List of Subjects

49 CFR Part 552

Administrative practice and procedure, Motor vehicle safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 571

Imports, Motor vehicle safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Tires.

49 CFR Part 585

Motor vehicle safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 595

Imports, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles.

In consideration of the foregoing, NHTSA proposes to amend 49 CFR Chapter V as follows:

PART 552--PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING, DEFECT, AND NON-COMPLIANCE ORDERS

1. The authority citation for Part 552 of Title 49 would continue to read as follows:

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 30111, 30118, and 30162; delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50.

2. Sections 552.1 through 552.10 would be designated as Subpart A and a new subpart heading would be added to read as follows:

Subpart A - General 3. A new subpart B would be added to Part 552 to read as follows:

Subpart B - Petitions for Expedited Rulemaking to Establish Dynamic Automatic Suppression System Test Procedures for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection

Sec.

552.11 Application.

552.12 Definitions.

552.13 Form of Petition.

552.14 Content of Petition.

552.15 Processing of Petition.

Subpart B - Petitions for Expedited Rulemaking to Establish Dynamic Automatic Suppression System Test Procedures for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection

552.11 Application.

This subpart establishes procedures for the submission and disposition of petitions filed by interested parties to initiate rulemaking to add a test procedure to 49 CFR Part 571.208, S28.

552.12 Definitions.

For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions apply:

(a) Dynamic automatic suppression system (DASS) means a portion of an air bag system that automatically controls whether or not the air bag deploys during a crash by:

(1) Sensing the location of an occupant, moving or still, in relation to the air bag;

(2) Interpreting the occupant characteristics and location information to determine whether or not the air bag should deploy; and

(3) Activating or suppressing the air bag system based on the interpretation of characteristics and occupant location information.

(b) Automatic suppression zone or ASZ means a three-dimensional zone adjacent to the air bag cover, specified by the vehicle manufacturer, where air bag deployment will be suppressed by the DASS if a vehicle occupant enters the zone under specified conditions.

(c) Standard No. 208 means 49 CFR Part 571.208.

552.13 Form of petition.

Each petition filed under this subpart shall--

(a) Be submitted to: Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590.

(b) Be written in the English language.

(c) State the name and address of the petitioner.

(d) Set forth in full the data, views and arguments of the petitioner supporting the requested test procedure, including all of the content information specified by 552.14. Any documents incorporated by reference in the procedure must be submitted with the petition.

(e) Specify and segregate any part of the information and data submitted that the petitioner wishes to have withheld from public disclosure in accordance with Part 512 of this chapter.

(f) Not request confidential treatment for any aspect of the requested test procedure and, to the extent confidential treatment is requested concerning a particular DASS or data and analysis submitted in support of the petition, provide a general non-confidential description of the operation of the DASS and of the data and analysis supporting the petition.

(g) Set forth a requested effective date and be submitted at least nine months before that date.

552.14 Content of petition.

The petitioner shall provide the following information:

(a) A set of proposed test procedures for S28.1, S28.2, S28.3, and S28.4 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 which the petitioner believes are appropriate for assessing a particular dynamic automatic suppression system.

(1) For S28.1 of Standard No. 208, the petitioner shall specify at least one specific position for the Part 572, subpart O 5th percentile female dummy that is:

(i) Outside but adjacent to the ASZ, and

(ii) Representative of an occupant position that is likely to occur during a frontal crash.

(2) For S28.2 of Standard No. 208, the petitioner shall specify at least one specific position for the Part 572 Subpart P 3-year-old child dummy and at least one specific position for the Part 572 Subpart N 6-year-old child dummy that are:

(i) Outside but adjacent to the ASZ, and

(ii) Representative of occupant positions that are likely to occur during a frontal crash where pre-crash braking occurs.

(3) For S28.3 of Standard No. 208, the petitioner shall specify a procedure which tests the operation of the DASS by moving a test device toward the driver air bag in a manner that simulates the motion of an occupant during pre-crash braking or other pre-crash maneuver. The petitioner shall include a complete description, including drawings and instrumentation, of the test device employed in the proposed test. The petitioner shall include in the procedure a means for determining whether the driver air bag was suppressed before any portion of the specified test device entered the ASZ during the test. The procedure must also include a means of determining when the specified test device occupies the ASZ.

(4) For S28.4 of Standard No. 208, the petitioner shall specify a procedure which tests the operation of the DASS by moving a test device toward the passenger air bag in a manner that simulates the motion of an occupant during pre-crash braking or other pre-crash maneuver. The petitioner shall include a complete description, including drawings and instrumentation, of the test device employed in the proposed test. The petitioner shall include in the procedure a means for determining whether the passenger air bag was suppressed before any portion of the specified test device entered the ASZ during the test. The procedure must also include a means of determining when the specified test device occupies the ASZ.

(b) A complete description and explanation of the particular DASS that the petitioner believes will be appropriately assessed by the recommended test procedures. This must include:

(1) A complete description of the logic used by the DASS in determining whether to suppress the air bag or allow it to deploy. Such description must include flow charts or similar materials outlining the operation of the system logic, the system reaction time, the time duration used to evaluate whether the air bag should be suppressed or deployed, changes, if any, in system performance based on the size of an occupant and vehicle speed, and a description of the size and shape of the zone where under similar circumstances and conditions the DASS may either allow or suppress deployment. Such description shall also address whether and how the DASS discriminates between an occupant's torso or head entering the ASZ as compared to an occupant's hand or arm, and whether and how the DASS discriminates between an occupant entering the ASZ and an inanimate object such as a newspaper or ball entering the ASZ.

(2) Detailed specifications for the size and shape of the ASZ, including whether the suppression zone is designed to change size or shape depending on the vehicle speed, occupant size, or other factors.

(c) Analysis and data supporting the appropriateness, repeatability, reproducibility and practicability of each of the proposed test procedures.

(1) For the procedures proposed for inclusion in S28.1 and S28.2 of Standard No. 208, the petitioner shall provide the basis for the proposed dummy positions, including but not limited to, why the positions are representative of what is likely to occur in real world crashes.

(2) For the procedures proposed for inclusion in S28.3 and S28.4 of Standard No. 208, the petitioner shall provide:

(i) A complete explanation of the means used in the proposed test to ascertain whether the air bag is suppressed or activated during the test.

(ii) A complete description of the means used to evaluate the ability of a dynamic system to detect and respond to an occupant moving toward an air bag, including the method used to move a test device toward an air bag at speeds representative of occupant movement during pre-crash braking or other pre-crash maneuver.

(iii) The procedure used for locating the test device inside a test vehicle in preparation for testing, including an accounting of the reference points used to specify such location.

(iv) An explanation of the methods used to measure the amount of time needed by a suppression system to suppress an air bag once a suppression triggering event occurs.

(v) High speed film or video of at least two tests of the DASS using the proposed test procedure.

(vi) Data generated from not less than two tests of the DASS using the proposed test procedure, including an account of the data streams monitored during testing and complete samples of these data streams from not less than two tests performed under the proposed procedure.

(d) Analysis concerning the variety of potential DASS designs for which the requested test procedure is appropriate; e.g., whether the test procedures are appropriate only for the specific DASS design contemplated by the petitioner, for all DASS designs incorporating the same technologies, or for all DASS designs.

552.15 Processing of petition.

(a) NHTSA will process any petition that contains the information specified by this subpart. If a petition fails to provide any of the information, NHTSA will not process the petition but will advise the petitioner of the information that must be provided if the agency is to process the petition. The agency will seek to notify the petitioner of any such deficiency within 30 days after receipt of the petition.

(b) At any time during the agency's consideration of a petition submitted under this part, the Administrator may request the petitioner to provide additional supporting information and data and/or provide a demonstration of any of the requested test procedures. The agency will seek to make any such request within 60 days after receipt of the petition. Such demonstration may be at either an agency designated facility or one chosen by the petitioner, provided that, in either case, the facility must be located in North America. If such a request is not honored to the satisfaction of the agency, the petition will not receive further consideration until the requested information is submitted.

(c) The agency will publish in the Federal Register either a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposing adoption of the requested test procedures, possibly with changes and/or additions, or a notice denying the petition. The agency will seek to issue either notice within 120 days after receipt of a complete petition. However, this time period may be extended by any time period during which the agency is awaiting additional information it requests from the petitioner or is awaiting a requested demonstration. The agency contemplates a 30 day comment period for any Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, and will endeavor to issue a final rule within 60 days thereafter.

PART 571-FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS

4. The authority citation for Part 571 of Title 49 would continue to read as follows:

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, 30117, and 30166; delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50.

5. Section 571.208 would be amended by revising S3, S4.5.1 introductory text, S4.5.1(b)(1), S4.5.1(b)(2), 4.5.1(e), S4.5.1(f), S4.5.4, S5.1, S5.1.1, S5.1.2, S6.1, S6.2, 6.4, S8.1.5 and S13, removing S4.5.5, adding S4.1.5.4, S4.2.6.3, S4.7, S4.8, S4.9, S5.4, S5.4.1, S5.4.2, S5.4.2.1, S5.4.2.2, S5.4.2.3, S5.4.2.4, S6.6, S6.7, S14 through S33.5, and adding new figures 8, 9 and 10 in numerical order and adding Appendix A at the end of the section after the figures to read as follows:

571.208 Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.

[Proposed high speed test Alternative 1 - unbelted rigid barrier (29-48 km/h) (18-30 mph), belted rigid barrier (0-48 km/h)(0-30 mph) - consists of proposed sections S5.1.1, S5.1.2, S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, S6.6, S6.7, S14.3, S15.1, S15.2, S15.3, S15.4, S16.1 (a), S16.1(b), S16.2, S16.3, S17.1, and S18. It does not include S5.4 or S17.2, i.e., if Alternative 1 were adopted, neither S5.4 nor S17.2 would be adopted. Proposed high speed test Alternative 2 - unbelted offset deformable barrier (35-56 km/h)(22-35 mph), belted rigid barrier(0-48 km/h)(0-30 mph) - consists of proposed sections S5.1.1, S5.4, S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, S6.6, S6.7, S14.3, S15.1, S15.3, S15.4, S16.1(a), S16.2, S16.3, S17.1, S17.2, and S18. It does not include S5.1.2, S15.2, or S16.1(b), i.e., if Alternative 2 were adopted, neither S5.1.2 nor S15.2 nor S16.1(b) would be adopted.]

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S3. Application.

(a) This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. In addition, S9, Pressure vessels and explosive devices, applies to vessels designed to contain a pressurized fluid or gas, and to explosive devices, for use in the above types of motor vehicles as part of a system designed to provide protection to occupants in the event of a crash.

(b) Notwithstanding any language to the contrary, any vehicle manufactured after March 19, 1997 and before September 1, 2005 that is subject to a dynamic crash test requirement conducted with unbelted dummies may meet the requirements specified in S13 instead of the applicable unbelted requirement, unless the vehicle is certified to meet the requirements specified in S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32.

(c) For vehicles which are certified to meet the requirements specified in S13 instead of the otherwise applicable dynamic crash test requirement conducted with unbelted dummies, compliance with S13 shall, for purposes of Standards No. 201, 203 and 209, be deemed as compliance with the unbelted frontal barrier requirements of S5.1.

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S4.1.5.4 Passenger cars certified to S14. At each front outboard designated seating position meet the frontal crash protection requirements of S5.1.2 [under Alternative 1] [or] S5.4 [under Alternative 2] by means that require no action by vehicle occupants. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this standard if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirement of this standard.

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S4.2.6.3 Trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds) or less certified to S14. Each truck, bus, or multipurpose passenger vehicle with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds) or less certified to S14 shall, at each front outboard designated seating position, meet the frontal crash protection requirements of S5.1.2 [under Alternative 1] [or] S5.4 [under Alternative 2] by means that require no action by vehicle occupants. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this standard if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirement of this standard.

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S4.5.1 Labeling and owner's manual information.

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(b)     *        *        *

(1) Except as provided in S4.5.1(b)(2), each vehicle shall have a label permanently affixed to either side of the sun visor, at the manufacturer's option, at each front outboard seating position that is equipped with an inflatable restraint. The label shall conform in content to the label shown in either Figure 6a or 6b of this standard, as appropriate, and shall comply with the requirements of S4.5.1(b)(1)(i) through S4.5.1(b)(1)(iv).

(i) The heading area shall be yellow with the word "WARNING" and the alert symbol in black.

(ii) The message area shall be white with black text. The message area shall be no less than 30 cm2 (4.7 in2).

(iii) The pictogram shall be black with a red circle and slash on a white background. The pictogram shall be no less than 30 mm (1.2 inches) in diameter.

(iv) If the vehicle does not have a back seat, the label shown in Figure 6a or 6b may be modified by omitting the statement: "The BACK SEAT is the SAFEST place for children."

(2) Vehicles manufactured after September 1, 2002 and certified to meet the requirements specified in S19, S21, and S23, shall have a label permanently affixed to either side of the sun visor, at the manufacturer's option, at each front outboard seating position that is equipped with an inflatable restraint. The label shall conform in content to the label shown in Figure 8 of this standard and shall comply with the requirements of S4.5.1(b)(2)(i) through S4.5.1(b)(2)(iv).

(i) The heading area shall be yellow with the word "CAUTION" and the alert symbol in black.

(ii) The message area shall be white with black text. The message area shall be no less than 30 cm2 (4.7 in2).

(iii) The pictogram shall be black on a white background. The pictogram shall be no less than 30 mm (1.2 inches) in length.

(iv) If the vehicle does not have a back seat, the label shown in Figure 8 may be modified by omitting the statement: "The BACK SEAT is the SAFEST place for CHILDREN."

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(e) Label on the dashboard.

