Table of Contents

List of Tables

I. Executive Summary

II. Background

III. Methodology

IV. Discussion of Research Results

V. Conclusions

VI. References

VII. Appendices

Appendix I - Vehicle-Generated Carbon Monoxide Deaths From 1998 Death Certificates

Appendix II - Summaries Of and Data From Articles On Poisonings From Vehicle-Generated Carbon Monoxide

Appendix III - Backing Cases From 1998 Death Certificates and LexisNexis™

Appendix IV – Backing Deaths Identified in NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) in Years 2000, 2001

Appendix V - Summaries Of and Data From Articles On Deaths and Injuries From Vehicles Backing Up

Appendix VI – Backing Injury Data

Appendix VII – Passenger Compartment Vehicle Heat Deaths Found in 1998 Death Certificates

Appendix VIII - Summaries Of Articles On Power Window Deaths

List of Tables

Table I: E-Codes Used in Locating Death Certificates

Table II: Summary Data: Vehicle-Generated Carbon Monoxide Deaths From 1998 Death Certificates

Table III: Carbon Monoxide Deaths and Injuries Found In LexisNexis™ (1998-2002)

Table IV: Backing Deaths Identified in 1998 Death Certificates By Age*

Table V: Backing Deaths Identified in 1998 Death Certificates By Vehicle Type

Table VI: Backing Deaths Identified in 1998 Death Certificates By Location

Table VII: Backing Incidents (1998 – 2002) Found in LexisNexis™

Table VIII: Summary Data from Backing Deaths Identified in FARS – 2000, 2001

Table IX: 2000, 2001 Backing Deaths Identified in FARS By Location

Table X:1998-2002: Vehicle Heat Deaths & Injuries Found In LexisNexis™ By Age

Table XI: Trunk Entrapment Incidents Found in LexisNexis™ 1987 - 2003

Table XII: Age of Trunk Entrapment Victims, 1987 - 2003

Table XIII: 1998-2002: Vehicle Window Cases From LexisNexis™

Appendices

Table XIV: Vehicle-Generated Carbon Monoxide Deaths From 1998 Death Certificates

Table XV: (from Mott JA, et.al.) 1998 CDR (crude death rate) per 1 Million Person-years (No. of Deaths)

Table XVI: (from NHTSA Research Note) Vehicle-Related Deaths Associated With CO Poisoning: 1995-1997*

Table XVII: (from NHTSA Research Note) Accidental CO Fatalities with Stationary Vehicles by Vehicle Location: 1995-1997

Table XVIII: (from NHTSA Research Note) All Accidental Vehicle-Related CO Fatalities in 1995-1997 by Season of Occurrence

Table XIX: (from Marc LC et. al.) Risk of Death for Four Accidental Poisoning Scenarios With All vehicles and With Pre-1975 Vehicles Removed

Table XX: 1998 Backing Incidents Found in Death Certificates (DC) and LexisNexis™ (LN)

Table XXI: 2000, 2001 Backing Deaths Identified in FARS

Table XXII: (from Brison, et. al.) Average Annual Death Rates by Age and Sex of Child for Non-Traffic and Traffic-Related Pedestrian Incidents

Table XXIII: (from Brison, et. al.) Characteristics of Non-Traffic and Traffic-Related Pedestrian Vehicle Collisions to Children Less than Age Five

Table XXIV: (from Winn et. al.) Action of Vehicles Involved in Non-traffic Accidents Involving Toddlers and Preschoolers

Table XXV: (from Agran et. al.) Location of Pedestrian Injury Events (N=345)

Table XXVI: (from Agran et. al.) Movement and Type of Vehicle That Struck Pedestrian by Location of Injury, for Four Major Location Types

Table XXVII: (from Agran et. al.) Gender and Age of Pedestrians by Location of Injury, for Four Major Location Types

Table XXVIII: (from Agran et. al.) Companions by Location of Injury, for Four Major Types

Table XXIX: (from Agran et. al.) Disposition by Location of Injury for Four Major Location Types

Table XXX: (from Nadler et. al.) Age Distribution of Children Injured in Driveway Related Accidents and Types of Vehicles Involved

Table XXXI: (from NHTSA Research Note) Annual Estimates of Nonoccupant Fatalities in Off-Road Backing Crashes – 1992-1993 Average

Table XXXII: (from NHTSA Research Note) Annual Number of Nonoccupant Fatalities in On-Road Backing Crashes – 1992-1993 Average 65

Table XXXIII: Injuries from Backing Incidents --National Projections Based on NEISS Data from July 1, 2000 – June 30, 2001

Table XXXIV: Backing Incidents: Annualized GES National Estimates 1996-2000

Table XXXV: Vehicle Backing Incidents Located In The 2000 NHAMCS (Emergency Department) File

Table XXXVI: Passenger Compartment Vehicle Heat Deaths Found in 1998 Death Certificates

This report was prepared by Ken Hardie, the Project Manager and Safety Standards Engineer in NHTSA’s Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, and Glenn Gamber of ALCOSYS, Inc., the contractor that conducted the research involved.