Graphic of cover for Community How To Guide On Enforcement


Community How To Guide On…ENFORCEMENT

Enlisting Participation by Law Enforcement Agencies

A Different Enforcement Approach for Youth

The Role of Alcoholic Beverage Control Agencies

Understanding the Judicial System

Successful Underage Drinking Enforcement Strategies

Compliance Checks
Cops In Shops
Shoulder Tap Programs
Alcohol Unit
Controlled Dispersal
Fake or Falsified Identification Program
Party Buster Hotlines
Law Enforcement Training Conference
Roll Call Presentation

Overcoming Obstacles to Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws

Keeping Underage Drinking Enforcement a Priority



Appendix #1 – Comparison of Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Appendix #2 – How To Evaluate Identification

Appendix #3 – Underage Enforcement Work Session

Appendix #4 – Roll Call Questionnaire

Appendix #5 – Legislative Status Report


Resources for Effective Enforcement Strategies

Publications on Effective Enforcement Strategies

Other Resources Cited In Community How To Guide

Other Underage Drinking Enforcement Resources


This “Community How To Guide on Underage Drinking Enforcement” details what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks discussed is the necessity for groups to understand the needs and concerns of law enforcement and to recognize that underage drinking enforcement differs from traditional enforcement methods.

There may be obstacles that deter the effective enforcement of underage drinking laws and this booklet describes several of the most common along with proposed solutions. The booklet also discusses how to keep underage drinking enforcement a priority. In addition, successful underage drinking enforcement strategies that have been used in other communities are described and contact information provided in the resource section. Finally, the booklet describes how to involve the judicial community, which is a key to an effective underage drinking enforcement strategy.

Community How To Guide On…ENFORCEMENT

Enforcement of underage drinking laws has a strong deterrent effect on underage drinking. Swift and sure enforcement has contributed greatly to nationwide decreases in drinking and driving, and similar results can be achieved with other alcohol-related offenses involving youth.

Research and experience confirm strong enforcement helps to reduce underage drinking by limiting access to alcohol, reducing the opportunities for youth to drink, and curbing impaired driving. Consistent, vigorous enforcement reinforces the message that adults and youth must be responsible for their actions and that violating the law is unacceptable. Enforcement helps to validate the activities of prevention specialists and can help treatment specialists to identify youth in need of help.

Enlisting Participation by Law Enforcement Agencies

Enforcement agencies are often understaffed and under-funded. As a result, encouraging them to implement underage drinking prevention programs may be a challenge.

Prior to asking a law enforcement agency or alcohol beverage control agency to participate in an underage drinking prevention campaign, organizers should become acquainted with both the resources and the needs of the enforcement agency(ies). Among the critical questions to answer are:

Relationships between law enforcement agencies and coalitions or task forces can be greatly enhanced if coalition members take the time to understand how law enforcement agencies are structured.

The project director and other coalition members should learn how their law enforcement agencies are structured and how they operate in order to involve them in developing, strategies they realistically can employ.

Understanding the current needs, concerns and overall operation of a department or alcohol beverage control agency BEFORE asking them to participate in an underage drinking effort will help the coalition or task force work more effectively with the enforcement agencies. Working cooperatively with the law enforcement agencies to solve their problems may build bonds between the coalition and the agencies and enhance their relationship in the future.

A Different Enforcement Approach for Youth

Before any law enforcement agency can embark on a targeted underage drinking enforcement program, law enforcement officials and individual officers must be aware that young people and adults drink at different times and in different places. Adults and young people also manifest the effects of drinking differently when they drive. Failure to recognize these differences results in less effective law enforcement efforts. If a police department conducts a sobriety checkpoint during the prom/graduation season, for instance, but locates the checkpoint in areas frequented by adults and not by youth, the checkpoint will be less effective. Following are some of the critical differences that shape law enforcement strategies taken from a study conducted for NHTSA entitled “Obstacles to Enforcement of Youthful (Under 21) Impaired Driving”:

The Role of Alcohol Beverage Control Agencies

Enforcement of underage drinking laws and regulations, in most states, involves more than police departments. Most states regulate the sale of alcohol either through a controlled or open system. In either system, the outlets (retail stores, grocery and convenience stores, bars, restaurants, etc.) must be licensed to sell alcoholic beverages.

States with control systems have the following characteristics:

Open systems have the following characteristics:

The licensing and regulation of alcoholic beverages differs from state to state, and it will be necessary for coalitions to determine how alcoholic beverages are regulated in their state. Following are some general questions that must be answered with respect to alcohol beverage control:

Once a coalition has determined how alcohol is licensed and regulated in their state or county, it is necessary to determine the specific laws, regulations and penalties for licensees who sell alcohol to minors (See Community How To Guide on Public Policy). In the case of alcohol sales to minors, it is important to not only determine what the laws and regulations are, but what happens in actual practice to those who violate the law. Following are some suggestions on how coalitions can evaluate their alcohol beverage system.

The following states are considered to have a control system:
New Hampshire
North Carolina
West Virginia
The following states and U.S. territories are considered to have an open system:
District of Columbia
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Dakota
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Puerto Rico

In addition to determining the laws and regulations, coalitions must determine who enforces them. In some states, alcohol beverage control agencies will have sworn officers who enforce alcohol laws and regulations. Other states will have inspectors who have the authority to regulate the sale of alcohol, but have no arrest powers. These officers can work independently or in conjunction with sworn officers. In other states, the duties are given directly to local, county or state law enforcement departments.

Communities that want to control the general availability of alcohol to youth can work to implement the following licensing and control strategies:

It is critical, however, that in addition to law enforcement departments, underage drinking prevention coalitions identify and work closely with the agency that regulates the sale of alcohol in their state. Often it is these officials who have the best understanding of underage drinking laws and regulations and will have insight in how to solve the problem from both a supply and demand perspective.

Understanding the Judicial System

As noted in previous sections, the action or inaction of the judicial system in cases involving underage drinking has an effect on enforcement. To the novice, the judicial system may seem complicated and confusing, but it is important that they be an integral part of any comprehensive underage drinking prevention program. Strong enforcement, coupled with swift and sure consequences for those who violate the law, is the cornerstone of a successful underage drinking prevention initiative.

How Underage Drinking Cases Are Handled

Underage drinking offenses may be referred to a number of courts including juvenile court, traffic court, criminal court, or family court, depending on the offense and the state’s laws. Juvenile and criminal courts differ from one another in certain respects. In the book “Sentencing and Dispositions of Youth DUI (Driving Under the Influence) and Other Alcohol Offenses: A Guide for Judges and Prosecutors,” developed by NHTSA and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), a comparison is given between these two systems highlighting both their differences and any common ground. Appendix #1 is a Comparison of Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems taken from the NHTSA/NIAAA book.

Following is an outline of how underage drinking cases are processed in juvenile courts.

According to “Sentencing and Dispositions of Youth DUI and Other Alcohol Offenses,” case processing for alcohol-related offenses also varies among the adult court systems. For youth 18-20 years old, the vast majority are handled in adult courts. In some states (e.g., Florida), 16- and 17-year-olds go to traffic court for DUI offenses, but not for other alcohol offenses.

One of the complaints, with respect to the judicial system, is a lack of consequences for youth cited for underage drinking offenses (except drinking and driving). This lack of consequences is often cited by youth as a reason to keep drinking. Research shows, however, that when consequences are applied along with some type of rehabilitation and follow up, the outcome is more effective than any single approach.