(1) Except as provided in S4.5.1(e)(2), each vehicle that is equipped with an inflatable restraint for the passenger position shall have a label attached to a location on the dashboard or the steering wheel hub that is clearly visible from all front seating positions. The label need not be permanently affixed to the vehicle. This label shall conform in content to the label shown in Figure 7 of this standard, and shall comply with the requirements of S4.5.1(e)(1)(i) through S4.5.1(e)(1)(iii).

(i) The heading area shall be yellow with the word "WARNING" and the alert symbol in black.

(ii) The message area shall be white with black text. The message area shall be no less than 30 cm2 (4.7 in2).

(iii) If the vehicle does not have a back seat, the label shown in Figure 7 may be modified by omitting the statement: "The back seat is the safest place for children 12 and under."

(2) Vehicles manufactured after September 1, 2002 and certified to meet the requirements specified in S19, S21, and S23, that are equipped with an inflatable restraint for the passenger position shall have a label attached to a location on the dashboard or the steering wheel hub that is clearly visible from all front seating positions. The label need not be permanently affixed to the vehicle. This label shall conform in content to the label shown in Figure 9 of this standard, and shall comply with the requirements of S4.5.1(e)(2)(i) through S4.5.1(e)(2)(iii).

(i) The heading area shall be yellow with black text.

(ii) The message area shall be white with black text. The message area shall be no less than 30 cm2 (4.7 in2).

(iii) If the vehicle does not have a back seat, the label shown in Figure 9 may be modified by omitting the statement: "The back seat is the safest place for children."

(f) Information to appear in owner's manual.

(1) The owner's manual for any vehicle equipped with an inflatable restraint system shall include a description of the vehicle's air bag system in an easily understandable format. The owner's manual shall include a statement to the effect that the vehicle is equipped with an air bag and lap/shoulder belt at one or both front outboard seating positions, and that the air bag is a supplemental restraint at those seating positions. The information shall emphasize that all occupants, including the driver, should always wear their seat belts whether or not an air bag is also provided at their seating position to minimize the risk of severe injury or death in the event of a crash. The owner's manual shall also provide any necessary precautions regarding the proper positioning of occupants, including children, at seating positions equipped with air bags to ensure maximum safety protection for those occupants. The owner's manual shall also explain that no objects should be placed over or near the air bag on the instrument panel, because any such objects could cause harm if the vehicle is in a crash severe enough to cause the air bag to inflate.

(2) For any vehicle certified to meet the requirements specified in S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32, the manufacturer shall also include in the vehicle's owner's manual a discussion of the advanced passenger air bag system installed in the vehicle. The discussion shall be written to explain the proper functioning of the advanced air bag system and shall provide a summary of the actions that may affect the proper functioning of the system. The discussion shall include, as a minimum, the following topics:

(a) presentation and explanation of the main components of the advanced passenger air bag system.

(b) explanation of how the components function together as part of the advanced passenger air bag system.

(c) basic requirements for proper operation, including an explanation of the actions that may affect the proper functioning of the system.

(d) a complete description of the passenger air bag suppression system installed in the vehicle including a discussion of any suppression zone.

(e) an explanation of the interaction of the advanced passenger air bag system with other vehicle components, such as seat belts, seats or other components.

(f) a summary of the expected outcomes when child restraint systems, children and small teenagers or adults are both properly and improperly positioned in the passenger seat, including cautionary advice against improper placement of child restraint systems.

(g) tips and guidelines to improve consumer understanding of the proper use of the advanced passenger air bag system.

(h) information on how to contact the vehicle manufacturer concerning modifications for persons with disabilities that may affect the advanced air bag system.

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S4.5.4 Passenger air bag manual cut-off device. Passenger cars, trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles manufactured before September 1, 2005 may be equipped with a device that deactivates the air bag installed at the right front passenger position in the vehicle, if all the conditions in S4.5.4.1 through S4.5.4.4 are satisfied.

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S4.7 Selection of compliance options. Where manufacturer options are specified, the manufacturer shall select the option by the time it certifies the vehicle and may not thereafter select a different option for the vehicle. Each manufacturer shall, upon request from the Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, provide information regarding which of the compliance options it has selected for a particular vehicle or make/model.

S4.8 Values and tolerances. Wherever a range of values or tolerances are specified, requirements shall be met at all values within the range of values or tolerances. All angles and directions (e.g., vertical or horizontal) specified are approximate.

S4.9 Metric values. Specifications and requirements are given in metric units with English units provided for reference. The metric values are controlling.

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S5 Occupant crash protection requirements.

S5.1 Frontal barrier crash test.

S5.1.1 Belted test. Impact a vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, up to and including 48 km/h (30 mph), into a fixed rigid barrier that is perpendicular to the line of travel of the vehicle, or at any angle up to 30 degrees in either direction from the perpendicular to the line of travel of the vehicle, under the applicable conditions of S8 and S10, including S10.9 (manual belt adjustment). For vehicles certified to S14 of this standard, the test dummy specified in S8.1.8 placed in each front outboard designated seating position shall meet the injury criteria of S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, and S6.6 of this standard. All other vehicles to which S5.1.1 is applicable shall meet the injury criteria of S6.1, S6.2(a), S6.3, S6.4(a), and S6.5.

S5.1.2 Unbelted test. Impact a vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, between 29 km/h (18 mph) and 48 km/h (30 mph), inclusive, into a fixed rigid barrier that is perpendicular to the line of travel of the vehicle, or at any angle up to 30 degrees in either direction from the perpendicular to the line of travel of the vehicle under the applicable conditions of S8 and S10, excluding S10.9. The test dummy specified in S8.1.8 placed in each front outboard designated seating position shall meet the injury criteria of S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, and S6.6 of this standard.

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S5.4 Offset deformable barrier crash test.

S5.4.1 General provisions. Place a Part 572 Subpart E Hybrid III 50th percentile adult male test dummy at each front outboard seating position of the vehicle, in accordance with procedures specified in S10. Impact the vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, between 35.4 km/h (22 mph) and 56 km/h (35 mph), inclusive, into a fixed offset deformable barrier under the conditions specified in S5.4.2 of this standard. The test dummies shall meet the injury criteria specified in S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, and S6.6 of this standard.

S5.4.2 Test conditions.

S5.4.2.1 Offset frontal deformable barrier. The offset frontal deformable barrier shall conform to the specifications set forth in Subpart B of Part 587 of this chapter.

S5.4.2.2 General test conditions. All of the test conditions specified in S8.1 of this standard apply.

S5.4.2.3 Dummy seating and positioning. The anthropomorphic test dummies are seated and positioned as specified in S10 of this standard.

S5.4.2.4 Impact configuration. The test vehicle shall impact the barrier with the longitudinal line of the vehicle parallel to the line of travel, and perpendicular to the barrier face. The test vehicle shall be aligned so that the vehicle strikes the barrier with 40 percent overlap on either the left or the right side of the vehicle, with the vehicle's width engaging the barrier face such that the vehicle's longitudinal centerline is offset outboard of the edge of the barrier face by 10 percent of the vehicle's width 25 mm (1.0 inch) as illustrated in Figure 10. The vehicle width is defined as the maximum dimension measured across the widest part of the vehicle, including bumpers and molding but excluding such components as exterior mirrors, flexible mud flaps, marker lamps, and dual rear wheel configurations.

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S6.1 All portions of the test dummy shall be contained within the outer surfaces of the vehicle passenger compartment.

S6.2 Head injury criteria.

(a) The resultant acceleration at the center of gravity of the head shall be such that the expression:

shall not exceed 1,000 where a is the resultant acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the crash of the vehicle which are separated by not more than a 36 millisecond time interval.

(b) The resultant acceleration at the center of gravity of the head shall be such that the expression:

shall not exceed 700 where a is the resultant acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the crash of the vehicle which are separated by not more than a 15 millisecond time interval.

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S6.4 Chest deflection.

(a) Compression deflection of the sternum relative to the spine, as determined by instrumentation shown in drawing 78051-218, revision U incorporated by reference in Part 572, subpart E of this chapter, shall not exceed 76 mm (3 inches).

(b) Compressive deflection of the sternum relative to the spine, as determined by instrumentation shown in drawing 78051-317, revision A, incorporated by reference in Part 572, subpart E, shall not exceed 63 mm (2.5 inches).

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S6.6 Neck injury. The biomechanical neck injury predictor, Nij, shall not exceed a value of 1.0 at any point in time. The following procedure shall be used to compute Nij. The axial force (Fz) and flexion/extension moment about the occipital condyles (My) shall be used to calculate four combined injury predictors, collectively referred to as Nij. These four combined values represent the probability of sustaining each of four primary types of cervical injuries; namely tension-extension (NTE), tension-flexion (NTF), compression-extension (NCE), and compression-flexion (NCF) injuries. Axial force shall be filtered at SAE class 1000 and flexion/extension moment (My) shall be filtered at SAE class 600. Shear force, which shall be filtered at SAE class 600, is used only in conjunction with the measured moment to calculate the effective moment at the location of the occipital condyles. The equation for calculating the Nij criteria is given by

Nij = (Fz / Fzc) + (My / Myc)

where Fzc and Myc are critical values corresponding to:

Fzc = 4500 N (1012 lbf) for tension

Fzc = 4500 N (1012 lbf) for compression

Myc = 310 Nm (229 lbf-ft) for flexion about occipital condyles

Myc = 125 Nm (92 lbf-ft) for extension about occipital condyles

Each of the four Nij values shall be calculated at each point in time, and all four values shall not exceed 1.0 at any point in time. When calculating NTE and NTF, all compressive loads shall be set to zero. Similarly, when calculating NCE and NCF, all tensile loads shall be set to zero. In a similar fashion, when calculating NTE and NCE, all flexion moments shall be set to zero. Likewise, when calculating NTF and NCF, all extension moments shall be set to zero.

S6.7 Test duration for purpose of measuring injury criteria. For tests conducted pursuant to S5.1.1, S5.1.2, and S5.4, the injury criteria shall be met up to 300 milliseconds after the vehicle strikes the barrier.

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S8.1.5 Movable vehicle windows and vents are placed in the fully closed position, unless the vehicle manufacturer chooses to specify a different adjustment position prior to the time it certifies the vehicle.

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S13 Alternative unbelted test available, under S3(b) of this standard, for certain vehicles manufactured before September 1, 2005.

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S14 Advanced air bag requirements for passenger cars and for trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5500 pounds) or less, except for walk-in van-type trucks or vehicles designed to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service.

S14.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2002 and before September 1, 2005.

(a) For vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2002 and before September 1, 2005, a percentage of the manufacturer's production, as specified in S14.1.1, shall meet the requirements specified in S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 (in addition to the other requirements specified in this standard).

(b) Manufacturers that manufacture two or fewer carlines, as that term is defined at 49 CFR 583.4, may, at the option of the manufacturer, meet the requirements of this paragraph instead of paragraph (a) of this section. Each vehicle manufactured on or after September 1, 2003 and before September 1, 2005 shall meet the requirements specified in S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 (in addition to the other requirements specified in this standard).

(c) Each vehicle that is manufactured in two or more stages or that is altered (within the meaning of section 567.7 of this chapter) after having previously been certified in accordance with Part 567 of this chapter is not subject to the requirements of S14.1.

(d) Vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer that produces fewer than 5,000 vehicles worldwide annually are not subject to the requirements of S14.1.

S14.1.1 Phase-in schedule.

S14.1.1.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2002 and before September 1, 2003. Subject to S14.1.2(a), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2002 and before September 1, 2003, the amount of vehicles complying with S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 shall be not less than 25 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2003, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2002 and before September 1, 2003.

S14.1.1.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2003 and before September 1, 2004. Subject to S14.1.2(b), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2003 and before September 1, 2004, the amount of vehicles complying with S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 shall be not less than 40 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2004, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2003 and before September 1, 2004.

S14.1.1.3 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2004 and before September 1, 2005. Subject to S14.1.2(c), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2004 and before September 1, 2005, the amount of vehicles complying with S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 shall be not less than 70 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2002 and before September 1, 2005, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2004 and before September 1, 2005.

S14.1.2 Calculation of complying vehicles.

(a) For the purposes of complying with S14.1.1.1, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it is manufactured on or after [the date 30 days after publication of the final rule would be inserted], but before September 1, 2003.

(b) For purposes of complying with S14.1.1.2, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it:

(1) Is manufactured on or after [the date 30 days after publication of the final rule would be inserted], but before September 1, 2004, and

(2) Is not counted toward compliance with S14.1.1.1.

(c) For purposes of complying with S14.1.1.3, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it:

(1) Is manufactured on or after [the date 30 days after publication of the final rule would be inserted], but before September 1, 2005, and

(2) Is not counted toward compliance with S14.1.1.1 or S14.1.1.2.

S14.1.3 Vehicles produced by more than one manufacturer.

S14.1.3.1 For the purpose of calculating average annual production of vehicles for each manufacturer and the number of vehicles manufactured by each manufacturer under S14.1.1, a vehicle produced by more than one manufacturer shall be attributed to a single manufacturer as follows, subject to S14.1.3.2.

(a) A vehicle which is imported shall be attributed to the importer.

(b) A vehicle manufactured in the United States by more than one manufacturer, one of which also markets the vehicle, shall be attributed to the manufacturer which markets the vehicle.

S14.1.3.2 A vehicle produced by more than one manufacturer shall be attributed to any one of the vehicle's manufacturers specified by an express written contract, reported to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under 49 CFR Part 585, between the manufacturer so specified and the manufacturer to which the vehicle would otherwise be attributed under S14.1.3.1.

S14.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2005. Each vehicle shall meet the requirements specified in S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 (in addition to the other requirements specified in this standard).

S14.3 Barrier test requirements using 50th percentile adult male dummies.

