University of Washington – Harborview Medical Center (1997 - Present)
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The Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center has been operating as the Seattle CIREN center since the inception of the program in 1996, and is a component of both the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center. To date, the team has completed over 600 cases into the CIREN network database and has published numerous articles regarding crash injury mechanisms. Led by Dr. Eileen Bulger, the investigators have utilized CIREN data with focus on vehicle incompatibility, roof crush in rollovers, spinal injuries, childhood injury patterns due to restraint misuse and the analysis of injury severity predictors for Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) systems. For many years, the team has given numerous presentations using CIREN findings to train thousands of first responders and trauma care providers throughout the northwest and nationally to improve the triage and treatment of crash victims.
Giana H. Davidson, MD, MPH, Frederick P. Rivara, MD, Christopher D. Mack, MS, Robert Kaufman, BS, Gregory J. Jurkovich, MD, and Eileen M. Bulger, MD, Seattle, Washington Validation of prehospital trauma triage criteria for motor vehicle collisions, J Trauma Acute Care Surg. Volume 76, Number 3, 2014.
Bradley D. Figler, MD, Christopher D. Mack, MS, Robert Kaufman, BS, Hunter Wessells, MD,Eileen Bulger, MD, Thomas G. Smith III, MD, and Bryan Voelzke, MD. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: The new car assessment program side-impact crash test J Trauma Acute Care Surg - Volume 76, Number 3, 2014
Barnard RT, Loftis KL, Martin RS, Stitzel JD. “Development of a robust mapping between AIS 2+ and ICD-9 injury codes”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, March 2013, Vol 52: 133-143.
Crandall J, Bose D, Forbes A, Ye X, Serlemitsos K, Sochor M, Hurwitz S, Freeth R, Rizzo A, Vo C, Rudd R, Scarboro M. Case study analysis of hind-foot injuries sustained by drivers in motor vehicle crashes. Submitted to 23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Seoul, Korea May 27-30, 2013
Kaufman R, Ching R, Mack C, Gross J, Bulger E. Burst Fractures of the Lumbar Spine in Frontal Crashes, Accident Analysis and Prevention – 59 (2013 Oct.) pp. 153-163 - DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.05.023.
Loftis KL, Swett KR, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “Similarity scoring methodology for comparing real-world cases to crash test standards” International Journal of Crashworthiness, Accepted 2013 Aug.
Loftis KL, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “A Similarity Scoring Technique for the Comparison of Real-World Crashes to Crash Tests: Initial Results from a 12-Point System”, International Journal of Vehicle Safety, 2013 July; 6(3): 191-212.
Weaver AA, Loftis KL, Stitzel JD. “Investigation of the Safety Effects of Knee Bolster Airbag Deployment in Similar Real-World Crash Comparisons.” Traffic Injury Prevention, 2013; Jan: 14(2).
Ayoung-Chee P, Mack C.D., Kaufman R., Bulger E., Predicting Severe Injury Using Vehicle Telemetry Data - Journal of Trauma, Vol.74, Number 1 –2012 AAST Plenary Paper
Crandall J, Bose D, Bollapragada B, Lockerby J, Kerrigan JR, Sochor M, Arregui-Dalmases C . 2012. Attribution of Injury to Planar and Rollover Events for Occupants Involved in Multiple Event Rollovers. Proceedings of the 2012 International Crashworthiness Conference July 18-20, Milano, Italy. In Preparation.
Foster JB, Kerrigan JR, Nightingale RW, Funk JR, Cormier JM, Bose D, Sochor MR, Ridella SA, Ash JH, Crandall JR. Analysis of Cervical Spine Injuries and Mechanisms for CIREN Rollover Crashes. Proceedings of the International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury, Paper #IRC-12-15-rev, Dublin, Ireland 2012.
Griffin R, Huisingh C, McGwin G Jr, Reiff D. Association between side-impact airbag deployment and risk of injury: A matched cohort study using the CIREN and the NASS-CDS. Journal of Trauma Acute Care Surgery. 2012 Oct;73(4):914-8. doi: 10.1097
Halloway D, Pintar F, Saunders J, Barsan-Anelli A, , Classifiers to Augment the CDC System to Distinguish the Role of Structure in a Frontal Impact Taxonomy. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars– Mechanical Systems. July 2012;5:3
Kerrigan JR, Arregui-Dalmases C, Crandall J, Rizzo A. 2012. Pedestrian Injury Analysis: Field data vs. laboratory experiments. IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. In Preparation.
Loftis KL, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “A similarity scoring technique for the comparison of real-world crashes to crash tests: Initial results from a 12-point system.” Journal of Automobile Engineering, February 2012.
Loftis KL, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “A similarity scoring technique to analyze comparisons of real-world crashes to crash tests: Initial results from a 12-point system.” International Journal of Vehicle Safety August 31, 2012.
Martin RS. The Elderly Motor Vehicle Crash Victim: Lessons Learned from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN). Presented at the 2012 Blueprint to Save More Lives Conference, Branson, MO, October 26th, 2012.
Mueller B, Nolan J, Zuby D, Rizzo A. Pedestrian Injury Patters in the United States and Relevance to GTR. International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact 2012 Conference, Dublin, Ireland. Presented September 14, 2012.
Patel V, Griffin R, Eberhardt AW, McGwin G Jr. The association between knee airbag deployment and knee-thigh-hip fracture injury risk in motor vehicle collisions: A matched cohort study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2012 Aug 9.
Pintar FA, Yoganandan N, Scarboro M, Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Frontal Impact Crashes. Annals of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 2012;56:277-83
Rizzo, A. Emerging Trends for Pedestrian and Cyclist Injuries: Lessons Learned from CIREN. International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact 2012 Conference, Dublin, Ireland. Presented September 11, 2012.
