;66(2):499-503.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Ho S. Vehicle model year and crash outcomes: A CIREN study (Submitted to TIP-awaiting review)

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Ho S. Causation and outcomes of diaphragmatic injuries in vehicular crashes (Accepted for poster presentation at AAAM meeting October 2009).

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Read K. Ptsd after severe vehicular crashes (Accepted for Oral presentation at AAAM meeting October 2009 and paper in the proceedings of AAAM).

Ryb GE, Kerns T, Burch C, Dischinger PC, Ho S. Crash test ratings and real-world crash outcomes: a ciren study (Accepted for Oral presentation for the AAST meeting September 2009)

2008
Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kleinberger M, Burch C, Ho S. "Aging is not a risk factor for femoral and tibial fractures in motor vehicle crashes". Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2008 52 (10) 227-234.

G. Ryb, P.Dischinger. " Injury Severity and Outcome of Overweight and Obese Patients After Vehicular Trauma: A Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Study." Journal of Trauma 2008 Feb;64(2):406-11.

2007
Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Burch CA. Delta V, principal direction of force, and restraint use contributions to motor vehicle crash mortality. Journal of Trauma. 2007 Nov;63(5):1000-5.

Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Burch CA. Expected differences and unexpected commonalities in mortality, injury severity and injury patterns between near versus far occupants of side impact crashes. Journal of Trauma  

2006
Stein, D.M., O'Connor, J.V., Kufera, J.A., Ho, S.M., Dischinger, P.C., Copeland, C.E., Scalea, T.M., "Risk Factors Associated with Pelvic Fractures Sustained in Motor Vehicle Collisions Involving Newer Vehicles" Journal of Trauma Injury Infection & Critical Care, Note: This study was presented at the 19th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, January 10 to 14, 2006, Orlando, Florida.

2005
Dischinger PC, Read KM, Kufera JA, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Burch CA, Jawed N, Burgess AR. CIREN report: Consequences and costs of lower extremity injuries. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 871, June 2005.

2004
Dischinger PC, Read KM, Kufera JA, Kerns TJ, Burch CA, Jawed N, Ho SM. Consequences And Costs Of Lower Extremity Injuries. 48th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 339-353, 2004.

Read KM, Kufera JA, Dischinger PC, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Burgess AR, Burch CA. Life-Altering Outcomes Following Lower Extremity Injury Sustained In Motor Vehicle Crashes. Journal of Trauma Injury Infection & Critical Care 57(4):815-823, 2004.

2003
Dischinger PC, Read KM, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Kufera JA, Burch CA, Jawed N, Burgess AR, Bents F. "Causes And Outcomes Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: An Analysis Of CIREN Data." 47th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 577-589, 2003.

2002
Read KM, Burgess AR, Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Burch CA. Psychosocial And Physical Factors Associated With Lower Extremity Injuries. 46th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 289-303, 2002.

Read KM, Burgess AR, Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Burch CA. Psychosocial And Physical Factors Associated With Lower Extremity Injuries. 46th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 289-303, 2002.

2000
Loo, G.T.; Siegel, J.H., Dischinger, P.C., Wang, S.C., Grossman, D., McCammon, L., Tenenbaum, N., Natarajan, G.A., Hutchins, K.D., and Bents, F.D.; Side impact crashes' effect on occupant injury patterns; ABSTRACT, July 2000.

Dischinger PC, Ho SM, Kufera JA: Medical conditions and car crashes. 44th Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Conference, 44:335-346, 2000

1999
Dischinger PC, Ho SM, Kufera JA: The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: A statewide study of hospitalized Maryland drivers. 43rd Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 71-88, 1999.

1998
Dischinger PC, Siegel JH, Ho SM, Kufera JA: Effect of change in velocity on the development of medical complications in patients with multisystem trauma sustained in vehicular crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 30(6): 831-837, 1998.

1996
Dischinger PC, Ho SM, Kerns TJ: Patterns of injury in frontal collisions with and without airbags. Proceedings of the International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp 311-319, 1996.

