Summary Descriptions of The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

Title 49, Codes of Federal Regulations, Part 571

Standard No. 101: Controls and Displays
Scope and Purpose:

This standard specifies requirements for the location, identification, and illumination of motor vehicle controls and displays. The standard requires that essential controls be located within reach of the driver when the driver is restrained by a lap belt and upper torso restraint, and that certain controls mounted on the instrument panel be identified. The purpose of this standard is to ensure the accessibility and visibility of motor vehicle controls and displays and to facilitate their selection under daylight and nighttime conditions.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses

Standard No. 102: Transmission Shift Lever Sequence, Starter Interlock,
and Transmission Braking Effect

Scope and Purpose:

This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift sequence, a starter interlock, and a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce the likelihood of shifting errors and starter engagement with vehicle in drive position, and to provide supplemental braking at speeds below 40 km/h (25 mph).

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses

Standard No. 103: Windshield Defrosting and Defogging Systems
Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for windshield defrosting and defogging systems to ensure that each vehicle shall have a windshield defrosting and defogging system which operates either by applying heat to the windshield or by dehumidifying the air inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses

Standard No. 104: Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems
Scope and Purpose:

This standard specifies requirements for the windshield wiping and washing systems.
The purpose of this standard is to ensure that the windshield wiping and washing system shall wipe the specified percentage area of the windshield, with at least two frequencies or speeds.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses


Standard No. 105: Hydraulic and Electric Brake Systems
Scope and Purpose:

This standard specifies requirements for vehicles equipped with hydraulic and electric service brake systems, and associated parking brake systems. The purpose of this standard is to insure safe braking performance under normal and emergency conditions.

Application:
Hydraulically braked or electrically braked passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR greater than 3,500 kg (7,716 lb)

Standard No. 106: Brake Hoses
Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes performance and labeling requirements for hydraulic, air, and vacuum brake hoses, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose fittings for all motor vehicles. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries occurring as a result of brake system failure from pressure or vacuum loss due to hose or hose assembly rupture.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles; hydraulic, air, and vacuum brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings


Standard No. 107: Reserved


Standard No. 108: Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for required original and replacement lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment and their installation. The purpose is to reduce traffic crashes, deaths and injuries resulting from crashes by providing adequate illumination of the roadway, and enhancing the conspicuity of motor vehicles on the public roads so that their presence is perceived and their signals understood, both in daylight and in darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, (except pole trailers and trailer converter dollies), and motorcycles


Standard No. 109: New Pneumatic Bias Ply and Certain Specialty Tires

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test requirements for bead unseating resistance, strength, endurance, and high speed performance; defines tire load ratings; and specifies labeling requirements for the specified tires. The purpose of this standard is to provide safe operational performance levels for these tires, and to place sufficient information on the tires to permit their proper selection and use.

Application:
New pneumatic radial tires for use on passenger cars manufactured before 1975, new pneumatic bias ply tires, and special tires for trailers (ST), farm implemented tires (FI), highway special tires, and 8-12 rim diameter and below tires, for use on passenger cars manufactured after 1948. However, it does not apply to any tire that has been so altered so as to render impossible its use, or its repair for use, as motor vehicle equipment.


Standard No. 110: Tire Selection and Rims

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for tire selection to prevent overloading.

Application:
Except for motorcycles, this standard applies to motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) or less, and to non-pneumatic spare tire assemblies for passenger cars.


Standard No. 111: Rearview Mirrors

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for the performance and location of inside and outside rearview mirrors on motor vehicles. The purpose of this standard is to reduce the number of deaths and injuries that occur when the driver of a motor vehicle does not have a clear and reasonably unobstructed view to the rear. The requirements for school buses were revised for driver visibility in front of and along both sides of school buses.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, school buses, and motorcycles


Standard No. 112: Reserved


Standard No. 113: Hood Latch System

Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems. The purpose of this standard is to prevent the front-opening hood from flying open and obstructing the driver’s view while the vehicle is moving forward.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses


Standard No. 114: Theft Protection

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for theft protection to reduce the incidence of crashes resulting from unauthorized use of a motor vehicle. This standard also specifies requirements to reduce the incidence of crashes resulting from the rollaway of parked vehicles with automatic transmissions as a result of children moving the shift mechanism out of the “park” position.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks having a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) or less Walk-in van-type vehicles are excluded.


Standard No. 115: Reserved


Standard No. 116: Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for fluids for use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles, containers for these fluids, and labeling of the containers to reduce failures in the hydraulic braking systems of motor vehicles that may occur because of the manufacture or use of improper or contaminated fluid.