Sanctions for Alcohol-Related Offenses

Following are some recommended sanctions for alcohol-related offenses excerpted from the NHTSA/NIAAA book.


Incarceration is rarely used for alcohol-related offenses involving youth except drinking and driving. Under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, with limited exceptions, juveniles cannot be held in adult jails or lockups and separate facilities must be available for juvenile offenders. Under the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Formula Grants regulations, juveniles can be held in an adult facility, provided there is no contact with adults, for up to six hours. In addition, for status offenses (underage purchase, possession and consumption), the regulations allows juveniles to be held in a juvenile detention facility for up to 24 hours, exclusive of weekends and holidays.

Out-of-Home Placement and Weekend Intervention

Juveniles may be placed in facilities outside the home. These facilities include group homes, residential treatment centers, youth ranches and other secure facilities. Under weekend intervention programs, juvenile DUI offenders attend a weekend residential program where they receive screening and assessment for alcohol and other drug use.


Probation is a sanction in which a number of conditions can be ordered by the court and monitored by a probation department. Probation for young people charged with underage drinking and/or impaired driving may include the following:

Other probation sanctions include intensive probation which involves more frequent contact with a probation officer and home detention which allows the young person to drive during the day for work or school, but not at night. Home detention may involve the use of an electronic monitoring device.

Licenses Suspension/Revocation

Because a driver’s license is a prized possession for most young people, license suspension or revocation can have a powerful deterrent effect on underage drinking and impaired driving. Some states have use/lose laws, which place license restrictions on offenses that are not related directly to driving (purchase, consumption, possession, use of a fake ID). In order for the license to be suspended under these laws, however, the courts must notify the state’s motor vehicle licensing department.

Community Service

Community service is often used by the courts for status offenses. In order for this sanction to have an impact on the offender, it must be meaningful, offer constructive work and have some type of valuable educational experience.


Underage offenders may be fined for drinking or impaired driving. This fine can be received as part of the citation issued by the arresting officer or it can be a court-ordered sanction. The fines vary in amount and may increase with repeat offenses. Restitution is a sanction where the offender is held accountable for any financial losses they have caused the victims. If a juvenile cannot pay restitution, his or her parents may be ordered to pay.

Attendance at Victim Impact Panels

Victim impact panels, often sponsored by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), give underage drinking and driving offenders an opportunity to hear the harm they have caused. Sometimes these panels are presented to a general high school audience as a prevention/education tool.

Emergency Department Visitation

This sanction requires offenders to spend a certain number of hours observing the medical treatment of patients in an emergency department or shock trauma unit. Often these visits are scheduled on weekend evenings, when patients are most likely to be the victim of an alcohol-related crash.

NHTSA is working with the Corrective Behavior Institute (CBI) to replicate the Victim Impact Panel and Emergency Department Visitation programs in various sites throughout the country. Information will be available on these initiatives from the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF).

Parental Involvement

When underage drinking offenses involve juveniles, parents or guardians may be held responsible. The National District Attorneys Association (NDAA) recommends that parents be required to do the following:

When working with the judiciary, underage drinking prevention coalitions need to determine how the various agencies and departments within the system feel about underage drinking. Do they take the issue seriously? Do they understand its relationship to crime and other problems? In addition, coalitions should find out how the justice system relates to law enforcement and what is the disposition of cases involving underage drinking and underage drinking and driving.

Successful Underage Drinking Enforcement Strategies

Covert Underage Buyer Programs/Compliance Checks

Vigorous use of compliance checks can reduce the illegal sale of alcohol to underage youth. These compliance checks, also known as Covert Underage Buyer (CUB) or decoy programs, are designed to encourage compliance by alcohol vendors. Compliance checks encourage licensees to be diligent in complying with the law and therefore help to reduce the availability of alcohol to minors. Insuring that appropriate consequences are applied to violators is essential because consequences motivate licensees who might otherwise remain lax. It is recommended that compliance checks be conducted by appropriate law enforcement agencies, with support from the underage drinking prevention coalition or organization.

How Compliance Checks Are Conducted

  1. Check with the county or city prosecutor or comparable legal official to determine what strictures might apply to a compliance check under state and local law.

    Be certain, for instance, that underage volunteers will not be charged with attempting to buy alcohol illegally and that the program does not violate other laws or procedures.

  2. Insure the planned checks will not interfere with any undercover or other enforcement efforts.

    As former Dallas Police Chief Bennie Click said, “If a local group decided to conduct a compliance check without clearing it with us first, they could inadvertently compromise another law enforcement effort or end up in a store or bar which we know is dangerous.”

  3. Carefully select and train underage youth in the laws regarding alcohol sale and purchase. Make sure they are thoroughly familiar with the protocol for the testing program.

    Volunteers for a compliance check can be police cadets, criminology students from a local college or they can be recruits from Boys Scouts or Eagle Scouts, Girl Scouts or other youth organizations.

  4. Police officers or alcohol beverage control agents should accompany the volunteers to each site.

    The enforcement officers can enter the premises in plain clothes to observe the buy.

    The officers also are responsible for collecting and maintaining any evidence, including sales receipts, etc.

    Officers often photograph underage volunteers immediately before and after a check which results in a violation. This insures offenders cannot complain that the volunteer looks over 30 or has disguised their age in any other way.

  5. Underage youth enter retail stores, bars or restaurants and determine if they can buy alcohol without presenting an identification card.

    The underage volunteers should look their age and should not lie about their age if a vendor inquires.

    If an ID is requested, they should terminate the attempt to purchase.

  6. After the sale is made to the underage youth, police or alcohol beverage control officers waiting outside or standing nearby charge the establishment.

Equipment and Resources

Materials from the Youth Enforcement Workshop developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) suggest that law enforcement agencies have access to the following equipment and resources if they plan to conduct a compliance check or CUB program:

  • Unmarked car

  • Marked police vehicle

  • Polaroid camera with film (for photos of the volunteer before and after the checks)

  • Criminal summonses

  • Evidence containers for alcohol analysis, if necessary

  • Evidence containers (such as large paper bags) for collecting bottle/can evidence, as necessary

  • Money to purchase alcohol

  • Log sheet

  • Audio-video equipment for documenting the transaction, if possible. (This provides the best evidence in court and provides further safety for the underage volunteer.)

  • Preliminary Breath Test (PBT) instrument for breath testing before and after the operation. (This protects law enforcement from the charge that a minor was allowed to consume alcohol.)

Recommendations for Compliance Checks

Initiating a compliance program requires preparation, but the results can be significant. Project Extra Mile in Omaha, Nebraska (See Pilot Projects) has been conducting compliance checks for the past two years, and has reduced the non-compliance rate of vendors by half from 41% in 1997 to 23% in October of 1999. For the October 1999 check, Project Extra Mile organized a multi-jurisdictional task force of over 50 officers from nine enforcement agencies. To ensure statistical validity, planners for the compliance checks should strive to select a random sample of vendors to be checked.

Contact information on compliance checks is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Cops In Shops

Cops In Shops was originally developed in Delaware, but in recent years, the program has been enhanced, packaged and promoted nationwide by the Century Council, a national, not-for-profit organization dedicated to fighting drunk driving and illegal underage drinking.
A Cops In Shops program places undercover law enforcement officers, or alcohol beverage control (ABC) agents or inspectors in off-premise stores that sell alcohol. Officers issue citations or make arrests for underage purchase, attempts to purchase, and related violations, including citations for adults who purchase alcohol for underage youth, according to the current law of the jurisdiction where the program is in operation. Training is provided to both law enforcement officials and retailers.