S14.3.1 Rigid barrier belted test. Each vehicle that is certified as complying with S14 shall, at each front outboard designated seating position, meet the injury criteria specified in S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, and S6.6 when tested under S5.1.1. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S14.3.2 Rigid barrier unbelted test. Each vehicle that is certified as complying with S14 shall comply with the requirements of S4.1.5.4 or S4.2.6.3 by means of an inflatable restraint system at the driver's and right front passenger's position that meets the injury criteria specified in S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, and S6.6 when tested under S5.1.2. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S14.3.2 Offset deformable barrier unbelted test. Each vehicle that is certified as complying with S14 of this standard shall comply with the requirements of S4.1.5.4 or S4.2.6.3 that meets the injury criteria specified in S6.1, S6.2(b), S6.3, S6.4(b), S6.5, and S6.6 when tested under S5.4. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S15 Rigid barrier test requirements using 5th percentile adult female dummies.

S15.1 Belted test. Each vehicle subject to S15 shall, at each front outboard designated seating position, meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard when the vehicle is crash tested in accordance with the procedures specified in S16 of this standard with the anthropomorphic test dummy restrained by a Type 2 seat belt assembly. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S15.2 Unbelted test. Each vehicle subject to S15 shall, at each front outboard designated seating position, meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard when the vehicle is crash tested in accordance with the procedures specified in S16 of this standard with the anthropomorphic test dummy unbelted. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S15.3 Injury criteria (5th percentile adult female dummy).

S15.3.1 All portions of the test dummy shall be contained within the outer surfaces of the vehicle passenger compartment.

S15.3.2 The resultant acceleration at the center of gravity of the head shall be such that the expression:

shall not exceed 700 where a is the resultant acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the crash of the vehicle which are separated by not more than a 15 millisecond time interval.

S15.3.3 The resultant acceleration calculated from the output of the thoracic instrumentation shown in drawing [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 60 g's, except for intervals whose cumulative duration is not more than 3 milliseconds.

S15.3.4 Compression deflection of the sternum relative to the spine, as determined by instrumentation shown in drawing [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 52 mm (2.0 inches).

S15.3.5 The force transmitted axially through each thigh shall not exceed 6805 N (1530 pounds).

S15.3.6 The biomechanical neck injury predictor, Nij, shall not exceed a value of 1.0 at any point in time. The following procedure shall be used to compute Nij. The axial force (Fz) and flexion/extension moment about the occipital condyles (My) shall be used to calculate four combined injury predictors, collectively referred to as Nij. These four combined values represent the probability of sustaining each of four primary types of cervical injuries; namely tension-extension (NTE), tension-flexion (NTF), compression-extension (NCE), and compression-flexion (NCF) injuries. Axial force shall be filtered at SAE class 1000 and flexion/extension moment (My) shall be filtered at SAE class 600. Shear force, which shall be filtered at SAE class 600, is used only in conjunction with the measured moment to calculate the effective moment at the location of the occipital condyles. The equation for calculating the Nij criteria is given by

Nij = (Fz / Fzc) + (My / Myc)

where Fzc and Myc are critical values corresponding to:

Fzc = 3370 N (758 lbf) for tension

Fzc = 3370 N (758 lbf) for compression

Myc = 155 Nm (114 lbf-ft) for flexion about occipital condyles

Myc = 62 Nm (46 lbf-ft) for extension about occipital condyles

Each of the four Nij values shall be calculated at each point in time, and all four values shall not exceed 1.0 at any point in time. When calculating NTE and NTF, all compressive loads shall be set to zero. Similarly, when calculating NCE and NCF, all tensile loads shall be set to zero. In a similar fashion, when calculating NTE and NCE, all flexion moments shall be set to zero. Likewise, when calculating NTF and NCF, all extension moments shall be set to zero.

S15.4 Test duration for purpose of measuring injury criteria. For tests conducted pursuant to S15 and S17, the injury criteria of S15.3 shall be met up to 300 milliseconds after the vehicle strikes the barrier. For tests conducted pursuant to S26, the injury criteria shall be met up to 100 milliseconds after the air bag deploys.

S16. Test procedures for rigid barrier test requirements using 5th percentile adult female dummies.

S16.1 General provisions. Crash testing to determine compliance with the requirements of S15 of this standard is conducted as specified in the following paragraphs (a) and (b).

(a) Belted test. Place a Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy at each front outboard seating position of a vehicle, in accordance with procedures specified in S16.3 of this standard, including S16.3.5. Impact the vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, up to and including 48 km/h (30 mph), into a fixed rigid barrier that is perpendicular within a tolerance of 5 degrees to the line of travel of the vehicle under the applicable conditions of S16.2 of this standard. The dummies shall meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard.

(b) Unbelted test. Place a Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy at each front outboard seating position of a vehicle, in accordance with procedures specified in S16.3 of this standard, except S16.3.5. Impact the vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, from 29 km/h (18 mph) to 48 km/h (30 mph), inclusive, into a fixed rigid barrier that is perpendicular within a tolerance of 5 degrees to the line of travel of the vehicle under the applicable conditions of S16.2 of this standard. The test dummies shall meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard.

S16.2 Test conditions.

S16.2.1 The vehicle, including test devices and instrumentation, is loaded as in S8.1.1.

S16.2.2 Movable vehicle windows and vents are placed in the fully closed position, unless the vehicle manufacturer chooses to specify a different adjustment position prior to the time the vehicle is certified.

S16.2.3 Convertibles and open-body type vehicles have the top, if any, in place in the closed passenger compartment configuration.

S16.2.4 Doors are fully closed and latched but not locked.

S16.2.5 The dummy is clothed in form fitting cotton stretch garments with short sleeves and above the knee length pants. A size 8W shoe which meets the configuration and size specifications of MIL-S 13912 change "P" or its equivalent is placed on each foot of the test dummy.

S16.2.6 Limb joints are set at 1 g, barely restraining the weight of the limb when extended horizontally. Leg joints are adjusted with the torso in the supine position.

S16.2.7 Instrumentation shall not affect the motion of dummies during impact.

S16.2.8 The stabilized temperature of the dummy is at any level between 20 C and 22 C (68 F to 71.6 F).

S16.2.9 Steering wheel adjustment.

S16.2.9.1 Adjust a tiltable steering wheel, if possible, so that the steering wheel hub is at the geometric center when moved through its full range of driving positions.

S16.2.9.2 If there is no setting detent at the mid position, lower the steering wheel to the detent just below the mid position.

S16.2.9.3 If the steering column is telescoping, place the steering column as close as possible to the mid position.

S16.2.10 Pedal adjustment. If pedals can be adjusted, adjust them to the full rear position (towards the rear of the vehicle) or until the pedal makes contact with the feet as defined in S16.3.2.3.

S16.2.11 Driver and passenger seat set-up.

S16.2.11.1 Seat position adjustment.

S16.2.11.1.1 If a seat is adjustable in the fore and aft and/or vertical directions, move the seat to the fowardmost seat track position and full down vertical position.

S16.2.11.1.2 Establish a reference line on the seat pan in a horizontal plane.

S16.2.11.1.3 Measure and record the seat pan angle with respect to the reference line established in S16.2.11.1.2.

S16.2.11.1.4 Adjust the seat vertically to the mid-height position. If possible, maintain the seat pan reference angle measured in the full down and full forward condition in S16.2.11.1.3.

S16.2.11.2 Lumbar support adjustment. Position adjustable lumbar supports so that the lumbar support is in its lowest, retracted or deflated adjustment position.

S16.2.11.3 Side bolster adjustment. Position adjustable seat cushion or seat back side bolsters so that they are in the lowest or most open adjustment position.

S16.3 Dummy seating positioning procedures. The Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy is positioned as follows.

S16.3.1 General provisions and definitions.

S16.3.1.1 All angles are measured with respect to the horizontal plane.

S16.3.1.2 The dummy's neck bracket is adjusted to align the zero degree index marks.

S16.3.1.3 The term "midsagittal plane" refers to the vertical plane that separates the dummy into equal left and right halves.

S16.3.1.4 The term "vertical longitudinal plane" refers to a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline.

S16.3.1.5 The term "vertical plane" refers to a vertical plane, not necessarily parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline.

S16.3.1.6 The term "transverse instrumentation platform" refers to the transverse instrumentation surface inside the dummy's skull casting to which the neck load cell mounts. This surface is perpendicular to the skull cap machined inferior superior mounting surface.

S16.3.1.7. The term "thigh" refers to the femur between, but not including, the knee and the pelvis.

S16.3.1.8 The term "leg" refers to the lower part of the entire leg including the knee.

S16.3.2 Driver dummy positioning.

S16.3.2.1 Driver torso/head/seat back angle positioning.

S16.3.2.1.1 Fully recline the seat back, if adjustable.

S16.3.2.1.2 Install the dummy into the driver's seat. If necessary, move the seat rearward to facilitate dummy installation. If the seat cushion angle automatically changes as the seat is moved from the full forward position, restore the correct seat cushion angle when measuring the pelvic angle as specified in S16.3.2.1.11.

S16.3.2.1.3 Bucket seats. Center the dummy on the seat cushion so that its midsagittal plane is vertical and coincides with the longitudinal center of the seat cushion.

S16.3.2.1.4 Bench seats. Position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertical and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and aligned with the center of the steering wheel rim.

S16.3.2.1.5 Hold the dummy's thighs down and push rearward on the upper torso until the dummy's pelvic angle measures 30 - 35 degrees. If it is not possible to achieve a pelvic angle of at least 30 degrees, maximize the dummy's pelvic angle.

S16.3.2.1.6 Place the legs at 90 degrees to the thighs. Push rearward on the dummy's knees to force the pelvis into the seat so there is no gap between the pelvis and the seat back or until contact occurs between the back of the dummy's calves and the front of the seat cushion such that the angle between the dummy's thighs and legs begins to change.

S16.3.2.1.7 Gently rock the upper torso relative to the lower torso laterally in a side to side motion three times through a 5 degree arc (approximately 51 mm (2 inches) side to side) to reduce friction between the dummy and the seat.

S16.3.2.1.8 Before proceeding, make sure that the seat has been returned to the full forward position if it has been moved from that location as specified in S16.3.2.1.2. Adjust legs if required.

S16.3.2.1.9 While holding the thighs in place, rotate the seat back forward until the transverse instrumentation platform of the head is level to within 0.5 degrees, making sure that the pelvis does not interfere with the seat bight. In addition, inspect the abdomen to insure that it is properly installed.

S16.3.2.1.10 If it is not possible to achieve the head level within 0.5 degrees, minimize the angle and continue to S16.3.2.1.11.

S16.3.2.1.11 Measure and set the dummy's pelvic angle using the pelvic angle gage (drawing TE-2504, incorporated by reference in Part 572, subpart O of this chapter). The angle shall be set to within 20.0 degrees 2.5 degrees. If this is not possible, adjust the pelvic angle as close to 20.0 degrees 2.5 degrees as possible while keeping the transverse instrumentation platform of the head as level as possible as specified in S16.3.2.1.9 and S16.3.2.1.10.

S16.3.2.1.12. If the transverse instrumentation platform of the head is still not level, adjust the seat back angle to minimize the angle as much as possible.

S16.3.2.1.13 In vehicles with a fixed seat back, the lower neck bracket can be adjusted to level the head within 0.5 degrees or to minimize the angle as much as possible.

S16.3.2.2 Driver thigh/knee/leg positioning.

S16.3.2.2.1 Rest the dummy's thighs against the seat cushion to the extent permitted by the placement of the feet in S16.3.2.3.

S16.3.2.2.2 Set the initial transverse distance between the longitudinal centerline of the dummy's thighs at the knees at 160 to 170 mm (6.3 to 6.7 inches), with the thighs and legs of the dummy in vertical longitudinal planes.

S16.3.2.2.3. Move the dummy's right foot to the accelerator pedal by rotating the entire right thigh and leg at the dummy's hip joint while maintaining the dummy's torso setting.

S16.3.2.2.4 If either knee of the dummy is in contact with the vehicle interior, translate the thigh(s) and leg(s) at the hip joint inboard or outboard with respect to the dummy midsagittal plane until no contact occurs while maintaining the thigh and leg in a vertical plane.

S16.3.2.2.5 If contact still occurs, rotate the thigh(s) and leg(s) laterally at the hip joint with respect to the dummy midsagittal plane so that it is no longer in the vertical plane and no contact occurs.

S16.3.2.3 Driver feet positioning.

S16.3.2.3.1 Rest the right foot of the dummy on the undepressed accelerator pedal with the rearmost point of the heel on the floor pan in the plane of the pedal.

S16.3.2.3.2 If the ball of the foot does not contact the pedal, change the angle of the foot relative to the leg such that the toe of the foot contacts the undepressed accelerator pedal.

S16.3.2.3.3 If the foot still cannot contact the undepressed accelerator pedal, place the toe of the foot as close as possible to the pedal.

S16.3.2.3.4 Place the left foot on the toe board with the rearmost point of the heel resting on the floor pan as close as possible to the point of intersection of the planes described by the toe board and the floor pan.

S16.3.2.3.5 If the left foot cannot be positioned on the toe board, place the foot flat on the floor pan as far forward as possible.

S16.3.2.3.6 If the left foot does not contact the floor pan, place the foot parallel to the floor and place the leg as perpendicular to the thigh as possible.

S16.3.2.4 Driver arm/hand positioning.

S16.3.2.4.1 Place the dummy's upper arm adjacent to the torso with the arm centerlines as close to vertical as possible.

S16.3.2.4.2 Place the palms of the dummy in contact with the outer part of the steering wheel rim at its horizontal centerline with the thumbs inside the steering wheel rim.

S16.3.2.4.3 If it is not possible to position the thumbs inside the steering wheel rim at its horizontal centerline, then position them above and as close to the horizontal centerline of the steering wheel rim as possible.