Loo GT, Siegel JH, Dischinger PC, Rixen D, Addis MD, O'Quinn T, McCammon L, Schmidhauser CB, Marsh P, Hodge PA, Burgess AR, Bents F: "Airbag protection versus compartment intrusion effect determines the pattern of injuries in multiple trauma motor vehicle crashes". J Trauma 41(6): 935-951, December 1996.

1995
Burgess AR, Dischinger PC, O'Quinn TD, Schmidhauser CB: Lower extremity injuries in drivers of airbag-equipped automobiles: Clinical and crash reconstruction correlations. J Trauma 38(4): 509-516, 1995.

Dischinger PC, Kerns TJ, Kufera JA: Lower extremity fractures in motor vehicle collisions: The role of driver gender and height. Accid Anal Prev 27(4): 601-606, 1995.

Dischinger PC: The epidemiology of pelvic and lower extremity fractures among hospitalized drivers. The Proceedings of the Conference on Pelvic and Lower Extremity Injuries. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Washington, DC, December 4-6, 1995.

Dischinger, P.C., Siegel, J.H., Ho, S.M., Kufera, J. The effect of impact velocity (Delta V) on development of injury complications in multiple trauma motor vehicle crash patients. PROCEEDINGS of the 39th Association for Advancement of Automotive Medicine pp. 367-379, 1995.

Dischinger PC, Injury Surveillance: The Role of Data Linkage, Proceedings of the International Collaborative Effort on Injury Statistics, Vol. 1, CDC DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 95-1252

1994
Dischinger PC, Burgess AR, Cushing BM, O'Quinn TD, Schmidhauser CB, Ho SM, Juliano PJ, Bents FD: Lower extremity trauma in vehicular front-seat occupants: Patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center. In: In-Depth Accident Investigation: Trauma Team Findings in Late Model Vehicle Collisions, Warrendale, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc, 1994, SAE 940710, pp 11-18.

Dischinger PC, Kerns TJ, Kufera JA: Lower extremity fractures in motor vehicle collisions: The role of driver gender and height. 38th Proceedings of the Association of the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp 335-342, 1994.

Dischinger PC, Burgess AR, Cushing BM, Pilkey WD, Crandall JR, Sieveka EM, Klopp GS: Lower extremity trauma in vehicular front-seat occupants. In: Shieh SJ (ed), Proceedings of the Injury Prevention through Biomechanics Symposium, Michigan, Centers for Disease Control, Wayne State University, 1994, pp 29-42.

1993
Dischinger, P.C., Siegel, J.H., Read, K.M., Mason-Gonzalez, S. The role of medical conditions in high-speed car crashes. 37th Proceedings Association of Advancement of Automotive Medicine 423-424, 1993.

Dischinger PC, Cushing BM, Kerns TJ: Injury patterns associated with direction of impact: Drivers admitted to trauma centers. J Trauma 35(3): 454-459, 1993.

Siegel JH, Mason-Gonzales S, Dischinger P, Cushing B, Read K, Robinson R, Smialek J, Heatfield B, Hill W, Bents F, Jackson J, Livingston D, Clark C, “Safety Belt Restraints and Compartment Intrusions in Frontal and Lateral Motor Vehicle Crashes: Mechanisms of Injuries, Complications, and Acute Care Costs,” Journal of Trauma, Vol. 5, No. 34, 1993

1992
Dischinger P, Cushing B, Kerns T: Lower extremity fractures in motor vehicle collisions: Influence of direction of impact and seatbelt use. 36th Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 319-325, 1992.

1989
Jones IS, Champion HR, "Trauma Triage: Vehicle Damage as an Estimate of Injury Severity," Journal of Trauma, Vol. 29, No. 5, May 1989, p. 646.

1988
Dischinger PC, Cowley RA, Shankar BS, Smialek J: The incidence of ruptured aorta among vehicular fatalities. 32nd Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp 15-24, 1988.

1985
Dischinger PC, Shankar BS, Kochesfahani D, Turney SZ, Clark B, Bailey T, Cowley RA: Automotive collisions involving serious injury or death: An analysis of trends over time (1980-1983) in Maryland. 29th Proceedings of the American Association for Automotive Medicine, pp 287-297, 1985.