In this program, law enforcement officers and inspectors not only cite or arrest underage youth who attempt to purchase or purchase alcohol illegally, the program also emphasizes the use of publicity as a continuous deterrent to potential underage buyers. Store posters, stickers for cold case storage areas, brochures, posters on buses or in subways, buttons, retail communication and television public service announcements remind young people that if they attempt to buy alcohol illegally, they may be dealing with an undercover law enforcement officer or alcohol inspector.

Elements of a Cops In Shops Program

  1. Law enforcement agencies (police departments, alcohol beverage control agencies) agree to participate in the program.

  2. Liquor licensees are informed of the program and urged to participate, usually through a letter or other communication from an ABC or law enforcement agency.

  3. Posters and other retailer information are distributed to liquor licensees throughout the jurisdiction.

  4. Law enforcement agencies select officers or ABC agents/inspectors to participate in the program, usually in teams of two or three at each site.

  5. Judges and prosecutors are informed of the program. Prosecutors are requested to assist in tracking the citations and arrests for use in media follow-up.

Prior to the implementation of the program, a news conference is held to announce that “cops” will be deployed in retail outlets throughout the city/county. Posters can also be placed in high schools, at colleges, and universities to spread the word. Law enforcement agencies develop a form to track all citations and arrests. News releases are distributed periodically to keep the public and the press abreast of the number of underage youth who were cited and the disposition of those cases. This media component is critical to insure the on-going deterrent value of the program.

Conducting a Cops In Shops program does not mean a community should not do compliance checks. In fact, under the comprehensive approach developed by the NAGHSR Underage Drinking Prevention Program, both strategies should be employed to insure the seller and potential buyer are targeted for enforcement efforts. Contact information on Cops In Shops appears in the Resource Section of this booklet.

“Mr. Will You” or Shoulder-Tap Programs

Young people commonly approach adults and sometimes homeless people who are gathered outside liquor stores, convenience stores or other alcohol outlets and ask them to purchase alcohol on their behalf. The youth generally offer to give the adult buyer money or some of the alcohol in exchange for making the buy.

“Mr. Will You” or Shoulder Tap Programs are designed to address that problem in the following two ways.

Alcohol Unit

As part of the comprehensive underage drinking prevention program called “Drawing the Line on Underage Alcohol Use” in Montgomery County, Maryland, the County’s police department established a special alcohol enforcement unit, with officers from each police district within the county. The Alcohol Enforcement Unit became popularly known as the Whiskey Unit. The Whiskey Unit included eight officers who were specially trained and skilled in managing alcohol-related events and in educating young people and adults about the dangers of illegal underage drinking. These officers also received drug recognition expert (DRE) training which proved extremely useful at many underage parties where officers also discovered marijuana, LSD and other drugs.

How An Alcohol Unit Works

  1. Identify officers to participate in the program.

  2. Train the officers in the following:

  3. Develop a schedule so that half the officers’ time is spent on enforcement activities and half is spent on education (speeches at adults events, presentations at local schools, etc.).

  4. Insure the alcohol unit works closely with alcohol license inspectors or agents when conducting compliance checks, prom and party security and other special programs.

Information on the Alcohol Unit is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Controlled Dispersal

Many law enforcement agencies, when responding to a report of an underage drinking party, will arrive at the location in a marked car, break up the gathering, strive to insure those who have been drinking do not drive and send everyone home. In many cases, young people see the patrol car coming and run out of the party, jump in their cars and take off before the police get to the house.

Elements of a Controlled Dispersal Strategy

Following is an outline of the controlled dispersal strategy developed by the Montgomery County Police Department Alcohol Unit in Maryland.

  1. The Alcohol Unit or other division receives information, either through a citizen complaint, a party buster hotline call or other means, that an underage drinking party is occurring.

  2. The responding officer(s) looks for signs of underage drinking activity before approaching the house.

  3. If the officer(s) determines there is sufficient cause, the supervisor is notified and apprised of the situation.

  4. Officers deploy their cars at exits leaving the neighborhood or area where the party is located. This generally requires three cars and one officer to remain with the vehicles.

  5. Officers approach and surround the house and ask the host to come outside.

  6. Citations are issued to those minors who have been drinking and those adults who have provided alcohol illegally to a minor.

To make the program more effective, an alcohol citation database was established to enable the Montgomery County Alcohol Unit to track the number and type of alcohol citations that had been issued. This allowed the community to understand patterns of underage drinking and determine whether specific areas of the county were having more problems than others. Problem areas were targeted for additional enforcement and prevention activities.

A similar controlled dispersal approach was instituted by the Salt Lake County Sheriff’s Department in Salt Lake City, Utah to respond to reports of large underage drinking parties in the canyons east of the city. To prevent these parties, the Sheriff’s Department placed large signs with the words “Sobriety Checkpoint Ahead” or “Drug Dog At Work” at the entrance to the canyons where most of the youth parties occurred. Officers were hidden nearby to witness any youth who attempted to dispose of alcoholic beverages or those that fled the scene. Appropriate citations were then given to those who violated the law. If a party was already in progress, officers would blockade the exit out of the canyon and arrest those underage youth who were drinking. Word of the blockade soon spread to high schools in the area, which substantially decreased the number of canyon parties.

In Phoenix, Arizona, the Youth Task Force used helicopters to discover the location of underage drinking parties, many of which were held in the desert area surrounding the city. Determining the location of these parties was next to impossible using traditional ground level methods, but a helicopter could cover a large geographic area in a relatively short period of time. Once the party had been discovered, officers in the helicopter radioed officers on the ground who apprehended the party goers. The presence of the helicopter also proved to be a shock to the underage youth and underscored just how seriously the police department viewed underage drinking.

Contact information for Controlled Dispersal is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Fake or Falsified Identification Program

Fake or altered identification is often used by young people trying to purchase alcohol illegally. In recent years, the proliferation of computers and high quality printers and scanners has made it even easier for amateurs to produce fake IDs that are difficult to distinguish from genuine licenses or other identification.

Some states have changed the design of their driver’s licenses to make it more difficult to alter them or reproduce them. Many now place holograms and/or bar codes directly on the licenses and/or require that all underage drivers be photographed facing to the side making it difficult to alter a minor’s license. These efforts by the state have made it more difficult — but not impossible – to alter or produce fake IDs.

Every individual who sells or serves alcohol must be vigilant about checking identification. Many restaurants, bars and off-premise stores require that employees check IDs for anyone who appears to be under 30.

The Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board (PLCB) is using technology to help identify underage drinkers who attempt to purchase alcohol illegally. The “Minor ID Checker” is a device that reads the magnetic strip on the back of the state driver’s license, producing a printed record of the card’s information. The license is swiped through a slot much like a credit card payment device. If the person is under 21, a red warning would be printed or if the license was expired, a warning would be printed. The device also helps identify fraudulent IDs as well since they may not have the proper magnetic strip for reading purposes.

How To Evaluate Identification

Following are several tips for evaluating a license or other identification card. This information is also in Appendix 2, How to Evaluate Identification, so it can be easily referenced and used by vendors and others.

  1. Check the photo

  2. Check the lamination

  3. Check the birth date

  4. If a server/seller suspects a license is fake, they should:

    If the seller/server continues to doubt the authenticity of the ID, they should ask for a second ID, preferably something with a photograph.

    If the server/seller is reasonably sure the license is fake, they should refuse to serve the person or ask them to leave the bar. If the laws in the jurisdiction allow it, the fake ID should be confiscated and turned over to law enforcement authorities. (Of course, the seller/server may also choose to call law enforcement authorities to report the offense while the young person is still on the premises.)