S16.3.2.4.4 Lightly tape the hands to the steering wheel rim so that if the hand of the test dummy is pushed upward by a force of not less than 9 N (2 pounds) and not more than 22 N (5 pounds), the tape releases the hand from the steering wheel rim.

S16.3.3 Passenger dummy positioning.

S16.3.3.1 Passenger torso/head/seat back angle positioning.

S16.3.3.1.1 Fully recline the seat back, if adjustable.

S16.3.3.1.2 Install the dummy into the passenger's seat. If necessary, move the seat rearward to facilitate dummy installation. If the seat cushion angle automatically changes as the seat is moved from the full forward position, restore the correct seat cushion angle when measuring the pelvic angle in S16.3.3.1.11.

S16.3.3.1.3 Bucket seats. Center the dummy on the seat cushion so that its midsagittal plane is vertical and coincides with the longitudinal center of the seat cushion.

S16.3.3.1.4 Bench seats. The midsagittal plane shall be vertical and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the midsaggital plane of the driver dummy.

S16.3.3.1.5. Hold the dummy's thighs down and push rearward on the upper torso until the dummy's pelvic angle measures 30 - 35 degrees. If it is not possible to achieve a pelvic angle of at least 30 degrees, maximize the dummy's pelvic angle.

S16.3.3.1.6 Place the legs at 90 degrees to the thighs. Push rearward on the dummy's knees to force the pelvis into the seat so there is no gap between the pelvis and the seat back or until contact occurs between the back of the dummy's calves and the front of the seat cushion such that the angle of the dummy's legs begins to change.

S16.3.3.1.7 Gently rock the upper torso relative to the lower torso laterally side to side three times through a 5 degree arc (approximately 51 mm (2 inches) side to side) to reduce friction between the dummy and the seat.

S16.3.3.1.8 Before proceeding, make sure that the seat has been returned to the full forward position if it had been moved from that location as specified in S16.3.3.1.2.

S16.3.3.1.9 While holding the thighs in place, rotate the seat back forward until the transverse instrumentation platform of the head is level to within 0.5 degrees, making sure that the pelvis does not interfere with the seat bite. In addition, inspect the abdomen to insure that it is properly installed.

S16.3.3.1.10 If it is not possible to achieve the head level within 0.5 degrees, minimize the angle and continue to S16.3.3.1.11.

S16.3.3.1.11 Measure and set the dummy's pelvic angle using the pelvic angle gage (drawing TE-2504, incorporated by reference in Part 572, Subpart O of this chapter). The angle shall be set within 20.0 degrees 2.5 degrees. If this is not possible, adjust the pelvic angle as close to 20.0 degrees 2.5 degrees as possible while keeping the transverse instrumentation platform of the head as level as specified in S16.3.3.1.9 and S16.3.3.1.10.

S16.3.3.1.12 If the transverse instrumentation platform of the head is still not level, adjust the seat back angle to minimize the angle as much as possible.

S16.3.3.1.13 In vehicles with a fixed seat back, the lower neck bracket can be adjusted to level the head within 0.5 degrees or to minimize the angle as much as possible.

S16.3.3.2 Passenger thigh/knee/leg positioning.

S16.3.3.2.1 Rest the dummy's thighs against the seat cushion to the extent permitted by the placement of the feet in S16.3.3.3.

S16.3.3.2.2 Set the initial transverse distance between the longitudinal centerline of the dummy's thighs at the knees at 160 to 170 mm (6.3 to 6.7 inches), with the thighs and legs of the dummy in vertical longitudinal planes.

S16.3.3.2.3 If either knee of the dummy is in contact with the vehicle interior translate the thigh(s) and leg(s) at the hip joint inboard or outboard with respect to the dummy midsagittal plane until no contact occurs while maintaining the thigh and leg in a vertical plane.

S16.3.3.2.4 If contact still occurs, rotate the thigh(s) and leg(s) laterally at the hip joint with respect to the dummy midsagittal plane so that it is no longer in the vertical plane and no contact occurs.

S16.3.3.3 Passenger feet positioning.

S16.3.3.3.1 Place the passenger's feet flat on the floor pan as far forward as possible.

S16.3.3.3.2 If either foot does not entirely contact the floor pan, place the foot parallel to the floor and place the legs as perpendicular to the thighs as possible.

S16.3.3.4 Passenger arm/hand positioning.

S16.3.3.4.1 Place the dummy's upper arms in contact with the upper seat back and adjacent to the torso.

S16.3.3.4.2 Place the palms of the dummy in contact with the outside of the thigh.

S16.3.3.4.3 Place the little fingers in contact with the seat cushion.

S16.3.4 Driver and passenger head restraint adjustment.

S16.3.4.1. Place each adjustable head restraint so that the vertical center of the head restraint is aligned with the center of gravity (CG) of the dummy head.

S16.3.4.2 If the above position is not attainable, move the vertical center of the head restraint to the closest detent below the center of the head CG.

S16.3.4.3 If the head restraint has a fore and aft adjustment, place the restraint in the forwardmost position or until contact with the head is made.

S16.3.4.4 If the head restraint has an automatic adjustment, leave it where the system positions the restraint after the dummy is placed in the seat.

S16.3.5 Driver and passenger manual belt adjustment (This applies only for tests conducted with a belted dummy.)

S16.3.5.1 If an adjustable seat belt D-ring anchorage exists, place it in the full down position.

S16.3.5.2 Place the Type 2 manual belt around the test dummy and fasten the latch.

S16.3.5.3 Ensure that the dummy's head remains as level as possible, as specified in S16.3.2.1.9 and S16.3.2.1.10.

S16.3.5.4 Remove all slack from the lap belt. Pull the upper torso webbing out of the retractor and allow it to retract; repeat this operation four times. Apply a 9 N (2 pound force) to 18 N (4 pound force) tension load to the lap belt. If the belt system is equipped with a tension-relieving device, introduce the maximum amount of slack into the upper torso belt that is recommended by the manufacturer in the owner's manual for the vehicle. If the belt system is not equipped with a tension-relieving device, allow the excess webbing in the shoulder belt to be retracted by the retractive force of the retractor.

S17 Offset frontal deformable barrier requirements using 5th percentile adult female dummies.

S17.1 Each vehicle subject to S17 of this standard shall, at each front outboard designated seating position, meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard when the vehicle is crash tested in accordance with the procedures specified in S18.1(a) of this standard with the Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy restrained by a Type 2 seat belt assembly. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S17.2 Each vehicle subject to S17 of this standard shall, at each front outboard designated seating position, meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard when the vehicle is crash tested in accordance with the procedures specified in S18.1(b) of this standard with the dummy unbelted. A vehicle shall not be deemed to be in noncompliance with this paragraph if its manufacturer establishes that it did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such vehicle is not in conformity with the requirements of this paragraph.

S18 Test procedure for offset frontal deformable barrier requirements using 5th percentile adult female dummies.

S18.1 General provisions. Crash testing to determine compliance with the requirements of S17 of this standard is conducted as specified in the following paragraphs (a) and (b).

(a) Belted test. Place a Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy at each front outboard seating position of a vehicle, in accordance with procedures specified in S16.3 of this standard, including S16.3.5. Impact the vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, up to and including 40 km/h (25 mph), into a fixed offset deformable barrier under the conditions specified in S18.2 of this standard, impacting only the driver side of the vehicle. The dummies shall meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard.

(b) Unbelted test. Place a Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy at each front outboard seating position of a vehicle, in accordance with procedures specified in S16.3 of this standard, but not including S16.3.5. Impact the vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, from 35.4 km/h (22 mph) to 56 km/h (35 mph), inclusive, into a fixed offset deformable barrier under the conditions specified in S18.2 of this standard. The dummies shall meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard.

S18.2 Test conditions.

S18.2.1 Offset frontal deformable barrier. The offset frontal deformable barrier shall conform to the specifications set forth in Subpart B of Part 587 of this chapter.

S18.2.2 General test conditions. All of the test conditions specified in S16.2 of this standard apply.

S18.2.3 Dummy seating procedures. Position the anthropomorphic test dummies as specified in S16.3 of this standard.

S18.2.4 Impact configuration. The test vehicle shall impact the barrier with the longitudinal line of the vehicle parallel to the line of travel and perpendicular to the barrier face. The test vehicle shall be aligned so that the vehicle strikes the barrier with 40 percent overlap on either the left or right side of the vehicle, with the vehicle's width engaging the barrier face such that the vehicle's longitudinal centerline is offset outboard of the edge of the barrier face by 10 percent of the vehicle's width +/- 25 mm (1.0 inch) as illustrated in Figure 10. The vehicle width is defined as the maximum dimension measured across the widest part of the vehicle, including bumpers and molding but excluding such components as exterior mirrors, flexible mud flaps, marker lamps, and dual rear wheel configurations.

S19 Requirements to provide protection for infants in rear facing child restraints.

S19.1 Each vehicle shall, at the option of the manufacturer, meet the requirements specified in S19.2 or S19.3, under the test procedures specified in S20.

S19.2 Option 1--Automatic suppression feature. Each vehicle shall meet the requirements specified in S19.2.1 through S19.2.2.

S19.2.1 The vehicle shall be equipped with an automatic suppression feature for the passenger air bag which results in deactivation of the air bag during each of the static tests specified in S20.2 (using the Part 572 Subpart R 12-month-old CRABI child dummy restrained in any of the child restraints set forth in sections B and C of Appendix A to this standard ), and activation of the air bag during each of the static tests specified in S20.3 (using the Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile Hybrid III adult female dummy).

S19.2.2 The vehicle shall be equipped with a mechanism that indicates whether the occupant restraint system is suppressed. The mechanism need not be located in the occupant compartment.

S19.2.3 The vehicle shall be equipped with a telltale light on the instrument panel which is illuminated whenever the passenger air bag is deactivated and not illuminated whenever the passenger air bag is activated, except that the telltale need not illuminate when the passenger seat is unoccupied. The telltale:

(a) Shall be clearly visible from all front seating positions;

(b) Shall be yellow;

(c) Shall have the identifying words "PASSENGER AIR BAG OFF" on the telltale or within 25 mm (1.0 inch) of the telltale; and

(d) Shall not be combined with the readiness indicator required by S4.5.2 of this standard.

S19.3 Option 2--Low risk deployment. Each vehicle shall meet the injury criteria specified in S19.4 of this standard when the passenger air bag is statically deployed in accordance with the procedures specified in S20.4 of this standard.

S19.4 Injury criteria (12-month-old CRABI dummy).

S19.4.1 All portions of the test dummy and child restraint shall be contained within the outer surfaces of the vehicle passenger compartment.

S19.4.2 The resultant acceleration at the center of gravity of the head shall be such that the expression:

shall not exceed 390 where a is the resultant acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the crash of the vehicle which are separated by not more than a 15 millisecond time interval.

S19.4.3 The resultant acceleration calculated from the output of the thoracic instrumentation shown in drawing [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 50 g's, except for intervals whose cumulative duration is not more than 3 milliseconds.

S19.4.4 The biomechanical neck injury predictor, Nij, shall not exceed a value of 1.0 at any point in time. The following procedure shall be used to compute Nij. The axial force (Fz) and flexion/extension moment about the occipital condyles (My) shall be used to calculate four combined injury predictors, collectively referred to as Nij. These four combined values represent the probability of sustaining each of four primary types of cervical injuries; namely tension-extension (NTE), tension-flexion (NTF), compression-extension (NCE), and compression-flexion (NCF) injuries. Axial force shall be filtered at SAE class 1000 and flexion/extension moment (My) shall be filtered at SAE class 600. Shear force, which shall be filtered at SAE class 600, is used only in conjunction with the measured moment to calculate the effective moment at the location of the occipital condyles. The equation for calculating the Nij criteria is given by

Nij = (Fz / Fzc) + (My / Myc)

where Fzc and Myc are critical values corresponding to:

Fzc = 1465 N (329 lbf) for tension

Fzc = 1465 N (329 lbf) for compression

Myc = 43 Nm (32 lbf-ft) for flexion about occipital condyles

Myc = 17 Nm (13 lbf-ft) for extension about occipital condyles

Each of the four Nij values shall be calculated at each point in time, and all four values shall not exceed 1.0 at any point in time. When calculating NTE and NTF, all compressive loads shall be set to zero. Similarly, when calculating NCE and NCF, all tensile loads shall be set to zero. In a similar fashion, when calculating NTE and NCE, all flexion moments shall be set to zero. Likewise, when calculating NTF and NCF, all extension moments shall be set to zero.

S19.4.5 Test duration for purpose of measuring injury criteria. For tests conducted pursuant to S20.4, the injury criteria shall be met up to 100 milliseconds after the air bag deploys.

S20 Test procedure for S19.

S20.1 General provisions. Tests specifying the use of a rear facing child restraint, a convertible child restraint, or car bed may be conducted using any such restraint listed in sections A, B, and C of Appendix A of this standard. The rear facing child restraint, convertible child restraint, or car bed may be unused or used; if used, there must not be any visible damage prior to the test.

S20.2 Static tests of automatic suppression feature which must result in deactivation of the passenger air bag.

S20.2.1 Test one - belted rear facing and convertible child restraints.

S20.2.1.1 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3 and an additional 25 degrees in the rearward direction (inclusive).

S20.2.1.2 Tests in S20.2.1 may be conducted using any child restraint specified in section B or section C of Appendix A.

S20.2.1.3 If the child restraint is equipped with a handle, tests may be conducted with the handle at either the child restraint manufacturer's recommended position for use in vehicles or in the upright position.

S20.2.1.4 If the child restraint is equipped with a sunshield, tests may be conducted with the sunshield either fully open or fully closed.