Application:
All fluids for use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles; Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, and motorcycles


Standard No. 117: Retreaded Pneumatic Tires

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies performance, labeling, and certification requirements for retreaded pneumatic passenger car tires. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger car tires to meet safety criteria similar to those for new pneumatic passenger car tires.

Application:
Retreaded pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars


Standard No. 118: Power-Operated Window, Partition,
and Roof Panel Systems

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for power-operated window, partition, and roof panel systems to minimize the likelihood of death or injury from their accidental operation.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) or less


Standard No. 119: New Pneumatic Tires For Vehicles
Other Than Passenger Cars

Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes performance and marking requirements for new pneumatic tires. The purpose of this standard is to provide safe operational performance levels for these tires and to place sufficient information on the tires to permit their proper selection and use.

Application:
New pneumatic tires for use on motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kg (10,000 lb), trailers, and motorcycles manufactured after 1948


Standard No. 120: Tire Selection and Rims

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies tire and rim selection requirements and rim marking requirements. The purpose of this standard is to provide safe operational performance by ensuring that vehicles to which it applies are equipped with tires of adequate size and load rating and with rims of appropriate size and type designation.

Application:
Motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) and motorcycles, rims for use on those vehicles, and non-pneumatic spare tire assemblies for use on those vehicles


Standard No. 121: Air Brake Systems

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies performance and equipment requirements for vehicles equipped with air brake systems, including air-over-hydraulic brake systems, to ensure safe braking performance under normal and emergency conditions.

Application:
Trucks, buses, and trailers equipped with air brake systems

Certain trailers and trucks are exempted depending on width, axle GVWR, maximum speed, and unloaded vehicle weight.


Standard No. 122: Motorcycle Brake Systems

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies equipment and performance requirements for the brake systems of two-wheeled and three-wheeled motorcycles. The purpose of this standard is to ensure safe motorcycle braking performance under normal and emergency conditions.

Application:
Motorcycles: two-wheeled and three-wheeled


Standard No. 123: Motorcycle Controls and Displays

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies requirements for the location, operation, identification and illumination of motorcycle controls and displays, and for motorcycle stands and footrests in order to minimize accidents caused by operator error in responding to the motoring environment, by standardizing certain motorcycle controls and displays.

Application:
Motorcycles equipped with handlebars, except for motorcycles that are designed, and sold exclusively for use by law enforcement agencies


Standard No. 124: Accelerator Control Systems

Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes requirements for the return of a vehicle’s throttle to the idle position when the driver removes his or her foot from the accelerator control, or in the event of a severance or disconnection in the accelerator control system.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses


Standard No. 125: Warning Devices

Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes shape, size, and performance requirements for non-powered day and night warning devices that can be erected on or near the roadway to warn approaching traffic of the presence of a stopped vehicle. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries due to rear end collisions between moving traffic and disabled vehicles.

Application:
Buses and trucks that have a GVWR greater than 4,536 kg (10,000 lb)


Standard No. 129: New Non-Pneumatic Tires for Passenger Cars

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test requirements for lateral strength, endurance, and high-speed performance for new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars; defines the tire load rating, and specifies labeling requirements for non-pneumatic spare tires. The purpose of this standard is to ensure that the tire conforms to all requirements of the standard prior to being sold, and place sufficient information on the tires to permit their proper selection and use.

Application:
New temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars


Standard No. 131: School Bus Pedestrian Safety Devices

Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes requirements for devices that can be installed on school buses to improve the safety of pedestrians in the vicinity of stopped school buses. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries by minimizing the likelihood of vehicles passing a stopped school bus and striking pedestrians in the vicinity of the bus.

Application:
School buses


Standard No. 135: Light Vehicle Brake Systems

Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies equipment and performance requirements for service brakes and for parking brake systems. The purpose of this standard is to ensure safe braking performance under normal and emergency driving conditions.

Application:
Passenger cars
Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 3,500 kg (7,716 lb) or less


St
andard No. 138: Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems
Scope and Purpose:
This standard specifies performance requirements for tire pressure-monitoring systems. The purpose of this standard is to prevent significant under-inflation of tires and the resulting safety problems.

Application:
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses that have a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) or less, except those vehicles with dual wheels on an axle


Standard No. 139: New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles

Scope and Purpose:
This standard establishes tire performance requirements for new radial pneumatic tires for light vehicles. The purpose of the standard is to create more stringent tire performance requirements than those in Standard 109.

Application:
All new radial tires for use on passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and trailers that have a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) or less)

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