    Following are some suggestions federal, state, county and local agencies should use to reduce the likelihood of an underage youth using false identification to purchase alcohol.

Contact information on fake ID programs is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Party Buster Hotlines

Some communities have instituted telephone numbers which adults or youth can call, anonymously, to report stores or restaurants which sell alcohol to youth and parties at which underage drinking is a problem. These hot lines or Party Buster numbers must be well publicized to be effective, but in some cases they can be the key to preventing trouble before it happens.

Pennsylvanians Against Underage Drinking (PAUD) have established a party hotline to encourage adults and youth all over the state to report incidents of underage drinking. Using the headline, “If you can dial a phone, you can help put a stop to underage drinking,” the program urges people to take action if they know of any underage drinking occurring or about to occur in their neighborhood. The toll-free number is maintained by the organization and information is referred to the appropriate state and local police departments.

Parents, teachers, neighbors and young people often hear about parties that have been planned or are aware of parties underway, but are afraid or embarrassed to call authorities openly. A hotline offers concerned individuals the opportunity to share information with authorities which not only helps them to enforce the law, but may help them to save a life.

Law Enforcement Training Conference

NHTSA and IACP developed a Youth Enforcement Workshop for law enforcement professionals.

Workshop Objectives

Appendix #3 includes forms which can be used in an Underage Enforcement Workshop Session. Materials on organizing and conducting the conference can also be obtained from the IACP, which is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Elements of a Law Enforcement Conference

  1. Invite law enforcement officers who are in a position to influence their department’s policies and procedures regarding underage drinking enforcement.

  2. Have workshop participants examine the issues related to alcohol use by youth, potential obstacles to effective enforcement and possible solutions.

  3. Divide the program into two small group sessions.

In addition to training law enforcement personnel, a conference also provides a good opportunity to promote coordination among the various law enforcement agencies in a community. In most communities, more than one law enforcement agency is active, with some areas of responsibility clearly defined and others which may overlap. A local police or sheriff’s department, the state police, an alcohol beverage control agency and sometimes, other municipal agencies, park police and campus police may all operate within a few miles of one another, and cooperation among them is essential for a strong campaign.

Frequently, departments do not coordinate general programs, but will cooperate on specific cases or crimes. Bringing the departments together to work on the issue of underage drinking develops a stronger enforcement approach and helps reduce the need for additional personnel. Once communication and coordination has been expanded among law enforcement agencies, communities can sponsor a follow-on conference with representatives from the juvenile justice and criminal justice systems.

Roll Call Presentations

Although the laws governing alcohol sale and use are presented during recruit training for police officers, little emphasis may be placed on underage drinking. Contact your state or local alcohol beverage control agency to determine whether they provide any training to law enforcement agencies and ask if they specifically cover underage drinking. Another way to motivate and inform officers is to request permission to make brief presentations during roll call.

There are several publications, which highlight successful underage drinking and underage drinking and driving strategies. These publications include “Strategies to Reduce Underage Alcohol Use: Typology and Brief Overview” by the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation in support of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s (OJJDP) Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program. This publication provides strategies that limit access to alcohol, support community norms against underage drinking, school-based programs, and programs that prevent impaired driving. In addition to strategies, the publication provides specific research support for strategy selection, the experience of other states and communities that have used the strategies, and detailed instructions for carrying out the selected tactics.

The “Retail Oriented Best Practices for Underage Drinking Prevention,” published by NHTSA and the National Alcohol Beverage Control Association (NABCA), lists the practices found to be most effective in preventing underage drinking. The NABCA and a panel of alcohol education experts reviewed 175 programs and selected those featured in the booklet as meeting their criteria of effectiveness.

“Strategies for Success in Combating Juvenile DUI,” published by NHTSA, OJJDP and the Police Executive Research Forum is based on information obtained through the Juvenile DUI Enforcement Program, which was created to unify the various elements of anti-DUI enforcement in a single, comprehensive framework. The book contains a blueprint for action with a set of instructions and resources for a local, system-wide response to juvenile impaired driving due to alcohol and other drugs.

Information on obtaining copies of these publications is found in the Resource Section of this booklet.

How Roll Call Presentations Work

Overcoming Common Obstacles to Enforcing and Adjudicating Underage Drinking Laws

PROBLEM: Lack of consequences once a youth is arrested for an underage drinking offense.

In many communities, law enforcement officers believe it is difficult to enforce laws against underage drinking because “nothing really happens” to offenders. Insuring that the consequences for violating the law are appropriate, swift and consistently applied can help to motivate police officers to be more aggressive in enforcing the laws.

Diversion programs which direct youthful violators to treatment or community service sometimes appear to be “soft” ways of dealing with young offenders, but in some cases they have demonstrated merit. Linking police officers with juvenile justice and treatment authorities can help all of these professionals see the value in their colleagues’ work and stimulate valuable networking and mutual reinforcement among them.

Juvenile justice systems and courts sometimes cite their increasing caseloads and a burgeoning number of “serious” crimes committed by juveniles, including robbery, rape, assault, and murder as reasons not to devote any of their time to underage drinking. Advocates for underage drinking prevention should remind law enforcement, juvenile justice authorities and judges that these problems are linked to underage alcohol use.


  1. Involve not only law enforcement agencies, but the court system—from intake workers, to judges, and prosecutors—in the coalition.

    Strict enforcement must be associated with real consequences. This requires coordination among the courts, prosecutors, and juvenile authorities. Judges know that they occupy a unique position in the community and sometimes perceive community activism in association with any particular group as a conflict with their need to maintain strict neutrality. “Beyond the Bench,” a video prepared by NHTSA and OJJDP urges judges to get out from behind the bench and speak to the community about the problem of teen drinking and driving.

  2. Request that judges go on ride alongs with police officers conducting an underage enforcement effort.

    Witnessing the problem of underage drinking up close at the time of an arrest or citation can have a beneficial impact on individuals deciding the consequences of underage drinking offenses. Police officers can also describe some of the circumstances they have witnessed when citing youth for underage drinking.

  3. Sponsor a joint meeting among key representatives from police departments, alcohol beverage control agencies, juvenile service agencies and the courts.

    This kind of cross education is particularly important among individual officers and intake workers. If possible, obtain the support of both the Chief Judge of the Juvenile Court and the Police Chief so that their employees understand the importance these officials place on reducing underage drinking. At the meeting, have a neutral party facilitate the discussion and ask each representative to describe what is positive about the current relationship and what could be improved.

“Beyond the Bench” offers suggestions for judges regarding forming a coalition, educating the public about the problem or joining an existing effort. Two judges who are active in their communities, Judge J. Dean Lewis from the Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court in Spotsylvania County, Virginia and Judge G. Michael Witte from the Dearborn County Court in Lawrenceburg, Indiana both appear in the video and encourage their peers to become active in local efforts.

Judge Michael A. Martone of the 52nd District Court in Troy, Michigan has brought the court room right into the class room. The “Courageous Decisions” Program consists of a typical district court docket of drunk driving cases, possession of controlled substance cases, shoplifting cases or any other type of crime that students might be tempted to commit. In a school assembly program, students have the opportunity to witness a real judge, with real defendants entering pleas and having sentences imposed ranging from probation to jail. The program also consists of a video with Judge Martone engaging the students in an interactive dialogue on the vignettes and still photos that illustrate the catastrophic results of flawed critical thinking.