S20.2.1.5 Tests may be conducted with the child restraint uncovered or with a towel or blanket weighing up to 1.0 kg (2.2 pounds) placed on or over the child restraint in any of the following positions:

(a) with the blanket covering the top and sides of the child restraint, or

(b) with the blanket placed from the top of the vehicle's seat back to the forwardmost edge of the child restraint.

S20.2.1.6 Locate a vertical plane through the longitudinal centerline of the child restraint. This will be referred to as "Plane A".

S20.2.1.7 Locate a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline through the geometric center of the right front passenger vehicle seat pan. This will be referred to as "Plane B". For vehicles with bench seats, locate a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline through the geometric center of the air bag cover. This will be referred to as "Plane B".

S20.2.1.8 Facing rear.

(a) Align the child restraint system facing rearward such that "Plane A" is aligned with "Plane B".

(b) While maintaining the child restraint position achieved in S20.2.1.8(a), secure the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the child restraint manufacturer's directions regarding proper installation of the restraint in the rear facing mode.

(c) Cinch the vehicle belts to secure the child restraint in accordance with the procedures specified in Standard No. 213, except that any tension from zero up to 134 N (30 pounds) may be used.

(d) Position the Part 572 Subpart R 12-month-old CRABI dummy in the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the child restraint.

(e) Start the vehicle engine and close all vehicle doors. Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S20.2.1.9 Facing forward (convertible restraints only).

(a) Align the child restraint system facing forward such that "Plane A" is aligned with "Plane B".

(b) While maintaining the forward facing position achieved in S20.2.1.9(a), secure the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the child restraint manufacturer's directions regarding proper installation of the restraint in the forward facing mode.

(c) Cinch the vehicle belts to secure the child restraint in accordance with the procedures specified in Standard No. 213, except that any tension from zero up to 134 N (30 pounds) may be used.

(d) Position the Part 572 Subpart R 12-month-old CRABI dummy in the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the child restraint.

(e) Start the vehicle engine and close all vehicle doors. Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S20.2.2 Test two - unbelted rear facing and convertible child restraints.

S20.2.2.1 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3 and an additional 25 degrees in the rearward direction (inclusive).

S20.2.2.2 Tests in S20.2.2 may be conducted using any child restraint specified in section B or section C of Appendix A.

S20.2.2.3 If the child restraint is equipped with a handle, tests may be conducted with the handle at either the child restraint manufacturer's recommended position for use in vehicles or in the upright position.

S20.2.2.4 If the child restraint is equipped with a sunshield, tests may be conducted with the sunshield either fully open or fully closed.

S20.2.2.5 Tests may be conducted with the child restraint uncovered or with a towel or blanket weighing up to 1.0 kg (2.2 pounds) placed on or over the child restraint in any of the following positions:

(a) with the blanket covering the top and sides of the child restraint, or

(b) with the blanket placed from the top of the vehicle's seat back to the forwardmost edge of the child restraint.

S20.2.2.6 Locate a vertical plane through the longitudinal centerline of the child restraint. This will be referred to as "Plane A".

S20.2.2.7 Locate a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline through the geometric center of the right front passenger vehicle seat pan. This will be referred to as "Plane B". For vehicles with bench seats, locate a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline through the geometric center of the air bag cover. This will be referred to as "Plane B".

S20.2.2.8 Facing rear.

(a) Align the child restraint system facing rearward such that "Plane A" is aligned with "Plane B" and adjust the forwardmost part of the child restraint in "Plane A" at any angle up to 45 degrees from "Plane B".

(b) Position the Part 572 Subpart R 12-month-old CRABI dummy in the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the child restraint.

(c) Start the vehicle engine and close all vehicle doors. Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S20.2.2.9 Facing forward.

(a) Align the child restraint system facing forward such that "Plane A" is aligned with "Plane B" and adjust the forwardmost part of the child restraint in "Plane A" at any angle up to 45 degrees from "Plane B".

(b) Position the Part 572 Subpart R 12-month-old CRABI dummy in the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the child restraint.

(c) Start the vehicle engine and close all vehicle doors. Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S20.2.2.10 Facing forward, tipped on instrument panel (convertible child restraints only).

(a) Align the child restraint system facing forward such that "Plane A" is aligned with "Plane B".

(b) Position the Part 572 Subpart R 12-month-old CRABI dummy in the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the child restraint.

(c) Tip the rearwardmost part of the child restraint forward toward the instrument panel, while keeping the bottom portion of the child seat in contact with the vehicle seat. Position the child restraint such that it rests against the instrument panel. If the child restraint cannot reach the instrument panel and remain in contact with the vehicle seat, move the vehicle seat forward until contact can be achieved.

(d) Start the vehicle engine and close all vehicle doors. Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S20.2.3 Test three - belted car bed.

S20.2.3.1 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3 and an additional 25 degrees in the rearward direction (inclusive).

S20.2.3.2 Tests may be conducted using any car bed specified in section A of Appendix A.

S20.2.3.3 If the car bed is equipped with a handle, tests may be conducted with the handle at either the child restraint manufacturer's recommended position for use in vehicles or in the upright position.

S20.2.3.4 If the car bed is equipped with a sunshield, tests may be conducted with the sunshield either fully open or fully closed.

S20.2.3.5 Tests may be conducted with the car bed uncovered or with a towel or blanket weighing up to 1.0 kg (2.2 pounds) placed on or over the child restraint in any of the following positions:

(a) with the blanket covering the top and sides of the car bed, or

(b) with the blanket placed from the top of the vehicle's seat back to the forwardmost edge of the car bed.

S20.2.3.6 Nominal position:

(a) Install the car bed by following to the extent possible the car bed manufacturer's directions regarding proper installation of the car bed.

(b) Cinch the vehicle belts to secure the child restraint in accordance with the procedures specified in Standard No. 213, except that any tension from zero up to 134 N (30 pounds) may be used.

(c) Position the Part 572 Subpart K newborn dummy in the car bed by following, to the extent possible, the car bed manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the car bed.

(d) Start the vehicle engine and close all vehicle doors. Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S20.3 Static tests of automatic suppression feature which must result in activation of the passenger air bag.

S20.3.1 Place the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, any seat height, and any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3 and an additional 25 degrees in the rearward direction (inclusive).

S20.3.2 Place a Part 572 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy at the right front seating position of the vehicle, in accordance with procedures specified in S16.3 of this standard, to the extent possible with the seat position that has been selected pursuant to S20.3.1.

S20.3.3 Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

S20.3.4 Check whether the air bag is activated.

S20.4 Low risk deployment test.

S20.4.1 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat in the full forward seat track position, the highest seat position (if adjustment is available), and adjust the seat back to the nominal design position for a 50th percentile adult male dummy as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

S20.4.2 Tests in S20.4 may be conducted using any child restraint specified in section B or section C of Appendix A.

S20.4.3 Locate a vertical plane through the longitudinal centerline of the child restraint. This will be referred to as "Plane A".

S20.4.4 Locate a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline through the geometric center of the air bag cover. This will be referred to as "Plane B".

S20.4.4 Align the child restraint system facing rearward such that "Plane A" is aligned with "Plane B".

S20.4.5 While maintaining the child restraint position achieved in S20.4.4, secure the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the child restraint manufacturer's directions regarding proper installation of the restraint in the rear facing mode.

S20.4.6 Position the Part 572 subpart R 12-month-old CRABI dummy in the child restraint by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating infants provided with the child restraint.

S20.4.7 Deploy the right front passenger air bag system. If the air bag contains a multistage inflator, any stage or combination of stages may be fired that could deploy in the presence of an infant in a rear-facing child restraint positioned according to S20.2.1 or S20.2.2 in a rigid barrier crash test at speeds up to 64 km/h (40 mph).

S21 Requirements using 3 year old child dummies.

S21.1 Each vehicle shall, at the option of the manufacturer, meet the requirements specified in S21.2, S21.3, or S21.4 under the test procedures specified in S22.

S21.2 Option 1--Automatic suppression feature that always suppresses the air bag when a child is present. Each vehicle shall meet the requirements specified in S21.2.1 through S21.2.2.

S21.2.1 The vehicle shall be equipped with an automatic suppression feature for the passenger air bag which results in deactivation of the air bag during each of the static tests specified in S22.2 (using a child or a Part 572 Subpart P Hybrid III 3-year-old child dummy), and activation of the air bag during each of the static tests specified in S20.3 (using a female or a Part 572 Subpart O Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female dummy).

S21.2.2 The vehicle shall be equipped with a mechanism that indicates whether the occupant restraint system is suppressed. The mechanism need not be located in the occupant compartment.

S21.2.3 The vehicle shall be equipped with a telltale light on the instrument panel meeting the requirements specified in S19.2.3.

S21.3 Option 2-Dynamic automatic suppression system that suppresses the air bag when an occupant is out of position. (This option is available under the conditions set forth in S27.1.) The vehicle shall be equipped with a dynamic automatic suppression system for the passenger air bag which meets the requirements specified in S27.

S21.4 Option 3--Low risk deployment. Each vehicle shall meet the injury criteria specified in S21.5 of this standard when the passenger air bag is statically deployed in accordance with the low risk deployment test procedures specified in S22.3.

S21.5 Injury criteria for Hybrid III 3-year-old child dummy.

S21.5.1 All portions of the test dummy shall be contained within the outer surfaces of the vehicle passenger compartment.

S21.5.2 The resultant acceleration at the center of gravity of the head shall be such that the expression:

shall not exceed 570 where a is the resultant acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the crash of the vehicle which are separated by not more than a 15 millisecond time interval.

S21.5.3 The resultant acceleration calculated from the output of the thoracic instrumentation shown in drawing [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 55 g's, except for intervals whose cumulative duration is not more than 3 milliseconds.

S21.5.4 Compression deflection of the sternum relative to the spine, as determined by instrumentation shown in drawing [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 34 millimeters (1.3 inches).

S21.5.5 The biomechanical neck injury predictor, Nij, shall not exceed a value of 1.0 at any point in time. The following procedure shall be used to compute Nij. The axial force (Fz) and flexion/extension moment about the occipital condyles (My) shall be used to calculate four combined injury predictors, collectively referred to as Nij. These four combined values represent the probability of sustaining each of four primary types of cervical injuries; namely tension-extension (NTE), tension-flexion (NTF), compression-extension (NCE), and compression-flexion (NCF) injuries. Axial force shall be filtered at SAE class 1000 and flexion/extension moment (My) shall be filtered at SAE class 600. Shear force, which shall be filtered at SAE class 600, is used only in conjunction with the measured moment to calculate the effective moment at the location of the occipital condyles. The equation for calculating the Nij criteria is given by

Nij = (Fz / Fzc) + (My / Myc)

where Fzc and Myc are critical values corresponding to:

Fzc = 2120 N (477 lbf) for tension

Fzc = 2120 N (477 lbf) for compression

Myc = 68 Nm (50 lbf-ft) for flexion about occipital condyles

Myc = 27 Nm (20 lbf-ft) for extension about occipital condyles

Each of the four Nij values shall be calculated at each point in time, and all four values shall not exceed 1.0 at any point in time. When calculating NTE and NTF, all compressive loads shall be set to zero. Similarly, when calculating NCE and NCF, all tensile loads shall be set to zero. In a similar fashion, when calculating NTE and NCE, all flexion moments shall be set to zero. Likewise, when calculating NTF and NCF, all extension moments shall be set to zero.

S21.5.5 Test duration for purpose of measuring injury criteria. For tests conducted pursuant to S22.3, the injury criteria shall be met up to 100 milliseconds after the air bag deploys.

S22 Test procedure for S21.

S22.1 General provisions and definitions.

S22.1.1 Tests specifying the use of a forward-facing child seat or booster seat may be conducted using any such seat listed in section C and section D of Appendix A of this standard. The child restraint may be unused or used; if used, there must not be any visible damage prior to the test.

S22.1.2 The definitions provided in S16.3.1 apply to the tests specified in S22.

S22.2 Static tests of automatic suppression feature which must result in deactivation of the passenger air bag when a child is present.

S22.2.1 Test one--child in a forward-facing child seat or booster seat.

S22.2.1.1 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3.

S22.2.1.2 Install the forward-facing child seat or booster seat in the right front passenger seat in accordance, to the extent possible, with the child restraint manufacturer's instructions provided with the seat.

S22.2.1.3 Cinch the vehicle belts to secure the child restraint in accordance with the procedures specified in Standard No. 213, except that any tension from zero up to 134 N (30 pounds) may be used.

S22.2.1.4 Position the Part 572 Subpart P Hybrid III 3-year-old child dummy seated in the forward-facing child seat or booster seat such that the dummy's lower torso is centered on the forward-facing child seat or booster seat cushion and the dummy's spine is parallel to the forward-facing child seat or booster seat back or, if there is no booster seat back, the vehicle seat back. Place the lower arms at the dummy's side.

S22.2.1.5 Attach all appropriate forward-facing child seat or booster seat belts, if any, by following, to the extent possible, the manufacturer's instructions for seating children provided with the child restraint.

S22.2.1.6 Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

S22.2.1.7 Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S22.2.2 Test two--unbelted child.

S22.2.2.1 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3.

S22.2.2.2 Place the Part 572 Hybrid III 3-year old child dummy on the right front passenger seat in any of the following positions (without using a forward-facing child restraint or booster seat or the vehicle's seat belts):

(a) Sitting on seat with back against seat.

(1) Position the dummy in the seated position and place it on the right front passenger seat;

(2) Position the upper torso of the dummy against the seat back. In the case of vehicles equipped with bench seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the center of the steering wheel rim. In the case of vehicles equipped with bucket seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically such that it coincides with the longitudinal centerline of the bucket seat. Position the dummy's thighs against the seat cushion.