Rizzo, A, Aldaghlas, TA, Schwartzbach, C, Burke, C. Patterns and Causes of Humerus Fractures in Pedestrians vs. Motor Vehicle Crashes. International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact 2012 conference, Dublin, Ireland. In preparation.
Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Burch CA, Kerns TJ, Kufera J, Andersen D. Frailty and injury causation. Ann Adv Automot Med. 56: 175-81, 2012.
Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, McGwin G Jr, Griffin RL. Degree of urbanization and mortality from motor vehicular crashes. Ann Adv Automot Med. 56:183-90, 2012.
Sochor M, Bose D, Tobaru S, Kerrigan J, Crandall, J. 2012. Injury Risk Comparison for Single Event versus Multiple Event Primary Rollovers. IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. In Preparation.
Urban JE, Whitlow CW, Edgerton CA, Maldjian JA, Powers AK, Stitzel JD. “Motor Vehicle Crash-Related Subdural Hematoma from Real-World Head Impact Data.” Journal of Neurotrauma, August 28, 2012.
Weaver AA, Loftis KL, Stitzel JD. “Investigation of the Safety Effects of Knee Bolster Airbag Deployment in Similar Real-World Crash Comparisons.” Traffic Injury Prevention, Accepted, May 2012.
Weaver AA, Danelson KA, Armstrong EG, Hoth JJ, Stitzel JD. “Investigation of pulmonary contusion extent and its correlation to crash, occupant, and injury characteristics in motor vehicle crashes.” Accident Analysis & Prevention, May 2012.
Burns, S Mack C, Kaufman R, Bulger E. "Cost of Spinal Cord Injuries Caused by Rollover Automobile Crashes." Injury Prevention 2010; 16:74-78
Mandell S, Kaufman R, Mack C, Bulger E. "Mortality and Injury Patterns Associated with Roof Crush in Rollover Crashes" Accident Analysis and Prevention 42 (2010) 1326-1331
Mandell S, Kaufman R, Mack C, Bulger E."Describing a Problem: Rear Seatback Malfunction and Unsecured Cargo Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2010; 25 (2) 152-157
Smith TG 3rd, Wessells HB, Mack CD, Kaufman R, Bulger EM, Voelzke BB. Examination of the Impact of Airbags on Renal Injury Using a National Database Journal American College Surgeons. 2010 Sep: 211(3):355-360, Epub 2010 Jul 14. PMID: 20800192
Dissanaike S, Kaufman R, Mack C, Mock C, Bulger E. “The Effect Of Reclined Seats On Mortality In Motor Vehicle Collisions”. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2008 Mar; 64(3):614-9
Francis DO, Kaufman R, Yueh B, Mock CM, Nathens AB. “Air bag induced orbital blow-out fractures” 2006. Laryngoscope, 116 September 2006
Tencer A., Kaufman R., Huber P., Mock C. "The Role of Door Orientation on Occupant Injury in a Nearside Impact: A CIREN, MADYMO modeling and Experimental Study." Traffic Injury Prevention, 6:372-378, 2005
Tencer A., Kaufman R., Conway, C. "Reducing Primary and Secondary Impact Loads on the Pelvis During Side Impact" 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Conference, Washington, D.C., June 2005 Paper No. 05-0036
Tencer A., Kaufman R., Mack C., Mock C. "Factors Affecting Pelvic And Thoracic Forces In Near-Side Impact Crashes: A Study Of US-NCAP, NASS, And CIREN Data." Accident Analysis and Prevention - 37 (2005) 287-293.
Ebel B., Mack C., Diehr P., Rivara F. "Lost Working Days, Productivity, And Restraint Use Among Occupants Of Motor Vehicles That Crashed In The United States." Injury Prevention 2004; 10:314-319
Nirula, R, Mock C., Nathens A., Grossman, D. "The New Car Assessment Programs: Does It Predict The Relative Safety Of Vehicles In Actual Crashes?" The Journal of Trauma Injury Infection & Critical Care 2004; 57:779-786
Rivara F, Cummings P. "Car Occupant Death According To The Restraint Use Of Other Occupants: A Matched Cohort Study." Journal of the American Medical Association Jan 21;291(3):343-9, 2004
Nirula R, Mock CN, Kaufman R, Rivara FP, Grossman D. "Correlation Of Head Injury To Vehicle Contact Points Using Crash Injury Research And Engineering Network (CIREN) Data." Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35: 201-210, 2003.
Nirula R, Kaufman R, Tencer A. "Traumatic Brain Injury And Automotive Design: Making Motor Vehicles Safer." Journal of Trauma Injury Infection & Critical Care, 55:844-8, 2003.
Mock C, Grossman D, Rivara F, Kaufman RP, Mack CD, Rivara FP. “The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34: 221-228, 2002.
Rivara FP, Cummings P, Mock C. "Injuries And Death Of Children In Rollover Motor Vehicle Crashes In The United States." Injury Prevention 2003; 9(1):76-80. Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 46: 273-288, 2002.
Tencer A, Kaufman R, Ryan K, Grossman D, Henley B, Mann F, Mock C, Rivara F, Wang S, Augenstein J, Hoyt D, Eastman B. Femur Fractures in Relatively Low Speed Frontal Crashes: The possible role of muscle forces, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34 (2002) pp 1-11.
Tencer A, Mirza S, Bensel K, Internal Loads in the Cervical Spine During Motor Vehicle Rear-End Impacts, Spine, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp 32-42, 2002.
Pacyna SE, Erwin SM, Vaughan TM, Kracun M. "Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network." Orthopedic Trauma Association 17th Annual Meeting, San Diego CA, October, 2001