Judge Martone will assist any judge interested in setting up the program in their jurisdictions. Another judge in Michigan wrote to him about the success of the program. “As you know, I have implemented a Courts in the Schools program. In May, I made a presentation to the 12th grade class of one of our local high schools. The final segment of the program includes a video reenactment of an alcohol poisoning death, and a discussion around that topic. The week after the prom, I got a call from the school. Several students had been together on the night of the prom, and a young lady had consumed a large quantity of alcohol and become unconscious. When she passed out, her friends recalled the information they had received in the Court in the Schools Program. Instead of rolling her into bed, her friends took her to the hospital where she was treated and survived. On behalf of my community, I want to thank you for encouraging me to implement the Court in the Schools program.” For his efforts, Judge Martone was honored by the National Commission Against Drunk Driving with their 1999 Adjudication Award. Information on contacting Judge Martone can be found on in the Resource Section of this booklet.

The Safe and Sober Youth Coalition (SASY) in Chesterfield County, Virginia has been successful in involving judges in their coalition. Virginia has a judicial licensing ceremony which young people must attend with a parent or guardian in order to obtain their driver’s license. During the ceremony, the judge talks to the audience about the responsibility of driving and what can happen when young people break the law. SASY saw this as an opportunity to increase public awareness about underage drinking and formed a partnership with the court system to set up booths and hand out information before, during and after the ceremony. The program has resulted in not only the community getting more information, but it has made the judges more aware of the underage drinking problem.

  1. Develop community service or other options that can be available to the courts as alternatives.

    In some communities, the lack of appropriate community service options for youthful offenders makes it difficult for judges to sentence young people with meaningful work. In Austin, TX, the Travis County Underage Drinking Prevention Program (see Pilot Projects) works closely with community groups, government agencies and local justices of the peace to link the courts with a community service program that offers adequate supervision and a genuine learning experience. The program has developed a strong relationship between the underage drinking prevention program and the local judicial authorities and has provided a new option for the courts to exercise that includes referral to Habitat for Humanity.

  2. Develop a teen court program.

    Teen courts are cooperative programs among schools, law enforcement and the courts. In teen courts, students act as prosecutors, defense attorneys and jurors for peers who have been charged with alcohol-related offenses. Cases heard in teen court usually involve underage purchase and/or consumption, the use of fake IDs and, sometimes, less serious driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Other, more “serious” cases are heard in regular court.

    Teen courts offer several advantages because they:

    Generally, law enforcement officials coordinate the overall teen court program in a community. The court system coordinates the logistics of the program, including time, location and dates for trials. A juvenile court judge also may participate.

    Schools may develop lists of teachers, students and school officials who will participate, and help assign the roles for student attorneys and jurors. The local District Attorney’s office provides guidance in legal procedures, opinions and interpretations of specific laws.

    The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), NHTSA, and OJJDP have developed an implementation guide for teen court programs as well as sponsoring regional training seminars around the country. The guide includes:

Information on ordering the guide and teen court programs is located in the Resource Section of this booklet.

PROBLEM: The amount of time it takes to process a young person once they have been arrested for an alcohol offense.

Juvenile offenders are treated differently than the adult population by the courts, starting at the time of the arrest. In many jurisdictions, for instance, juveniles cannot be held in the same facility as adults, and many local jurisdictions either lack a separate holding facility or find their facility is already filled to capacity. Consequently, officers may sometimes be compelled to “baby sit” the juvenile until a parent or guardian comes to take the young person home. The time spent with the juvenile, of course, means that the officer is either away from other duties or may have to use overtime to perform a task which could be performed by someone else.


  1. Develop a juvenile “holdover” program.

    These programs temporarily hold juveniles who have been detained by law enforcement officers and are in need of supervision until a legal guardian assumes responsibility for them or they can be moved to a juvenile detention facility. (Some communities do not have juvenile detention facilities located nearby, making the holdover program especially valuable.) The American Probation and Parole Association, with a grant from NHTSA and OJJDP, is developing an implementation guide for juvenile holdover programs, which will include lessons garnered both from research and from practical experience. The guide will also address the mission and procedural practices to insure individual communities can readily develop programs that meet their needs. Information on ordering the implementation guide is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

    In some communities local religious institutions have organized volunteers to supervise youth who are brought to their facilities on weekend evenings. The volunteers have been authorized to care for the youth by local authorities and the officers are able to return to their other duties quickly.

PROBLEM: Developing support within a department to conduct an underage drinking enforcement program.

Law enforcement agencies and their officers are sworn to uphold the law. Sometimes, like other agencies or organizations, limited budgets and resources force law enforcement agencies to establish priorities. Those priorities may be embodied in a policy statement or they may be informally “understood” among members of the agency. Underage drinking is frequently viewed as a low priority for enforcement, in part, perhaps, because American society has often viewed it as a rite of passage and an adolescent problem, but has not taken it seriously enough. One of the first tasks for an underage drinking prevention coalition, therefore, may be to encourage local enforcement officials to change the official or unofficial viewpoint about underage drinking and to make enforcing the laws about underage drinking a priority for the department and for individual officers.


  1. Gain the support of top-level officials within the department or agency.

    It is essential that the law enforcement administrator (chief of police, sheriff or other high ranking official) be briefed by letter or a meeting on what a community group is proposing. The briefing should include information on what the group has learned, through the needs assessment process (See Community How To Guide on Needs Assessment and Strategic Planning), about the current level of underage enforcement. If possible, involve prominent individuals from the community such as a large employer, the head of a government agency, an elected official or a media representative in the meeting with the chief. People in top level positions listen and respond to other people in top level positions.

    When meeting with the chief or sheriff, the coalition may wish to share examples of successful enforcement programs, which have been implemented in other communities. This booklet contains examples of many such programs (see pages 14 to 24).

  2. Show law enforcement officials that underage drinking enforcement is in their best interest, and enforcing underage drinking laws will help them address other priorities.

    The best way to overcome any barrier with members of a group is to show them how the program can directly benefit the work they are already accomplishing. Both statistical and anecdotal information reveals that underage drinking is linked to other crimes among youth such as rape, robbery and violence. Drinking is also linked to many crimes among adults, including spousal abuse, child abuse, rape, robbery and other acts. As part of the needs assessment process, a coalition may have been successful in collecting data showing the link between alcohol and other crime (See Community How To Guide on Needs Assessment and Strategic Planning).

    During one of the Rapid Response Team visits NAGHSR conducted during Phase II of their comprehensive underage drinking prevention program, the law enforcement representative on the team met with a local chief. The chief said he did not believe underage drinking was a major issue in his community, at which point, the Rapid Response team member asked the chief if he could conduct a quick review of recent calls for service received by the agency. They discovered a large number of calls were related to alcohol and to underage drinking. With that information in hand, the chief revised his opinion and agreed to participate in a local coalition.

    By helping to prevent underage drinking today, law enforcement officers also may reduce future crimes. Research conducted by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) in 1998 found that a young person who starts drinking at age 14 is four times more likely to develop alcohol-related problems later on than a person who starts drinking at a later age.

  3. Build public support for the department to take action.

    Police officers are public servants and need public support for their initiatives. If the community does not feel underage drinking is a priority, it makes the task of conducting an aggressive underage age enforcement program more difficult. Among the ways to gain public support for a prevention and enforcement program are:

  4. Involve law enforcement officers and alcohol beverage control agents or inspectors early in the needs assessment process and inform them their participation is a key to success.