(3) Allow the legs of the dummy to extend off the surface of the seat. If this positioning of the dummy's legs is prevented by contact with the instrument panel, rotate the leg toward the floor until there is no contact with the instrument panel.

(4) Rotate the dummy's upper arms down until they contact the seat.

(5) Rotate the dummy's lower arms until the dummy's hands contact the seat.

(6) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(7) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(b) Sitting on seat with back not against seat:

(1) Position the dummy in the seated position and place it on the right front passenger seat.

(2) In the case of vehicles equipped with bench seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the center of the steering wheel rim. In the case of vehicles equipped with bucket seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically such that it coincides with the longitudinal centerline of the bucket seat. Position the dummy so that the horizontal distance from the dummy's back to the seat back is no less than 25 mm (1 inch) and no more than 150 mm (6 inches), as measured from the dummy's mid-sagittal plane at the mid-sternum level.

(3) Position the dummy's femurs against the seat cushion.

(4) Allow the legs of the dummy to extend off the surface of the seat. If this positioning the dummy's legs is prevented by contact with the instrument panel, rotate the leg toward the floor until there is no contact with the instrument panel.

(5) Rotate the dummy's lower arms until the dummy's hands contact the seat.

(6) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(7) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(c) Sitting on seat edge, spine vertical, hands by the dummy's side:

(1) In the case of vehicles equipped with bench seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the center of the steering wheel rim. In the case of vehicles equipped with bucket seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically such that it coincides with the longitudinal centerline of the bucket seat. Position the dummy in the seated position and place it on the right front passenger seat with the dummy's legs positioned 90 degrees (i.e., right angle) from the horizontal.

(2) Position the dummy forward in the seat such that the legs rest against the front of the seat with the spine in the vertical direction. If the dummy's feet contact the floorboard, rotate the legs forward until the dummy is resting on the seat with the feet positioned flat on the floorboard and the dummy spine vertical.

(3) Extend the dummy's arms directly in front of the dummy parallel to the floor of the vehicle.

(4) Lower the dummy's arms such that they contact the seat.

(5) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(6) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(d) Standing on seat, facing forward:

(1) Position the dummy in the standing position. The arms may be at any position.

(2) In the case of vehicles equipped with bench seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the center of the steering wheel rim. In the case of vehicles equipped with bucket seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically such that it coincides with the longitudinal centerline of the bucket seat. Position the dummy on the right front passenger seat cushion facing the front of the vehicle while placing the heels of the dummy feet in contact with the seat back.

(3) Rest the dummy against the seat back.

(4) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(5) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(e) Kneeling on seat, facing forward:

(1) Position the dummy in a kneeling position by rotating the dummy's legs 90 degrees behind the dummy (from the standing position).

(2) In the case of vehicles equipped with bench seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the center of the steering wheel rim. In the case of vehicles equipped with bucket seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically such that it coincides with the longitudinal centerline of the bucket seat. Position the kneeling dummy in the right front passenger seat with the dummy facing the front of the vehicle. Position the dummy such that the dummy's toes are in contact with the seat back. The arms may be at any position.

(3) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(4) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(f) Kneeling on seat, facing rearward:

(1) Position the dummy in a kneeling position by rotating the dummy's legs 90 degrees behind the dummy (from the standing position).

(2) In the case of vehicles equipped with bench seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically and parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline as the center of the steering wheel rim. In the case of vehicles equipped with bucket seats, position the midsagittal plane of the dummy vertically such that it coincides with the longitudinal centerline of the bucket seat. Position the kneeling dummy in the right front passenger seat with the dummy facing the rear of the vehicle. Position the dummy such that the dummy's head is in contact with the seat back. The arms may be at any position.

(3) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(4) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(g) Lying on seat:

(1) Lay the dummy on the right front passenger seat such that the following criteria are met:

(A) The mid-sagittal plane of the dummy is horizontal,

(B) The dummy's spine is perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal axis,

(C) The dummy's upper arms are parallel to its spine,

(D) A plane passing through the two shoulder joints of the dummy is vertical and intersects the geometric center of the seat bottom (the seat bottom is the plan view part of the seat from the forward most part of the seat back to the forward most part of the seat),

(E) The anterior of the dummy is facing the vehicle front, and the head is positioned towards the passenger door, and

(F) Leg position is not set and can be articulated to fit above conditions.

(2) If the top of the dummy's head is not within 50 to 100 mm (2- 4 inches) of the vehicle side door structure, translate the dummy laterally so that the top of the dummy head is 50 to 100 mm (2- 4 inches) from the vehicle door structure.

(3) Rotate the thighs toward the chest of the dummy and rotate the legs against the thighs.

(4) Place the dummy's upper left arm parallel to the vehicle's transverse plane and the lower arm 90 degrees to the upper arm. Rotate the left lower arm down about the elbow joint until movement is obstructed. The final position should resemble a fetal position.

(5) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(6) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(h) Low risk deployment test position 1.

(1) Position the dummy in accordance with the position set forth in S22.3.2.

(2) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(3) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

(i) Sitting on seat edge, head contacting the mid-face of the instrument panel.

(1) Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's rib cage or sternum plate. (The vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

(2) Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the air bag module cover. This will be referred to as "Point B".

(3) Locate the horizontal plane that passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 1".

(4) "Plane 2" is defined as the vertical plane which passes through Point B and is parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal axis.

(5) Move the passenger seat to the full rearward seating position.

(6) Place the dummy in the front passenger seat such that:

(A) Point A is located in Plane 2.

(B) A vertical plane through the shoulder joints of the dummy is 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

(C) The legs are positioned 90 degrees (right angle) from horizontal.

(D) The dummy is positioned forward in the seat such that the legs rest against the front of the seat and such that the dummy's upper spine plate is vertical.

(7) Rotate the dummy's torso by applying a force towards the front of the vehicle on the spine of the dummy between the shoulder joints. Continue applying force until the head C.G. is in Plane 1, or the spine angle at the upper spine plate is 45 degrees, whichever produces the greatest rotation.

(8) Move the seat forward until the dummy comes in contact with the forward structure of the vehicle, or the seat is full forward, whichever occurs first.

(9) To keep the dummy in position, a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) that does not interfere with the suppression device may be used to hold the dummy.

(10) Start the vehicle engine and then close all vehicle doors.

(11) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S22.3 Low risk deployment test (Hybrid III 3-year-old child dummy).

S22.3.1 Position the dummy according to any of the following positions: Position 1 (S22.3.2) or Position 2 (S22.3.3).

S22.3.2 Position 1 (chest on instrument panel).

S22.3.2.1 Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's chest/rib plate (the vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

S22.3.2.2 Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the air bag module cover. This is referred to as "Point B."

S22.3.2.3 Locate the horizontal plane that passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 1."

S22.3.2.4 Locate the vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis and passing through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 2."

S22.3.2.5 Move the passenger seat to the full rearward seating position. Place the seat back in the nominal design position for a 50th percentile adult male dummy (S8.1.3) as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

S22.3.2.6 Place the dummy in the front passenger seat such that:

S22.3.2.6.1 Point A is located in Plane 2.

S22.3.2.6.2 A vertical plane through the dummy shoulder joints is at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S22.3.2.6.3 The legs are positioned 90 degrees to the thighs.

S22.3.2.6.4 The dummy is positioned forward in the seat such that the dummy's upper spine plate is vertical, and the legs rest against the front of the seat.

S22.3.2.7 Move the dummy forward until the upper torso or head of the dummy makes contact with the instrument panel of the vehicle.

S22.3.2.8 Once contact is made, raise the dummy vertically until Point A lies within Plane 1 (the vertical height to the center of the air bag) or until a minimum clearance of 6 mm (0.25 inches) between the dummy head and the windshield is attained. If additional height is required, the dummy may be raised with the use of spacers (foam blocks, etc.) placed on the floor of the vehicle.

S22.3.2.9 Position the upper arms parallel to the spine and rotate the lower arms forward (at the elbow joint) sufficiently to prevent contact with or support from the seat.

S22.3.2.10 Position the lower limbs of the dummy so that the feet rest flat on the floorboard (or the feet are positioned parallel to the floorboard) of the vehicle and the legs are vertical. If necessary, raise the dummy vertically with the use of spacers (foam blocks, etc.) placed on the floor of the vehicle.

S22.3.2.11 Support the dummy so that there is minimum interference with the full rotational and translational freedom for the upper torso of the dummy.

S22.3.2.12 If necessary, tether the upper torso with a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) such that the tether is not situated in the air bag deployment envelope.

S22.3.3 Position 2 (head on instrument panel).

S22.3.3.1 Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's chest/rib plate (the vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

S22.3.3.2 Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the air bag module cover. This will be referred to as "Point B."

S22.3.3.3 Locate the vertical plane which passes through Point B and is parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis. This will be referred to as "Plane 2."

S22.3.3.4 Move the passenger seat to the full rearward seating position. Place the seat back in the nominal design position for a 50th percentile adult male (S8.1.3) as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

S22.3.3.4 Place the dummy in the front passenger seat such that:

S22.3.3.4.1 Point A is located in Plane 2.

S22.3.3.4.2 A vertical plane through the shoulder joints of the dummy is at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S22.3.3.4.3 The legs are positioned 90 degrees (right angle) from horizontal.

S22.3.3.4.4 The dummy is positioned forward in the seat such that the legs rest against the front of the seat and such that the dummy's upper spine plate is from vertical. Note: For some seats, it may not be possible to position the dummy with the legs in the prescribed position. In this situation, rotate the legs forward until the dummy is resting on the seat with the feet positioned flat on the floorboard and the dummy's upper spine plate is vertical.

S22.3.3.5 Move the seat forward, while maintaining the upper spine plate orientation until some portion of the dummy contacts the vehicle's instrument panel.

S22.3.3.5.1 If contact has not been made with the vehicle's instrument panel at the full forward seating position of the seat, slide the dummy forward on the seat until contact is made. Maintain the upper spine plate orientation.

S22.3.3.5.2 Once contact is made, rotate the dummy forward until the head and/or upper torso are in contact with the vehicle's instrument panel. Rotation is achieved by applying a force towards the front of the vehicle on the spine of the dummy between the shoulder joints.

S22.3.3.5.3 Rotate the thighs downward and rotate the legs and feet rearward (toward the rear of vehicle) so as not to impede the rotation of the head/torso into the vehicle's instrument panel.

S22.3.3.5.4 Reposition the legs so that the feet rest flat on (or parallel to) the floorboard with each ankle joint positioned as nearly as possible to the midsaggital plane of the dummy.

S22.3.3.5.5 If necessary, tether the upper torso with a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) and/or place a wedge under the dummy's pelvis. The tether may not be situated in the air bag deployment envelope. Note: If contact with the instrument panel cannot be made by sliding the dummy forward in the seat, then place the dummy in the forward-most position on the seat that will allow the head/upper torso to rest against the instrument panel of the vehicle.

S22.3.3.6 Position the upper arms parallel to the upper spine plate and rotate the lower arm forward sufficiently to prevent contact with or support from the seat.

S22.3.4 Deploy the right front passenger air bag. If the air bag contains a multistage inflator, any stage or combination of stages may be fired that could deploy in crashes at or below 29 km/h (18 mph), under the test procedure specified in S22.4.

S22.4 Test procedure for determining stages of air bags subject to low risk deployment test requirement. In the case of an air bag with a multistage inflator, any stage or combination of stages that fires in the following rigid barrier test may be deployed when conducting the low risk deployment tests described in S22.3, S24.4, and S26.3. Impact the vehicle traveling longitudinally forward at any speed, up to and including 29 km/h (18 mph), into a fixed rigid barrier that is perpendicular 5 degrees to the line of travel of the vehicle under the applicable conditions of S8 of this standard.

S23 Requirements using 6-year-old child dummies.

S23.1 Each vehicle shall, at the option of the manufacturer, meet the requirements specified in S23.2, S23.3, or S23.4, under the test procedures specified in S24.

S23.2 Option 1--Automatic suppression feature that always suppresses the air bag when a child is present. Each vehicle shall meet the requirements specified in S23.2.1 through S23.2.2.

S23.2.1 The vehicle shall be equipped with an automatic suppression feature for the passenger air bag which results in deactivation of the air bag during each of the static tests specified in S24.2 (using a Part 572 Subpart N Hybrid III 6-year-old child dummy), and activation of the air bag during each of the static tests specified in S20.3 (using a Part 572 Subpart O Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female dummy).

S23.2.2 The vehicle shall be equipped with a mechanism that indicates whether the occupant restraint system is suppressed. The mechanism need not be located in the occupant compartment.

S23.2.3 The vehicle shall be equipped with a telltale light on the instrument panel meeting the requirements specified in S19.2.3.

S23.3 Option 2-- Dynamic automatic suppression system that suppresses the air bag when an occupant is out of position. (This option is available under the conditions set forth in S27.1.) The vehicle shall be equipped with a dynamic automatic suppression system for the passenger air bag which meets the requirements specified in S27.

S23.4 Option 3--Low risk deployment. Each vehicle shall meet the injury criteria specified in S23.5 of this standard when the passenger air bag is statically deployed in accordance with the procedures specified in S24.3.

S23.5 Injury criteria (Hybrid III 6-year-old child dummy).

S23.5.1 All portions of the test dummy shall be contained within the outer surfaces of the vehicle passenger compartment.

S23.5.2 The resultant acceleration at the center of gravity of the head shall be such that the expression:

shall not exceed 700 where a is the resultant acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the crash of the vehicle which are separated by not more than a 15 millisecond time interval.

S23.5.3 The resultant acceleration calculated from the output of the thoracic instrumentation shown in drawing [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 60 g's, except for intervals whose cumulative duration is not more than 3 milliseconds.

