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Center for Injury Biomechanics
Wake Forest Medical Center
The Center for Injury Biomechanics of the Wake Forest University (WFU) School of Medicine, together with Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center’s Level 1 Trauma Center, has been a part of the CIREN since 2005. The CIREN team at WFU/VT, led by Joel Stitzel, PhD and Wayne Meredith, M.D, consists of several trauma surgeons, injury biomechanics engineers, radiologists, a certified crash investigator, and study recruitment clinicians. The WFU/VT CIREN center has particular research focus areas including pulmonary contusion, pregnant occupants, liver, spleen, and brain injury. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute/Center for Injury Biomechanics Crash Sled Lab houses a fourteen meganewton crash sled used primarily in the study of transportation-related trauma with its main applications found in the automotive environment. This information is used to extensively research and better understand the mechanisms of injury and to develop better mitigation schemes and protection systems, thereby saving lives. It can be used to recreate crash pulses from real-world crashes where people sustain serious injuries. CIREN data are also used to examine occupant outcome after serious injury, as well as trends in crashes, such as the emergence of large numbers of vehicle size mismatch crashes resulting in serious injury due to override/underride of vehicles.
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Bibliography


2013
Barnard RT, Loftis KL, Martin RS, Stitzel JD. “Development of a robust mapping between AIS 2+ and ICD-9 injury codes”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, March 2013, Vol 52: 133-143.

Loftis KL, Swett KR, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “Similarity scoring methodology for comparing real-world cases to crash test standards” International Journal of Crashworthiness, Accepted 2013 Aug.

Loftis KL, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “A Similarity Scoring Technique for the Comparison of Real-World Crashes to Crash Tests: Initial Results from a 12-Point System”, International Journal of Vehicle Safety, 2013 July; 6(3): 191-212.

Weaver AA, Loftis KL, Stitzel JD. “Investigation of the Safety Effects of Knee Bolster Airbag Deployment in Similar Real-World Crash Comparisons.” Traffic Injury Prevention, 2013; Jan: 14(2).

2012
Loftis KL, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “A similarity scoring technique for the comparison of real-world crashes to crash tests: Initial results from a 12-point system.” Journal of Automobile Engineering, February 2012.

Loftis KL, Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD. “A similarity scoring technique to analyze comparisons of real-world crashes to crash tests: Initial results from a 12-point system.” International Journal of Vehicle Safety August 31, 2012.

Martin, RS. "The Elderly Motor Vehicle Crash Victim: Lessons Learned from the Crash Injury Research and Entingeering Network (CIREN)." Presented at the 2012 Blueprint To Save More Lives Conference, Branson, MO. October 26, 2012.

Urban JE, Whitlow CW, Edgerton CA, Maldjian JA, Powers AK, Stitzel JD. “Motor Vehicle Crash-Related Subdural Hematoma from Real-World Head Impact Data.” Journal of Neurotrauma, August 28, 2012.

Weaver AA, Loftis KL, Stitzel JD. “Investigation of the Safety Effects of Knee Bolster Airbag Deployment in Similar Real-World Crash Comparisons.” Traffic Injury Prevention, Accepted, May 2012.

Weaver AA, Danelson KA, Armstrong EG, Hoth JJ, Stitzel JD. “Investigation of pulmonary contusion extent and its correlation to crash, occupant, and injury characteristics in motor vehicle crashes.” Accident Analysis & Prevention, May 2012.

2011
Danelson, K.A., Chiles, C., Thompson, A.B., Donadino K, Weaver, A.A., Stitzel, J.D., “Correlating the extent of pulmonary contusion to vehicle crash parameters in near-side crashes,” Annals of Advanced Automotive Medicine. 2011;55:217-230.

Danelson, K.A., Gayzik, F.S., Stern, A.R., Hoth, J.J., Stitzel, J.D., Design, development and analysis of a pulmonary surrogate for pulmonary injury prediction.  Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2011; 39(10): 2560-2567.

Duma SM, Cormier JM, Hurst WJ, Stitzel JD, Herring IP. “Experimental Analysis of Airbag Seam Design: High-rate Shear Testing for Skin Abrasions.” Journal of Automobile Engineering, Oct 2011, doi:10.1177/0954407011421421.

Duma SM, Kemper AR, Stitzel JD, McNally C, Kennedy EA, Matsuoka F "Rib Fracture Timing in Dynamic Belt Tests with Human Cadavers." Clinical Anatomy 2011; 24:327-338.

Loftis, K.L., Weaver, A.A., Stitzel, J.D.  “Investigating the Effects of Side Airbag Deployment in Real-World Crashes Using Crash Comparison Techniques.” Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 2011.