    A successful underage drinking prevention project requires the presence and active involvement of law enforcement. Let them know how important they are to the project and how much you welcome their input and suggestions. After all, enforcement personnel are the ones who deal with the serious consequences of underage drinking and can give expert opinions on how to stop it. They can also begin to build support for the program within their own agencies (See Community How To Guide on Needs Assessment and Strategic Planning).

Keeping Underage Drinking Enforcement a Priority

Once you have a department’s attention, how do you keep it? One of the best ways to involve law enforcement agencies in an underage drinking prevention program is to demonstrate how the law enforcement agencies will be supported through the coalition. Law enforcement officials and their “troops” will be more motivated to undertake additional or expanded activities if they understand that the coalition is not only asking for their support, it is supporting them. In some cases, the coalition may be able to mobilize public opinion or obtain funding, equipment or other support for the law enforcement agencies that they would not have been able to secure on their own. Following are the ways coalitions can support law enforcement.

Generate positive media attention for law enforcement efforts.

Positive media coverage can not only reward officers and departments for a job well done, it can also reinforce the public perception of the seriousness of the issue. Sometimes, individual officers or department officials are wary of talking with the press because they feel that police are sometimes covered unfairly by the media. The coalition’s media director or project director should work closely with the police and the media to create a positive story, which showcases the department’s efforts as much as possible.

In some communities, reporters have accompanied officers on successful “party buster” initiatives and have produced extremely positive coverage, which may make the law enforcement agency more likely to cooperate on a story in the future. Law enforcement activities such as sobriety checkpoints, compliance checks of liquor licensees or Cops In Shops programs are visually interesting for television and print photographers and can be exciting stories.

It is always important, however, to make certain that reporters understand the goals of each of these programs. If a sobriety checkpoint particularly directed at youth is held, for instance, and produces only a few arrests, the media must understand that generating arrests is not the goal of the checkpoint. The real goal is to reinforce the seriousness of drinking and driving, demonstrate that law enforcement is actively enforcing the law, discourage adults from drinking and driving and discourage youth from drinking at all.

Law enforcement officers and judges can add an important perspective to radio and television interview shows, public service programs and news conferences. Their presence, especially if they are in uniform, adds credibility to the coalition’s efforts and fosters good police relations with the press and the community. It also offers officers the opportunity to be recognized as proactive. The coalition may also work with law enforcement officers or the administrator (chief of police) to submit op editorials or letters to the editor. Whenever working with individual police officers, the coalition must be sensitive to the police department’s policies regarding contacts with the press. Learn how to work effectively with your local police agency on media relations. (See Community How To Guide on Media Relations)

Help secure funding and equipment.

In some cases, it is difficult for law enforcement agencies to obtain adequate money and equipment to perform expanded underage drinking enforcement activities. Coalition members can help to advocate increased funding and can sometimes obtain donated equipment or funds to support the effort more rapidly than a police or sheriff’s department (See Community How To Guide on Self-Sufficiency).

In Montgomery County, Maryland, police officers from an alcohol enforcement unit told members of the Drawing the Line coalition that it was difficult for them to call the parents of all the young people they found at large parties because they did not have access to adequate phones. One of the coalition members had a friend who was the public relations representative for Bell Atlantic Mobile. As a result, Bell Atlantic Mobile donated six cell phones and reduced the price of air time for the alcohol enforcement unit.

Advocate swift, consistent consequences for offenders through the courts and juvenile justice system.

Coalitions can collect data on the disposition of citations and arrests, sponsor court watch programs, write to officials with the authority to make changes in the systems and publicize the need for consistent consequences. If penalties are imposed, officers will feel more motivated to play their important role in prevention through strict enforcement.

Work for changes in state and local laws, regulations, policies and procedures.

Underage drinking prevention coalitions should review the laws, policies and procedures that affect underage drinking law enforcement and prevention in their community. Appendix #5 is a Legislative Status Report on Drinking and Driving and Underage Drinking Laws and Regulations in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. If the coalition identifies gaps or problems in these laws, policies or procedures, the coalition can advocate change by publicizing the problem, educating elected officials and administrators about the reasons for change and helping to draft new regulations (See Community How To Guide on Public Policy).

Recognize law enforcement officers for their work on underage drinking.

All kinds of people — including law enforcement officers — are encouraged when they are recognized for their good work. Law enforcement officers and their supervisors may be particularly appreciative of such recognition because officers so often deal with people who resent or criticize their enforcement efforts.

A pat on the back to law enforcement officers can take many forms. A plaque or other award can be presented to the officer (or officers) who has done the most to prevent underage drinking throughout the year, through enforcement, educational programs or a combination of efforts. The recognition ceremony does not need to be fancy or expensive; it can take place at a regular meeting of the coalition, a special event regarding underage drinking, an awards luncheon, a county or city council meeting or some other event.

Securing news coverage for the award program provides multiple benefits — it rewards the officers involved, reaffirms the importance of the issue and reinforces the message that enforcement is a critical element in underage drinking prevention. At a minimum, the event should be publicized in the coalition’s newsletter and, if appropriate, the law enforcement administrator (police chief) and senior staff should be notified if the award went to an officer who is not at the command level. In some cases, it may be beneficial to ask a local elected official or the law enforcement administrator to join in presenting the award, which may also enhance the newsworthiness of the event and its prestige.

Coalitions or agencies that honor officers engaged in adult drinking and driving enforcement or drug abuse prevention should remember to honor officers dedicated to underage drinking prevention. These officers are sometimes the unsung heroes of important campaigns.

Insure prevention programs are research based and will reinforce the no-use message.

Law enforcement officers are expected to be experts in law enforcement, but they may not be experts in science-based prevention programs. Some law enforcement agencies sponsor educational programs for students or parents and they may not have time to research those programs thoroughly to ascertain if they are truly effective. Unfortunately, many of the most popular programs cannot demonstrate effectiveness. Prevention specialists within the coalition can help insure any educational or other prevention program undertaken by law enforcement is grounded in good prevention principles. This enables everyone to get the most “bang for their buck.”

Help target resources by collecting and analyzing data from a variety of sources.

With their diverse memberships, coalitions are well-equipped to collect data from a variety of sources, analyze the data and to craft a strategic plan based on the data. This kind of careful needs assessment and strategic plan can help law enforcement agencies direct their resources and programs effectively and track the results of their programs (See Community How To Guide on Needs Assessment and Strategic Planning). The coalition can also help the law enforcement agency develop an efficient system for tracking underage drinking-related data within their department, through a computer program or other reporting system.

Help reduce recidivism by insuring that adequate resources for assessment and treatment are available.

Law enforcement officers do not want to keep arresting or citing the same youth over and over, but they may not be able to ensure that assessment and referrals to treatment are readily available in the community, whether or not young people have health insurance. A broad-based coalition can work with public and private agencies to ensure that assessment and treatment are part of the community system for dealing with underage drinking offenses.


The key to the ultimate success of an underage drinking project is the participation and support of law enforcement. An aggressive law enforcement program, supported by strong laws and regulations, swift and sure consequences from the judiciary, and a strong prevention/education effort will result in changed community norms and changed behavior by youth. The blueprint for this model comes from one of the most successful efforts to change society’s views and actions – the effort to reduce drinking and driving.

In that example the critical element was law enforcement, and it is every bit as critical an element for underage drinking.

This booklet, while highlighting many successful enforcement strategies, is also designed to show that enforcement cannot do the job alone. Effective enforcement never operates in a vacuum. Enforcement needs help and support from the community, which can be generated by an active underage drinking prevention coalition. By working closely with juvenile justice authorities, judges, treatment professionals, prevention specialists, educators and other concerned members of the community, law enforcement officers, and the entire juvenile justice system can create an environment in which young people can thrive and have fun without engaging in dangerous, and sometimes deadly, underage drinking.


