Hybrid III 50th Percentile Male

Description of Dummy Features

The HYBRID III Fiftieth Percentile crash test dummy, representing the average adult male, is the most widely used dummy in frontal crash and automotive safety restraint testing. Originally, the Hybrid III 50th male was developed by General Motors for vehicle safety purposes. It has since been incorporated into the Code of Federal Regulations under Title 49, Part 572 subpart E, and is the required dummy in NHTSA’s motor vehicle safety standards. The dummy is currently manufactured to the Federal specifications and sold by three U.S. manufacturers; First Technology Safety Systems, Applied Safety Technologies Corporation, and Utama Engineering. Over the years, improvements have been made to the dummy to make it more human-like. This has been done in conjunction with the Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) Biomechanics Committees and NHTSA.

The Hybrid III 50th male features a neck design that simulates the human dynamic moment / rotation, flexion, and extension response characteristics of an average size adult male. The shoulder structure was designed for improved fidelity of shoulder belt interaction. The neck can incorporate a six-axis neck transducer at the top and bottom. The upper torso has 6 high strength steel ribs with polymer based damping material to simulate human chest force-deflection characteristics. The lower torso has a curved cylindrical rubber lumbar spine that provide human-like slouch of a seated person and mounts to the pelvis through an optional three axis lumbar load cell. The pelvis is a vinyl skin/urethane foam molded over an aluminum casting in the seated position. The ball-jointed femur attachments carry bump stops to reproduce the human leg to hip moment/rotation characteristics. The femur, tibia and ankle can be instrumented to predict bone fracture and the knee can evaluate tibia to femur ligament injury. The foot and ankle simulate heel compression and ankle range of motion.

Comparison of Weight Table

Comparison of Weight, Sitting Height, and Stature for HYBRID III Family
  12 mo CRABI 3 YO Child 6 YO Child 5% Female 50% Male
Weight (lbs.) 22.0 34.1 51.6 108.0 172.3.0
Stature (in.) 29.4 37.2 45.0 59.1 69.0
Sitting Height (in) 18.9 21.5 25.0 31.0 34.8

Segmented Weights

Segment and Assembly Weight of the HYBRID III 50th Percentile Male
Part Weight (lb)
Head 10.0
Neck 3.4
Upper Torso 37.9
Lower Torso 50.8
Upper Arms 8.8
Lower Arms and Hands 10.0
Upper Legs 26.4
Lower Legs and Feet 25.0
Total Weight 172.3


External Dimensions for the HYBRID III 50th Percentile Male
Dimension Description Specifications (in)
Head Circumference 23.5
Head Breadth 6.1
Head Depth 8.0
Erect Sitting Height 34.8
Shoulder to Elbow Length 13.3
Back of Elbow to Wrist Pivot Length 11.7
Buttock to Knee Length 23.3
Knee Pivot Height 19.5


Instrumentation Capabilities of the HYBRID III 50th Percentile Male
Instrumentation # of Channels
Head 12 Array x (4), y (4), z (4) accelerometers + 3 other locations 12
Thorax x, y, z accelerometers 3
Pelvis x, y, z accelerometers 3
Thorax (Chest Deflection) x rotary potentiometer 1
Knee Slider* x linear potentiometer 1
Upper Neck x, y, z forces and moments 6
Lower Neck x, y, z forces x, y moments 6
Lumbar Spine x, y, z forces x, y moments 5
Femur - 1 channel*# z force 1
Femur - 6 channel*# x, y, z forces and moments 6
Knee Clevis Load Cell* z (2) force 4
Upper Tibia Load Cell* x, z forces x, y moments 4
Lower Tibia Load Cell* x, z forces x, y moments 4
Total number of channels 56
* indicates that right and left instruments are required
# the two femur load cells are mutually exclusive; if one is used, the other is excluded