Loftis, K.L., Pranikoff, T., Anthony, E.Y., Meredith, J. W., Martin, R.S., Stitzel, J.D.  “Pediatric Occupants, Restraint Use, and Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes.” Biomedical Sciences and Instrumentation, 2011; 47

Schneider L, Rupp J, Scarboro M, Pintar F, Arbogast K, Rudd R, Sochor M, Stitzel J, Sherwood C, MacWilliams J, Halloway D, Ridella S, Eppinger R. “BioTab—A New Method for Analyzing and Documenting Injury Causation in Motor-Vehicle Crashes.” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol 12, Number 3, 256-26

2010
Loftis KL, Martin RS, Gabler HC, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD "Development of a Method to Compare Real-World Crashes to Vehicle Crash Tests." Society for Automotive Engineering, 2010, Paper No. 2010-01-0147.

Urban JE, Loftis KL, Stitzel, JD "Investigating Injury Mechanism and Occupant BMI for Malleolar Fractures in Frontal Motor Vehicle Collisions. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 2010; 46.

2009
Gayzik F, Martin RS, Gabler HC, Hoth JJ, Duma SM, Meredith JW, Stitzel JD, "Characterization Of Crash-Induced Thoracic Loading Resulting In Pulmonary Contusion," Journal of Trauma, vol. 66, pp. 840-9, Mar 2009.

Loftis K , Martin RS, Meredith JW, Stitzel J, "Investigating Methods For Determining Mismatch In Near Side Vehicle Impacts - Biomed 2009," Biomedical Scientific Instrumentation, vol. 45, pp. 256-61, 2009.

Weaver A, Gayzik FS, and Stitzel JD, "Biomechanical Analysis Of Pulmonary Contusion In Motor Vehicle Crash Victims: A Crash Injury Research And Engineering Network (Ciren) Study - Biomed 2009," Biomedical Scientific Instrumentation, vol. 45, pp. 364-9, 2009

2008
Danelson KA, Stitzel JD, "Volumetric Splenic Injury Measurement in CT Scans for Comparison with Injury Score," Biomed Sci Instrum. 2008; 44.

J Stitzel, P Kilgo, B Schmotzer, K Danelson, C Geer, T Pranikoff, JW Meredith, " Age Thresholds for Increased Mortality of Three Predominant Crash Induced Head Injuries," Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Conference and Journal, 2008.

2007
Bonivtch A, Stitzel JD, "Use of CIREN Data to Understand Real-World Injury Mechanisms," presented at 5th Annual Center for Injury Biomechanics Instructional Symposium: Advanced Technologies and New Frontiers, Blacksburg VA, March 23-24, 2007.

Danelson KA, Hoth JJ, Miller PR, Stitzel JD, "A semi-automated approach for measuring splenic injury using computed tomography," Biomed Sci Instrum. 2007; 43:13-7.

Kilgo P, Stitzel JD, Meredith JW, Hill-Brown J, "What Constitutes an Elderly Motor Vehicle Crash Victim – The Age at Which Specific Injuries Increase the Risk of Mortality," presented at the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Public Meeting, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., March 28, 2007

Stitzel J, P Kilgo, B Schmotzer, C Gabler, JW Meredith, "Comparing CIREN and NASS Cases: A Multivariate Similarity Approach," Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Conference and Journal, (accepted) 2007.

Stitzel, JD, Meredith, JW, "Update on the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Program," presented to Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota City, Japan, February, 2007.

Stitzel J, P Kilgo, B Schmotzer, C Gabler, JW Meredith, "Comparing CIREN and NASS Cases: A Multivariate Similarity Approach," SAE Government-Industry Meeting, Wednesday, May 16, 2007.

2006
Martin RS, MD, JJ Hoth, MD, JH Holmes, MD, PR Miller, MD, MC Chang, MD, JD Stitzel, PhD, JW Meredith, MD, "Pulmonary Contusion After Motor Vehicle Crash: A Study of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN)," presented at American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma, July 2006.

Stitzel, J.D., Tan, J., Gayzik, F.S., Daly, M., Carr, J., Martin, S., Hoth, J.J., Miller, P., Meredith, W., "3-d real-time CT reconstruction: A tool for analyzing CIREN data," 34th International Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, Dearborn, MI, 2006

Stitzel J, P Kilgo, B Schmotzer, C Gabler, JW Meredith, "Comparing CIREN and NASS Cases: A Multivariate Similarity Approach," CIREN Quarterly Meeting, Milwaukee WI, September 2006.