Appendix 1 -- Comparison of Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

PDF -- Comparison of Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Appendix 2 -- How to Evaluate Identification

PDF -- How to Evaluate Identification

Following are several tips for evaluating a license or other identification card.

  1. Check the photo

  2. Check the lamination

  3. Check the birth date

  4. If a server/seller suspects a license is fake, they should:

Appendix 3 -- Underage Drinking Enforcement Work Session

PDF -- Underage Drinking Enforcement Work Session

The following outline can be used to assist law enforcement in developing a preliminary underage drinking enforcement plan. The outline asks officers and alcohol beverage control officials to determine the underage drinking problems in their community and what they feel is the best response.

Planning Session

  1. Make a list of the kinds of places where underage drinking takes place in your community. Consider routine locations, special events and large gatherings.

  2. For each kind of place, decide when they are commonly used (time of day, day of week, season of the year.

  3. For each kind of place, decide how the community feels or reacts.

  4. Identify the obstacles these places present to underage drinking enforcement.

  5. From your point of view, decide which is the worst place and why.


Action Plan

Following is an outline for an enforcement plan. Individual officers should first write down their own ideas and then meet with officers and officials from other agencies, including alcohol beverage control, to develop an initial coordinated underage drinking enforcement plan. This plan should also be shared with the underage drinking prevention coalition as part of their needs assessment process.

  1. Make a list of the youth and alcohol enforcement problems in your community.
    * Put a “1” next to the problem that you believe is the most serious, a “2” next to the second most serious, and so on.
    * Put a checkmark next to those problems you think your department/agency could do more to solve.

  2. Select one problem for which you think progress could realistically be made in the next 12 months. Write a short description of the problem.

  3. Write down your objectives for addressing the problem you selected. Remember that objectives should be specific, achievable and measurable.

  4. Determine the major steps for implementing the plan.

  5. For the first major step of the plan, write down the first two or three specific tasks that be accomplished.

  6. For the first task, write down how long it will take to accomplish.

Appendix 4 -- Roll Call Presentation -- Underage Drinking Questionnaire

PDF -- Roll Call Presentation -- Underage Drinking Questionnaire

Appendix 5 -- Legislative Status Report

PDF -- Legislative Status Report


Resources for Effective Enforcement Strategies

Alcohol Unit
Drawing the Line
on Underage Alcohol Use
Montgomery County Department of Health and Human Services
8630 Fenton Street, 10th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910
E-mail: nancy.rea@co.mo.md.us
Web site: http://www.co.mo.md.us/services/hhs/

Montgomery County Police Department
Alcohol Initiatives Section
9125 Gaither Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Fax: 301-840-2463
Officer William Morrison
25104 Hickory Ridge Lane
Gaithersburg, MD 20882
301-930-1011 pager

Controlled Dispersal

Montgomery County Police Department
Alcohol Initiatives Section
9125 Gaither Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
Fax: 301-840-2463
Officer William Morrison
25104 Hickory Ridge Lane
Gaithersburg, MD 20882
301-930-1011 pager

Phoenix Police Department
Youth Alcohol Squad
302 East Union Hills Drive
Phoenix, AZ 85024
Fax: 602-256-4189
E-mail: youthalcoholsquad@yahoo.com

Salt Lake County Sheriff’s Department
Lt. Andy Burton
12830 South Redwood Road
Riverton, UT 84065
Fax: 801-446-0376

Compliance Checks

Project Extra Mile
Executive Director
302 South 36th Street, Suite 214
Omaha, NE 68131
Fax: 402-231-4307
E-mail: driibe@alltel.net

Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission
P.O. Box 13127
Austin, TX 78711
Fax: 512-206-3350
E-mail: questions@tabc.state.tx.us

Cops In Shops

The Century Council

1310 G Street, NW, Suite 600
Washington, DC 20005
Fax: 202-637-0079

Fake or Falsified Identification

Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board
Northwest Office Building, Room 602
Harrisburg, PA 17124-1321
Web site: http://www.lcb.state.pa.us

Driver’s License Guide Company
P.O. Box 5305
Redwood City, CA 94063-2607

Party Buster Hotline

Pennsylvanians Against Underage Drinking
Northwest Office Building, Room 603
Harrisburg, PA 17124-0001
800-537-6531 or 7171-705-0859
Web site: http://www.lcb.state.pa.us.edu

Law Enforcement Workshop

International Association of Chiefs of Police
515 North Washington Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-6767 (800) 843-4227
Fax: 703-836-4543
Web site: http://www.theiacp.org

Teen Court and Juvenile Holdover Programs

American Probation and Parole Association
P.O. Box 11910
Lexington, KY 40578
(606) 244-8215
Fax: (606) 244-8001
Web site: http://www.appa-net.org

Judicial Outreach

Beyond the Bench
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

Courageous Decisions Program
520 West Big Beaver Road
Troy, Michigan 48084
Fax: 248-526-6702
Web site: http://www.Courage2000.com
E-mail: Blackrobe@Courage2000.com

Safe and Sober Youth Coalition
Executive Director
Children at Risk Today
14005 Steeplestone Drive, Suite A
Midlothian, VA 23113
Fax: 804-378-7752

Community Service

Travis County Underage Drinking Prevention Project
P.O. Box 1748
Austin, TX 78767
Fax: 512-473-9316
E-mail: gloria.souhami@co.travis.tx.us

Publications on Effective Enforcement Strategies

Obstacles to Enforcement of Youthful (Under 21) Impaired Driving
(DOT HS 807-878)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

Retail Oriented Best Practices for Underage Drinking
(DOT HS 808 618)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

Sentencing and Disposition of Youth DUI and Other Alcohol Offenses (DOT HS 808 891)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

Strategies to Reduce Underage Alcohol Use: Typology and Brief Overview
The Underage Drinking Enforcement
Training Center
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
11140 Rockville Pike, 6th Floor
Rockville, MD 20852
Fax: 301-984-6559
Web site: http://www.pire.org/udetc

Strategies for Success in Combating Juvenile DUI (DOT HS 808 845)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

Other Resources Cited in Community How To Guide

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
511 East John Carpenter Freeway, Suite 700
Irving, TX 75062
214- 744-6233
Web site: http://www.madd.org

Mothers Against Drunk Driving is a non-profit grass roots organization with more than 600 chapters nationwide. MADD’s focus is to look for effective solutions to the drunk driving and underage drinking problems, while supporting those who have already experienced the pain of these senseless crimes. In the Under 21 area, MADD sponsors the following programs: Parenting-The Key, Youth In Action, Student Activist Training, Poster Essay Contest, Take the Lead, and the National Youth Summit to Prevent Underage Drinking.

National Alcohol Beverage Control Association (NABCA)
4216 King Street, West
Alexandria, VA 22302
Fax: 703-820-3551
Web site: http://www.nabca.org

NABCA is an organization representing alcohol control state officials. The association provides opportunities for these officials to discuss common problems, share experiences and learn about strategies employed in other control jurisdictions (such as Canada and the Scandinavian countries). Control states are known for their direct control over the retail and/or wholesale distribution of alcohol beverages.