S23.5.4 Compression deflection of the sternum relative to the spine, as determined by instrumentation [a drawing incorporated by reference in Part 572 would be identified in the final rule] shall not exceed 40 mm (l.6 inches).

S23.5.5 The biomechanical neck injury predictor, Nij, shall not exceed a value of 1.0 at any point in time. The following procedure shall be used to compute Nij. The axial force (Fz) and flexion/extension moment about the occipital condyles (My) shall be used to calculate four combined injury predictors, collectively referred to as Nij. These four combined values represent the probability of sustaining each of four primary types of cervical injuries; namely tension-extension (NTE), tension-flexion (NTF), compression-extension (NCE), and compression-flexion (NCF) injuries. Axial force shall be filtered at SAE class 1000 and flexion/extension moment (My) shall be filtered at SAE class 600. Shear force, which shall be filtered at SAE class 600, is used only in conjunction with the measured moment to calculate the effective moment at the location of the occipital condyles. The equation for calculating the Nij criteria is given by

Nij = (Fz / Fzc) + (My / Myc)

where Fzc and Myc are critical values corresponding to:

Fzc = 2800 N (629 lbf) for tension

Fzc = 2800 N (629 lbf) for compression

Myc = 93 Nm (69 lbf-ft) for flexion about occipital condyles

Myc = 39 Nm (29 lbf-ft) for extension about occipital condyles

Each of the four Nij values shall be calculated at each point in time, and all four values shall not exceed 1.0 at any point in time. When calculating NTE and NTF, all compressive loads shall be set to zero. Similarly, when calculating NCE and NCF, all tensile loads shall be set to zero. In a similar fashion, when calculating NTE and NCE, all flexion moments shall be set to zero. Likewise, when calculating NTF and NCF, all extension moments shall be set to zero.

S23.5.6 Test duration for purpose of measuring injury criteria. For tests conducted pursuant to S23.5, the injury criteria shall be met up to 100 milliseconds after the air bag deploys.

S24 Test procedure for S23.

S24.1 General provisions and definitions. Tests specifying the use of a forward-facing child seat or booster seat may be conducted using any seat listed in Section D of Appendix A of this standard. The seat may be used or unused; if used there must not be any visible damage.

S24.1.2 The definitions provided in S16.3.1 apply to the tests specified in S24.

S24.2 Static tests of automatic suppression feature which must result in deactivation of the passenger air bag when a child is present.

S24.2.1 Except as provided in S24.2.2, all tests specified in S22.2 shall be conducted using the 6-year old Hybrid III child dummy.

S24.2.2 Exceptions. The tests specified in the following paragraphs of S22.2 shall not be conducted using the 6-year-old Hybrid III child dummy: S22.2.2.2(d), (e), (f), (g), and (h).

S24.2.3 Sitting back in the seat and leaning on the right front passenger door (This test is conducted using the 6-year-old Hybrid III child dummy but not the 3-year-old Hybrid III child dummy):

(1) Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3.

(2) Position the dummy in the seated position and place the dummy in the right front passenger seat.

(3) Place the dummy's lower torso on the outboard portion of the seat with the dummy's back against the seat back and the dummy's thighs resting on the seat cushion.

(4) Allow the legs of the dummy to extend off the surface of the seat. If this positioning of the dummy's legs is prevented by contact with the instrument panel, rotate the leg toward the floor until there is no contact with the instrument panel.

(5) Rotate the dummy's upper arms toward the seat back until they make contact.

(6) Rotate the dummy's lower arms down until they contact the seat.

(7) Lean the dummy against the outboard door.

(8) Close the vehicle's passenger-side vehicle and then start the vehicle engine; close all remaining doors.

(9) Check whether the air bag is deactivated.

S24.3 Low risk deployment test (Hybrid III 6-year old child dummy).

S24.3.1 Position the dummy according to any of the following positions: Position 1 (S24.3.2) or Position 2 (S24.3.3).

S24.3.2 Position 1 (chest on instrument panel).

S24.3.2.1 Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's rib cage or sternum plate (the vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

S24.3.2.2 Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the air bag module cover. This will be referred to as "Point B."

S24.3.2.3 Locate the horizontal plane that passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 1."

S24.3.2.4 Locate the vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis and passing through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 2."

S24.3.2.5 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3.

S24.3.2.6 Place the dummy in the front passenger seat such that:

S24.3.2.6.1 Point A is located in Plane 2.

S24.3.2.6.2 A vertical plane through the dummy shoulder joints is at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S24.3.2.6.3 The legs are positioned 90 degrees to the thighs.

S24.3.2.6.4 The dummy is positioned forward in the seat such that the dummy's upper spine plate is 6 degrees forward (toward the front of the vehicle) of the vertical position, and the legs rest against the front of the seat or the feet are resting flat on the floorboard of the vehicle.

S24.3.2.6.5 Mark this position, and remove the legs at the pelvic interface.

S24.3.2.7 Move the dummy forward until the upper torso or head of the dummy makes contact with the vehicle's instrument panel.

S24.3.2.8 Once contact is made, raise the dummy vertically until Point A lies within Plane 1 (the vertical height to the center of the air bag) or until a minimum clearance of 6 mm (0.25 inches) between any part of the dummy head and windshield is attained.

S24.3.2.9 Position the upper arms parallel to the spine and rotate the lower arms forward (at the elbow joint) sufficiently to prevent contact with or support from the seat.

S24.3.2.10 Support the dummy so that there is minimum interference with the full rotational and translational freedom for the upper torso of the dummy.

S24.3.2.10.1 If necessary, tether the upper torso with a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) such that the tether is not situated in the air bag deployment envelope.

S24.3.3 Position 2 (head on instrument panel).

S24.3.3.1 Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's chest/rib plate (the vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

S24.3.3.2 Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the air bag module cover. This will be referred to as "Point B."

S24.3.3.3 Locate the vertical plane which passes through Point B and is parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis. This will be referred to as "Plane 2."

S24.3.3.4 Position the right front passenger vehicle seat at any seat track location, at any seat height, and at any seat back angle between the manufacturer's nominal design position for the 50th percentile adult male as specified in S8.1.3.

S24.3.3.5 Place the dummy in the front passenger seat such that:

S24.3.3.5.1 Point A is located in Plane 2.

S24.3.3.5.2 A vertical plane through the shoulder joints of the dummy is at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S24.3.3.5.3 The legs are positioned 90 degrees (right angle) from horizontal.

S24.3.3.5.4 The dummy is positioned forward in the seat such that the legs rest against the front of the seat and such that the dummy's upper spine plate is 6 degrees forward (toward front of vehicle) of the vertical position. Note: For some seats, it may not be possible to position the dummy with the legs in the prescribed position. In this situation, rotate the legs forward until the dummy is resting on the seat with the feet positioned flat on the floorboard and the dummy's upper spine plate is 6 degrees forward (toward the front of the vehicle) of the vertical position.

S24.3.3.6 Move the seat forward, while maintaining the upper spine plate orientation until some portion of the dummy contacts the vehicle's instrument panel.

S24.3.3.6.1 If contact has not been made with the vehicle's instrument panel at the full forward seating position of the seat, slide the dummy forward on the seat until contact is made. Maintain the upper spine plate orientation.

S24.3.3.6.2 Once contact is made, rotate the dummy forward until the head and/or upper torso are in contact with the vehicle's instrument panel. Rotation is achieved by applying a force towards the front of the vehicle on the spine of the dummy between the shoulder joints.

S24.3.3.6.3 Rotate the legs and feet rearward (toward rear of vehicle) so as not to impede the rotation of the head/torso into the vehicle's instrument panel.

S24.3.3.6.4 Reposition the legs so that the feet rest flat on (or parallel to) the floorboard with the ankle joints positioned as nearly as possible to the midsaggital plane of the dummy.

S24.3.3.6.5 If necessary, tether the upper torso with a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) and/or place a wedge under the dummy's pelvis. The tether may not be situated in the air bag's deployment envelope. Note: If contact with the instrument panel cannot be made by sliding the dummy forward in the seat, then place the dummy in the forward-most position on the seat that will allow the head/upper torso to rest against the vehicle's instrument panel.

S24.3.3.7 Position the upper arms parallel to the torso and rotate the lower arms forward sufficiently to prevent contact with or support from the seat.

S24.3.4 Deploy the right front passenger air bag. If the air bag contains a multistage inflator, any stage or combination of stages may be fired that could deploy in crashes at or below 29 km/h (18 mph), under the test procedure specified in S22.4.

S25 Requirements using an out-of-position 5th percentile adult female dummy at the driver position.

S25.1 Each vehicle shall, at the option of the manufacturer, meet the requirements specified in S25.2 or S25.3 of this standard.

S25.2 Option 1-- Dynamic automatic suppression system. (This option is available under the conditions set forth in S27.1.) The vehicle shall be equipped with a dynamic automatic suppression system for the driver air bag which meets the requirements specified in S27.

S25.3 Option 2--Low risk deployment. Each vehicle shall meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard when the driver air bag is statically deployed in accordance with the procedures specified in S26 of this standard.

S26 Test procedure for low risk deployment of driver-side air bag.

S26.1 Position the Part 571 Subpart O 5th percentile adult female test dummy according to any of the following positions: Driver position 1 (S26.2) or Driver position 2 (S26.3).

S26.2 Driver position 1 (chin on module).

26.2.1 Adjust the steering controls so that the steering wheel hub is at the geometric center of the locus it describes when it is moved through its full range of driving positions. If there is no setting at the geometric center, position it one setting lower than the geometric center.

S26.2.2 Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the steering wheel. This will be referred to as "Point B."

S26.2.3 Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's rib cage or sternum plate (the vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

S26.2.4 Locate the horizontal plane that passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 1."

S26.2.5 Locate the vertical plane perpendicular to Plane 1 and parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis which passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 2."

S26.2.6 Move the driver seat to the full rearward seating position. Place the seat back in the nominal design position for a 50th percentile adult male (S8.1.3) as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

S26.2.7 Place the dummy in the seat such that:

S26.2.7.1 Point A is located in Plane 2.

S26.2.7.2 A vertical plane through the dummy shoulder joints is at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S26.2.7.3 The legs are positioned 90 degrees to the thighs.

S26.2.7.4 Rotate the dummy forward until its upper spine plate angle is 6 degrees forward (toward the front of the vehicle) of the steering wheel angle.

S26.2.8 Adjust the height of the dummy so that the bottom of the chin is in the same horizontal plane as the highest point of the module cover (dummy height can be adjusted using the seat position and/or spacer blocks). If the seat height prevents the bottom of chin from being in the same horizontal plane as the module cover, adjust the dummy height to as close to the prescribed position as possible.

S26.2.9 Move the dummy forward, maintaining the upper spine plate angle and dummy height until the head or torso contacts the steering wheel.

S26.2.10 If necessary, a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) may be used to hold the dummy against the steering wheel. Position the thread so as to eliminate or minimize any contact with the deploying air bag.

S26.3 Driver position 2 (chin on rim).

S26.3.1 The driver's seat track is not specified and may be positioned to best facilitate the positioning of the dummy.

S26.3.2 Locate the point on the air bag module cover that is the geometric center of the steering wheel. This will be referred to as "Point B."

S26.3.3 Locate and mark the center point of the dummy's rib cage or sternum plate (the vertical mid-point on the mid-sagittal plane of the frontal chest plate of the dummy). This will be referred to as "Point A."

S26.3.4 Locate the horizontal plane that passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 1."

S26.3.5 Locate the vertical plane perpendicular to Plane 1 which passes through Point B. This will be referred to as "Plane 2."

S26.3.6 Place the dummy in the front driver seat so that Point A is located in Plane 2.

S26.3.7 Rotate the dummy forward until its upper spine plate is 6 degrees forward (toward the front of the vehicle) of the steering wheel angle.

S26.3.8 Position the dummy so that the center of the chin is in contact with the uppermost portion of the rim of the steering wheel. Do not hook the chin over the top of the rim of the steering wheel. Position the chin to rest on the upper edge of the rim, without loading the neck. If the dummy head contacts the vehicle upper interior before the prescribed position can be obtained, the dummy height may be adjusted as close to the prescribed position as possible, while maintaining a 10 2 mm (0.4 .08 inches) clearance from the vehicle's upper interior.

S26.3.9 To raise the height of the dummy to attain the required positioning, spacer blocks (foam, etc.) may be placed on the driver's seat beneath the dummy. If necessary, a thread with a maximum breaking strength of 311 N (70 pounds) is used to hold the dummy against the steering wheel. Position the thread so as to eliminate or minimize any contact with the deploying air bag.

S26.4 Deploy the driver air bag. If the air bag contains a multistage inflator, any stage or combination of stages is fired that may deploy in crashes at or below 29 km/h (18 mph), under the test procedure specified in S22.4.

S27 Option for dynamic automatic suppression system that suppresses the air bag when an occupant is out-of-position.

S27.1 Availability of option. This option is available for either air bag, singly or in conjunction, subject to the requirements of S27, if:

(a) A petition for rulemaking to establish dynamic automatic suppression system test procedures is submitted pursuant to Subpart B of Part 552 and a test procedure applicable to the vehicle is added to S28 pursuant to the procedures specified by that subpart, or

(b) A test procedure applicable to the vehicle is otherwise added to S28.

S27.2 Definitions. For purposes of S27 and S28, the following definitions apply:

Dynamic automatic suppression system or DASS means a portion of an air bag system that automatically controls whether or not the air bag deploys during a crash by:

(1) Sensing the location of an occupant, moving or still, in relation to the air bag;

(2) Interpreting the occupant characteristics and location information to determine whether or not the air bag should deploy; and

(3) Activating or suppressing the air bag system based on the interpretation of occupant characteristics and location information.

