Appendix: List of All States Used in the Analyses*

State

GDL Effective Date

Alabama

10/1/2002

Arizona

None

Arkansas

7/1/2002

California

7/1/1998

Colorado

7/1/1999

Connecticut

10/1/2003

Delaware

7/1/1999

Florida

7/1/1996

Georgia

7/1/1997

Idaho

1/1/2001

Illinois

1/1/1998

Indiana

1/1/1999

Iowa

1/1/1999

Kansas

None

Kentucky

None

Louisiana

1/1/1998

Maryland

7/1/1999

Massachusetts

11/4/1998

Michigan

4/1/1997

Minnesota

1/1/1999

Mississippi

7/1/2000

Missouri

1/1/2001

Montana

None

Nebraska

1/1/1999

Nevada

7/1/2001

New Jersey

1/1/2001

New Mexico

1/1/2000

New York

9/1/2003

North Carolina

12/1/1997

North Dakota

None

Ohio

1/1/1999

Oklahoma

None

Oregon

3/1/2000

Pennsylvania

12/22/1999

South Carolina

7/1/1998

South Dakota

1/1/1999

Tennessee

7/1/2001

Texas

1/1/2002

Vermont

7/1/2000

Washington

7/1/2001

West Virginia

1/1/2001

Wisconsin

7/1/2000

Wyoming

None

*The District of Columbia was excluded from analysis since its crash data was heavily influenced by neighboring States. Maine , New Hampshire , Rhode Island , Utah , and Virginia were excluded because they changed their laws more than twice between 1994 and 2004. Alaska and Hawaii were also not included in the analyses.