National Association of Governors’ Highway Safety Representatives (NAGHSR)
750 First St., NE, Suite 720
Washington, D.C. 20002
Fax: 202-789-0946
Web site: http://www.naghsr.org

National District Attorneys Association
99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510
Alexandria, VA 22314
Fax: 703-836-3195
Web site: http://www.ndaa.org

The National District Attorney Association (NDAA) was formed in 1950 in response to the growth of crime and the increasing demand for community protection. NDAA is the largest national professional organization specifically serving the needs of prosecutors in the United States. NDAA influences public policy affecting the safety of America’s communities by advocating prosecutorial views through contacts with the White House, Congress, U.S. Department of Justice and other government agencies.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
6000 Executive Boulevard, Suite 409
Bethesda, MD 20892-7003
Web site: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports and conducts
biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. NIAAA also provides leadership in the national effort to reduce the severe and often fatal consequences of these problems.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
810 7th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Fax: 202-307-2093
Web site: http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

The mission of OJJDP is to provide national leadership, coordination, and resources to prevent juvenile victimization and respond appropriately to juvenile delinquency. This is accomplished through developing and implementing prevention programs and a juvenile justice system that protects the public safety, holds juvenile offenders accountable, and provides treatment and rehabilitative services based on the needs of each individual juvenile.

Partners Against Crime (PAC)
163 Madison Avenue, Suite 207
Detroit, MI 48226-2135
Fax: 313-964-1145
Web site: http://www.comnet.org/vip

PAC is an innovative probation enhancement program operated by Volunteers in Prevention, Probation and Prisons, Inc. (VIP), a national, nonprofit organization dedicated to reducing crime through volunteer efforts. PAC works with the juvenile courts to help keep juveniles from becoming repeat offenders. PAC matches trained volunteers from the community to serve as mentors to juvenile offenders. The program also expects parental involvement.

Police Executive Research Forum (PERF)
1120 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 930
Washington, DC 20036
Web site: http://www.policeforum.org

The Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) is a national membership organization of progressive police executives from the largest city, county and state law enforcement agencies. PERF is dedicated to improving policing and advancing professionalism through research and involvement in public policy debate.

Other Underage Drinking Enforcement Resources

Alcohol Compliance Checks: A Procedure Manual for Enforcing Alcohol Age-of-Sale Laws
Epidemiology Program, School of Public Health
University of Minnesota
1300 South Second Street, #300
Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015
Web site: http://www/umn.edu

The manual provides a step-by-step guide to planning and implementing the checks, the selection of appropriate sites, merchandise and buyers, and communicating with merchants and the community.

Community Action Guide to Save Lives! Strategies to Reduce Underage Access to Alcohol and Save Lives in Your Community
Join Together
441 Stuart Street
Boston, MA 02116
Fax: 617-437-9394
Web site: http://www.jointogether.org

This guide begins with a brief discussion of key factors for building community support. It then presents five recommendations for reducing youth access, possible action steps, success stories and additional resources.

Graduated Licensing: A Blueprint for North America
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
1005 North Glebe Road, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22201
Fax: 703-247-1588
Web site: http://www.hwysafety.org

This resource describes the reasons for graduated licensing, including the use of three stages of driving privileges. It also provides specific recommendations for central components of such a licensing process.

Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Fax: 301-519-5212
Web site: http://www.ncjrs.org

Contains the latest facts and figures on juvenile justice, delinquency prevention, violence and victimization.

National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
P.O. Box 8970
Reno, NV 89502
Web site: http://www.ncjfcj.unr.edu

The National Council has responded to the problem of alcohol and drug abuse in juvenile and family courts with a broad-based substance abuse program focusing on judicial policy and practice. Issues range from judicial leadership for community-based prevention, intervention and treatment alternatives to perinatal issues affecting mothers and their infants. Judicial education and training for alcohol and other drug abuse responses are offered through curricula, publications, courses, workshops and conferences nationwide.

National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC)
1700 K Street, NW, 2nd Floor
Washington, DC 20006-3817
Web site: http://www.ncpc.org

The National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC) is a private, nonprofit, tax-exempt organization whose mission is to prevent crime and build safer, more caring communities. In the late 1970s, the prevailing public attitude was “you can’t do anything about crime.” A varied group of individuals - government policy makers, law enforcement, business, labor leaders - disagreed. This group founded the National Citizens’ Crime Prevention Campaign featuring McGruff the Crime Dog, the nation’s symbol for crime prevention.

National Criminal Justice Reference Service
P.O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Tel: 1-800-851-3420 or 301-519-5500
Web site: http://www.ncjrs.org

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is one of the most extensive sources of information on criminal and juvenile justice in the world, providing services to an international community of policymakers and professionals. NCJRS is a collection of clearinghouses supporting all bureaus of the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs: the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Office for Victims of Crime, and the OJP Program Offices. It also supports the Office of National Drug Control Policy.

National Sheriffs’ Association
Youth Project
1450 Duke Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-3490
Web site: http://www.sheriffs.org

Preventing Youth Access to Alcohol from Commercial Sources: Strategizer No. 28
Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA)
901 North Pitt St., Suite 300
Alexandria, VA 22314
Fax: 703-706-0565
Web site: http://www.cadca.org

This strategizer summarizes the key policies that can be enacted to reduce youth access to alcohol. The policies include compliance checks, administrative penalties, and age identification policies. It also lists strategies that merchants can implement, such as server/seller training.

Promising Approaches in the Prevention of Underage Drinking: Case Studies of State Activities
National Association of Governors’ Highway Safety Representatives (NAGHSR)
750 First St., NE, Suite 720
Washington, D.C. 20002
Fax: 202-789-0946
Web site: http://www.naghsr.org

This report, compiled by NAGHSR and the National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, profiles ten state programs that address underage drinking. Included in the book is a program in Massachusetts to train servers and sellers of alcohol and a Fraudulent ID Task Force in Virginia.

Saving Teenage Lives: The Case for Graduated Licensing (DOT HS 808-801)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

This report discusses the importance of graduated driver licensing, a three-stage process of licensure. These stages include learner’s permit, provisional license, and license. Teenage drivers are three times more likely to be involved in fatal traffic crashes than all other drivers. This is due to inexperience, risk-taking behavior, immaturity and greater risk exposure. The report includes a series of questions and answers on graduated driver licensing, along with a Graduated Driver Licensing Model Law.

The Underage Drinking Enforcement Training Center
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
11140 Rockville Pike, 6th Floor
Rockville, MD 20852
Fax: 301-984-6559
Web site: http://www.pire.org/udetc

The goal of the Underage Drinking Enforcement Training Center web site is to facilitate the delivery of training and technical assistance for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s (OJJDP) Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. The site is designed to provide information to help states and communities create effective solutions to the underage drinking problem.

Youth DUI and Underage Enforcement
Traffic Safety Programs
400 Seventh Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov
E-mail: srichardson@nhtsa.dot.gov

This resource manual addresses the issues of underage alcohol consumption and youth DWI enforcement. This manual provides a how to guide for conducting compliance checks, Cops-In-Shops programs, saturation patrols for youth, party patrols and other youth enforcement programs.

Zero Tolerance
Highway Safety Specialist
400 7th Street, SW, NTS-11
Washington, DC 20590
Fax: 202-366-2766
E-mail: jwright@nhtsa.dot.gov

This program was developed by the BACCHUS and GAMMA Peer Education Network, a college alcohol abuse prevention national organization, and SADD (Students Against Destructive Decisions). The program developed teams of high school and college students and law enforcement officials to increase awareness and enforcement of zero tolerance laws.

DOT HS 809 209
March 2001

Logos of sponsoring organizations and programs: NHTSA, Zero Tolerance, NAGHSR, and Safe Communities