Automatic suppression zone or ASZ means a three-dimensional zone adjacent to the air bag cover, specified by the vehicle manufacturer, where the deployment of the air bag will be suppressed by the DASS if a vehicle occupant enters the zone under specified conditions.

S27.3 Requirements. Each vehicle shall, at each applicable front outboard designated seating position, when tested under the conditions of S28 of this standard, comply with the requirements specified in S27.4 through S27.6.

S27.4 Each vehicle shall be equipped with a DASS.

S27.5 Static test requirement (low risk deployment for occupants outside the ASZ).

S27.5.1 Driver (Part 572, Subpart O 5th percentile female dummy). Each vehicle shall meet the injury criteria specified in S15.3 of this standard when the driver air bag is statically deployed in accordance with the procedures specified in S28.1.

S27.5.2 Passenger (Part 572, Subpart P 3-year-old child dummy and Part 572, Subpart N 6-year-old child dummy). Each vehicle shall meet the injury criteria specified in S21.5 and S23.5, as appropriate, when the passenger air bag is statically deployed in accordance with the procedures specified in S28.2.

S27.6 Dynamic test requirement (suppression of air bag for occupants inside the ASZ).

S27.6.1 Driver. The DASS shall suppress the driver air bag before the head, neck, or torso of the specified test device enters the ASZ when the vehicle is tested under the procedures specified in S28.3.

S27.6.2 Passenger. The DASS shall suppress the passenger air bag before head, neck, or torso of the specified test device enters the ASZ when the vehicle is tested under the procedures specified in S28.4.

S28 Test procedure for S27 of this standard.

(Reserved)

S28.1 Driver suppression zone verification test (part 572, subpart O 5th percentile female dummy).

(Reserved)

S28.2 Passenger suppression zone verification test ( part 572, subpart P 3-year-old child dummy and Part 572, subpart N 6-year-old child dummies).

(Reserved)

S28.3 Driver dynamic test procedure for DASS requirements.

(Reserved)

S28.4 Passenger dynamic test procedure for DASS requirements.

(Reserved)

S29 Manufacturer option to certify vehicles to certain static suppression test requirements using human beings rather than test dummies.

S29.1 At the option of the manufacturer, instead of using test dummies in conducting the tests for the following static test requirements, human beings may be used as specified below. If human beings are used, they shall assume, to the extent possible, the final physical position specified for the corresponding dummies for each test.

(a) If a manufacturer decides to certify a vehicle using a human being for a static test, it must use humans for the entire series of tests, e.g., 3-year-old children for each static test involving 3-year-old test dummies. If a manufacturer decides to certify a vehicle using a test dummy for a static test, it must use test dummies for the entire series of tests, e.g., a Hybrid III 3-year-old child dummy for each static test involving 3-year-old test dummies.

(b) For S21.2, instead of using the Part 572 Subpart P Hybrid III 3-year-old child dummy, a human child who weighs between 13.4 and 18 kg (29.5 and 39.5 lb), and who is between 89 and 99 cm (35 and 39 inches) tall may be used.

(c) For S23.2, instead of using the Part 572 Subpart N Hybrid III 6-year-old child dummy, a human child who weighs between 21 and 25.6 kg (46.5 and 56.5 lb), and who is between 114 and 124.5 cm (45 and 49 inches) tall may be used.

(d) For S19.2, S21.2, and S23.2, instead of using the Part 572 Subpart O Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female test dummy, a female who weighs between 46.7 and 51.25 kg (103 lb and 113 lb), and who is between 139.7 and 150 cm (55 and 59 inches) tall may be used.

S29.2 Human beings shall be dressed in a cotton T-shirt, full length cotton trousers, and sneakers. Specified weights and heights include clothing.

S29.3 A manufacturer exercising this option shall upon request--

(a) Provide NHTSA with a method, and identify any parts or equipment necessary to deactivate the air bag during compliance testing under S20.3, S22.2, and S24.2; such assurance may be made by removing the air bag; and

(b) Provide NHTSA with a method to assure that the same test results would be obtained if the air bag were not deactivated.

S30 Cruise control deactivation.

S30.1 If a vehicle is equipped with a cruise control device, this device shall be deactivated whenever any stage of the air bag system deploys.

S30.2 The cruise control device shall be deactivated when the device is tested under the procedures specified in S31.

S31 Test procedure for determining deactivation of cruise control.

S31.1 Each vehicle that is equipped with a cruise control device shall be equipped with an electrical terminal that permits measurement of the cruise control voltage.

S31.2 Start the vehicle engine and engage the cruise control.

S31.3 Deploy any stage of the vehicle's frontal air bag system.

S31.4 The voltage at the cruise control voltage terminal shall be zero within 100 ms after any stage of the vehicle's frontal air bag system deploys.

S32 Provisions for emergency rescue operations.

S32.1 the air bag system shall deactivate whenever battery power to the vehicle is interrupted for at least 60 seconds, and shall reactivate once power from the battery is restored.

S32.2 The air bag system shall deactivate when the system is tested under the procedures specified in S33.

S33 Test procedure for air bag deactivation during emergency rescue operations.

S33.1 Each vehicle shall be equipped with an electrical terminal that permits measurement of the frontal air bag firing voltage. This terminal will be referred to as the "air bag firing voltage terminal."

S33.2 Start the vehicle engine. Disconnect the vehicle's battery power. Record the time of disconnect as time TD.

S33.3 Measure the voltage at the air bag firing terminal at time TD plus 61 seconds.

S33.4 The voltage at the air bag firing terminal shall remain zero after time TD plus 61 seconds until power is manually restored to the terminal.

S33.5 Reconnect the battery. Start the vehicle engine. Record the time of engine start as time TR. Monitor the air bag readiness indicator (S4.5.2) at time TR plus 60 seconds to check if the air bag is activated, i.e., the indicator shall not be illuminated.

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10
Figure 10

Appendix A to 571.208 -- Selection of Child Restraint Systems

A. The following car bed, manufactured between January 1, 1999 and [insert date of final rule], may be used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to test the suppression system of a vehicle that has been certified as being in compliance with 49 CFR Part 571.208 S19.

Cosco Dream Ride Car Bed

B. Any of the following rear facing child restraint systems, manufactured between January 1, 1999 and [insert date of final rule], may be used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to test the suppression system of a vehicle that has been certified as being in compliance with 49 CFR Part 571.208 S19. When the restraint system comes equipped with a removable base, the test may be run either with the base attached or without the base.

Century Assura

Century 560 Institutional

Century Smart Fit

Cosco Arriva

Cosco Turnabout

Evenflo Discovery

Evenflo First choice

Evenflo On My Way

Fisher-Price Safe Embrace Infant

Graco Infant 7493

Kolcraft Secura

C. Any of the following forward-facing convertible child restraint systems, manufactured between January 1, 1999 and [insert date of final rule], may be used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to test the suppression system of a vehicle that has been certified as being in compliance with 49 CFR Part 571.208 S19, or S21.

Britax Roundabout

Century Encore

Cosco Touriva

Evenflo Scout

Early Development Folder A-Lock

Fisher Price Safe-Embrace

Kolcraft Secure Fit

D. Any of the following forward-facing toddler/belt positioning booster systems, manufactured between January 1, 1999 and [insert date of final rule], may be used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as test devices to test the suppression system of a vehicle that has been certified as being in compliance with 49 CFR Part 571.208 S21 or S23.

Britax Cruiser

Century Next Step

Cosco High Back Booster

Evenflo Evolution

Kolcraft Prodigy

6. Part 585 would be revised to read as follows:

PART 585--ADVANCED AIR BAG PHASE-IN REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

Sec.

585.1 Scope.

585.2 Purpose.

585.3 Applicability.

585.4 Definitions.

585.5 Response to inquiries.

585.6 Reporting requirements.

585.7 Records.

585.8 Petition to extend period to file report.

AUTHORITY: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, 30117, and 30166; delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50.

585.1 Scope.

This part establishes requirements for manufacturers of passenger cars and trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5500 pounds) or less to submit a report, and maintain records related to the report, concerning the number of such vehicles that meet the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208, "Occupant crash protection" (49 CFR 571.208).

585.2 Purpose.

This purpose of these reporting requirements is to aid the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in determining whether a manufacturer has complied with the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208.

585.3 Applicability.

This part applies to manufacturers of passenger cars and trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5500 pounds) or less. However, this part does not apply to any manufacturers whose production consists exclusively of walk-in vans, vehicles designed to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service, vehicles manufactured in two or more stages, and vehicles that are altered after previously having been certified in accordance with part 567 of this chapter.

585.4 Definitions.

(a) All terms defined in 49 U.S.C. 30102 are used in their statutory meaning.

(b) Bus, gross vehicle weight rating or GVWR, multipurpose passenger vehicle, passenger car, and truck are used as defined in section 571.3 of this chapter.

(c) "Advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208" refers to the requirements set forth in S14.3, S15, S17, S19, S21, S23, S25, S30, and S32 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, 49 CFR Part 571.208.

(d) "Production year" means the 12-month period between September 1 of one year and August 31 of the following year, inclusive.

585.5 Reporting requirements.

(a) Advanced credit phase-in reporting requirements. Within 60 days after the end of the production years ending August 31, 2000, August 31, 2001, and August 31, 2002, each manufacturer choosing to certify vehicles according to the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208 shall submit a report to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration concerning its passenger cars, trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles produced in that production year for advance credit for production years ending August 31, 2003, August 31, 2004, or August 31, 2005. Each report shall -

(1) Identify the manufacturer;

(2) State the full name, title, and address of the official responsible for preparing the report;

(3) Identify the production year being reported on;

(4) Provide the information specified in 585.5 (c);

(5) Be written in the English language; and

(6) Be submitted to: Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20590.

(b) Phase-in reporting requirements. Within 60 days after the end of the production years ending August 31, 2003, August 31, 2004 and August 31, 2005, each manufacturer shall submit a report to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration concerning its compliance with the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208 for its passenger cars, trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles produced in that production year. Each report shall also include the number of pre-phase-in vehicles, if any, that are being applied to the production year being reported. Each report shall -

(1) Identify the manufacturer;

(2) State the full name, title, and address of the official responsible for preparing the report;

(3) Identify the phase-in schedule paragraph from S14.1 of 49 CFR 571.208 for which it has chosen to comply with until September 1, 2005;

(4) Identify the production year being reported on;

(5) Contain a statement regarding whether or not the manufacturer complied with the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208 for the period covered by the report and the basis for that statement;

(6) Provide the information specified in 585.5(d);

(7) Be written in the English language; and

(8) Be submitted to: Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20590.

(c) Advanced credit phase-in report content.

(1) Manufacturers are not required to report any information with respect to those vehicles that are walk-in vans, vehicles designed to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service, vehicles manufactured in two or more stages, and vehicles that are altered after previously having been certified in accordance with part 567 of this chapter.

(2) Production. Each manufacturer shall report for the production year for which the report is filed the number of passenger cars and trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds) or less that meet the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208.

(3) Vehicles produced by more than one manufacturer. Each manufacturer whose reporting of information is affected by one or more of the express written contracts permitted by S14.1.3.2 of Standard No. 208 shall:

(i) Report the existence of each contract, including the names of all parties to the contract and explain how the contract affects the report being submitted.

(ii) Report the actual number of vehicles covered by each contract.

(d) Phase-in report content.

(1) Manufacturers are not required to report any information with respect to those vehicles that are walk-in vans, vehicles designed to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service, vehicles manufactured in two or more stages, and vehicles that are altered after previously having been certified in accordance with part 567 of this chapter.

(2) Basis for phase-in production goals. For production years ending August 31, 2003, August 31, 2004 and August 31, 2005, each manufacturer shall provide the number of passenger cars and trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds) or less manufactured for sale in the United States for each of the three previous production years, or, at the manufacturer's option, for the current production year. A new manufacturer that has not previously manufactured passenger cars and trucks, buses and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds) or less for sale in the United States must report the number of such vehicles manufactured during the current production year.

(3) Production. Each manufacturer shall report for the production year for which the report is filed the number of passenger cars and trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds or less that meet the advanced air bag requirements of Standard No. 208.

(4) Vehicles produced by more than one manufacturer. Each manufacturer whose reporting of information is affected by one or more of the express written contracts permitted by S14.1.3.2 of Standard No. 208 shall:

(i) Report the existence of each contract, including the names of all parties to the contract and explain how the contract affects the report being submitted.

(ii) Report the actual number of vehicles covered by each contract.

585.6 Records.

Each manufacturer shall maintain records of the Vehicle Identification Number for each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus for which information is reported under Sec. 585.5(c)(2) and 585.5(d)(3) until December 31, 2006.

585.7 Petitions to extend period to file report.

A petition for extension of the time to submit a report must be received not later than 15 days before expiration of the time stated in 585.5(a) and (b). The petition must be submitted to: Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20590. The filing of a petition does not automatically extend the time for filing a report. A petition will be granted only if the petitioner shows good cause for the extension, and if the extension is consistent with the public interest.

PART 595--RETROFIT ON-OFF SWITCHES FOR AIR BAGS

7. The authority citation for part 595 would continue to read as follows:

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, 30117, 30122 and 30166; delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50.

8. Section 595.5 would be amended by revising paragraph (a) and adding paragraph (b)(6) to read as follows:

595.5 Requirements.

(a) Beginning January 19, 1998, a dealer or motor vehicle repair business may modify a motor vehicle manufactured before September 1, 2005 by installing an on-off switch that allows an occupant of the vehicle to turn off an air bag in that vehicle, subject to the conditions in paragraphs (b)(1) through (5) of this section:

Issued on:

                                               
Stephen R. Kratzke
Acting Associate Administrator
for Safety Performance Standards

Billing Code 4910-59-P

[Signature page for RIN 2127-AG70, Supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking]