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INTRODUCTION


Community How To Guide On…SELF-SUFFICIENCY

Government Funding

Private Sector Funding

In-Kind Contributions

Non-Profit Organizations

Earmarked Funds

Permanent Part of State or Local Government

Contracts

Conclusion


APPENDICES

Appendix #1 – A Proposal Writing Short Course

Appendix #2 – Proposal Checklist

Appendix #3 – Proposal Checklist and Evaluation Form

Appendix #4 – Earmarked Public Funds Inventory Form


RESOURCES

Resources Cited In Community How To Guide

Government Resources

Grant Information–Government

Grant Information–Private Sector

Non-Profit Resources

Ideas


INTRODUCTION

When it comes to conducting an underage drinking prevention program, most people think of the planning and implementation activities that are needed. The one question many do not answer, however, is how will the organization obtain the funding that is necessary for those planning and implementation activities, particularly over the long-term. An organization can have the best ideas in the world, but if there is no funding for those ideas, the ideas die.

The "Community How To Guide on Self-Sufficiency" details the various types of funding that are available including government grants, private sector funding, in-kind contributions, and funding that can be obtained from earmarked funds such as fees, fines, assessments, and dedicated taxes. Because most organizations have difficulty writing a proposal that can help them obtain needed funding, Appendix #1 in this booklet includes a "Proposal Writing Short Course," provided by the Foundation Center. A proposal checklist and evaluation form will also assist the organization in reviewing the final product.

This booklet should not be reviewed after the organization has been in business for several years. It should be used right at the start because government grants cannot be counted on for long-term support. In addition to the tools, the booklet also lists specific resources where organizations conducting underage drinking prevention programs may be able to obtain funding to keep their efforts going.


Community How To Guide On…SELF-SUFFICIENCY

When it comes to conducting an underage drinking prevention program, most people think of the planning and implementation activities that are needed. The one question many do not answer, however, is how will the organization obtain funding that is necessary for those planning and implementation activities,„particularly over the long-term. An organization can have the best ideas in the world, but if there is no funding, the ideas die.

Most people who join community organizations care deeply about an issue and want to be involved in program planning and implementation. Some coalition or organization members may feel that finding the funding to operate the organization is a mysterious, time consuming and often intimidating task. In reality, it is neither mysterious nor intimidating, but it does require energy, information and dedication.

Knowing an organization’s needs, strengths and limitations is the key to success for any fund-raising campaign. If a coalition or organization cannot make a compelling case for why a government agency, foundation or company should support the program, then it may be necessary to reconsider the group’s mission statement, goals and objectives.

Self-sufficiency means an organization becomes less reliant on sources of government funding, which may be available for a limited time. Many community organizations or coalitions receive "seed" or "start up" grants from the government, but fail to remember there are time limits (up to three to five years) on that funding. Government programs cannot be counted on for long-term program funding. That is why it is important to start immediately in putting together a self-sufficiency plan.

Self-sufficiency is an indicator of community buy-in, as well as longevity and stability of a program. Lummie Jones, Chair of Safe and Sober Youth in Chesterfield County, VA, agrees. "If we really believe a program is worthwhile, then as a community, we have a responsibility to make sure it keeps going. Underage drinking is a community problem and it is not the government's job to solve all our problems," she said.

The day an organization starts to do business is the day to begin a self-sufficiency effort.

Self-sufficiency can be achieved through a variety of approaches. The approach each project implements depends on whether the program is a separate non-profit entity or is housed in a state or local government agency. Non-profit organizations often find it easier to obtain outside sources of funding because they do not face the same restrictions that sometimes limit government agencies. Government-affiliated organizations must seek help in ways that do not violate state or local policies or the law, but do provide needed assistance.

Sources of funding include the following:

In most cases, no one approach can achieve self-sufficiency. A variety of approaches, however, can provide consistent, long term funding to help an organization achieve its goals and objectives. The following is an in-depth discussion of each of the strategies.


Government Grant Funding

Federal government funding for underage drinking prevention projects may be available from the following grant programs.

U.S. Department of Transportation

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

All three programs are administered by SHSO in each state, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Information on contacting state highway safety offices is located in the Resource Section of this booklet.

U.S. Department of Justice

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

OJJDP provides funding for juvenile justice programs to States, territories, localities, and private organizations through block grants and discretionary funding. Block funding, through regular Formula Grants and State Challenge and Prevention money, goes to States and territories. OJJDP also is helping States address the problem of underage drinking through block grants, discretionary programs, and training and technical assistance. The Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws program (formerly the Combating Underage Drinking program) is helping all 50 States and the District of Columbia to develop comprehensive and coordinated initiatives to enforce State laws that prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and to prevent the purchase or consumption of alcoholic beverages by minors (defined as individuals under 21 years of age).

Each State and the District of Columbia received a block grant funding to improve the enforcement of underage drinking laws. States are using these funds to support activities in one or more of the three areas outlined in the legislation: enforcement, public education activities, and innovative programs. Each governor and the mayor of the District Columbia designated an agency to serve as the point of contact to apply for, receive, and administer the block grant.

OJJDP also awarded discretionary
funds to help communities develop comprehensive approaches to the problem of underage drinking, with an emphasis on increasing law enforcement activity. Those receiving these funds include California, Connecticut, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Nevada, North Carolina, Virginia, Washington and Puerto Rico.

Information on contacting OJJDP is listed in the Resource Section of this guide.

Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)

The Bureau of Justice Assistance supports innovative programs that strengthen the Nation's criminal justice system by assisting State and local governments in combating violent crime and drug abuse. Established by the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as amended, BJA accomplishes its mission by providing funding, evaluation, training, technical assistance, and information support to State and community criminal justice programs, thus effectively forming partnerships with State and local jurisdictions.

Information on contacting BJA is listed in the Resource Section of this guide.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control (NCIPC)

The NCIPC extramural research program funds and monitors research in three phases of injury control: prevention, acute care, and rehabilitation. The program also funds research in the two major disciplines used in injury control research: biomechanics and epidemiology. Research supported by the program focuses on the broad-based need to control morbidity, disability, death, and costs associated with injury. The research program classifies injuries as intentional, unintentional, or occupational: Intentional injuries result from interpersonal, or self-inflicted, violence and include homicide, assaults, suicide and suicide attempts, elder and child abuse, domestic violence, and rape. Unintentional, or unintended, injuries include those that result from such causes as motor vehicle crashes, falls, fires, poisonings, and drowning. Occupational injuries occur at the work site and include unintentional as well as intentional trauma. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) works to reduce morbidity, disability, mortality, and costs associated with injuries.

Information on contacting NCIPC is located in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)

CSAP's mission is to provide national leadership in the Federal effort to prevent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems. These problems are intrinsically linked to other serious national problems such as crime, violence, rising health care costs, academic failure, HIV/AIDS, teen pregnancy, and low work productivity. CSAP connects people and resources to innovative ideas and strategies, and encourages efforts to reduce and eliminate alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems both in the United States and internationally. CSAP fosters the development of comprehensive, culturally appropriate prevention policies and systems that are based on scientifically defensible principles and target both individuals and the environments in which they live. CSAP participates in the development of new knowledge about prevention, disseminates it in a "user friendly" manner, and encourages its application in settings where it is likely to prevent or reduce substance abuse.

Information on contacting CSAP is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Indian Health Service

The Indian Health Service (IHS) is an agency within the U S Dept. of Health and Human Services responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people, and its goal is to assure that comprehensive, culturally acceptable personal and public health services are available and accessible to American Indian and Alaska Native people. The IHS provides a comprehensive health services delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives with opportunity for maximum tribal involvement in developing and managing programs to meet their health needs. The agency assists Indian tribes through health management training, technical assistance and human resource development, and provides comprehensive health care services, including hospital and ambulatory medical care, preventive and rehabilitative services, and development of community sanitation facilities.

Information on contacting the Indian Health Service is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Maternal and Child Health Bureau

The Title V Block Grant Program is designed to improve the health of all mothers and children in the nation through formula block grants to 59 States and other political jurisdictions. The purpose of this funding is the creation of federal-state partnerships to develop service systems that meet the critical challenges facing maternal and child health. This includes significantly reducing infant mortality, providing comprehensive care for women before, during, and after pregnancy and childbirth, providing preventive and primary care services for children and adolescents, providing comprehensive care for children and adolescents with special health care needs, immunizing all children, reducing adolescent pregnancy, and preventing injury and violence.

Information on contacting the Maternal and Child Health Bureau is listed in the Resource Section of this booklet.

U.S. Department of Education

Safe and Drug Free Schools Program

The Safe and Drug Free Schools Program provides funds and assistance to Governors, State Education Agencies, and local school districts to develop strategies and programs so that all schools will be safe, disciplined, and drug-free. The program administers a state formula grant program, discretionary grant competitions, and engages in extensive interagency collaboration.

Information on contacting the Safe and Drug Free Schools Program is located in the Resource Section of this booklet.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Federal Funding

All government grants require recipients to meet specific conditions and follow reporting requirements, which takes time and effort. If there is a grant being offered by a federal agency that fits within the organization’s mission statement and strategic plan, and the organization has the staff resources to monitor and complete the work, then it makes sense to pursue this option. However, organizations should not change their mission statement just to get funding.


Private Sector Funding from Businesses and Foundations

The private sector is the greatest source of potential funding for coalitions and organizations. Most major companies have either a separate foundation or giving program, and even small companies can be the source of contributions. There also are thousands of private foundations that might be interested in underage drinking prevention. In the resource section of this guide, there are listings of organizations that can assist a coalition in identifying potential private sector sources of funding.

When soliciting private sector donations, there is one hard and fast rule: "people give to people." That is why it is important to recruit prominent members of the community to serve on the coalition. Prominent people often know other prominent people who have sufficient resources to make private contributions.

Sometimes, however, it is not possible to recruit prominent, well-connected members who are willing to contact their associates and colleagues and request contributions. In many cases, coalitions and organizations are made up of citizen activists who are committed to the issue, but do not have the personal resources or contacts to raise a lot of money. Often these members join an organization to work on policies and programs, but they believe the role of fund raising is the responsibility of the executive director.

In the case of most underage drinking prevention groups, the coalition also includes public sector members who are involved because the mission relates to their jobs. These members may include police officers, school officials and prevention specialists. Although these and other board members may not know the presidents and CEO's of businesses in the community, they do know an array of people through their jobs, their children, and their places of worship. These relationships can also lead to successful self-sufficiency.

Organize events where everyone can participate, such as a race or walk, a duck race (see Ideas in the Resource Section), an art auction or a "garage" sale where members donate something for people to buy. The Resource Section includes a list of publications, which contain creative ideas on raising money.

Before beginning any self-sufficiency effort, it is always important that the organization seeking funding make a convincing argument for why they are deserving of support. Irma Simpson, manager of the Gannett Communities Fund, puts it this way, "Remember, you are selling a product or service and are asking a funder to invest in you. Therefore, you need a good reason why they should. A good question to ask yourself and answer for a potential funder is, 'Who would notice if you were not around?'"

Steps In Raising Private Sector Funds

Following are some recommended steps for putting together funding requests for private businesses, foundations, or government agencies.

Elements of a Private Sector Proposal

A good proposal is brief (unless otherwise indicated by the funding source). The narrative should be no more than 5 to 10 pages. The proposal should include the following:

Be neat and make sure there are no grammatical or spelling errors in the proposal. It is a good idea to have someone outside the organization review the proposal and/or grant request. If the proposal is not clear, compelling and convincing, then it needs to be revised and strengthened.

Appendix #1 is a "Proposal Writing Short Course," developed by The Foundation Center, which describes each of the elements of a good proposal in more detail. Appendix #2, a Proposal Checklist and Appendix #3, a Proposal Evaluation Form are also included to use after you have written a proposal to insure all the information has been included. The information is useful for proposals to both public and private sector funders.


Irma Simpson from Gannett provided some valuable tips based on her years of experience reviewing thousands of proposals each year. Following are her recommendations:

  • Collaboration is key because the private sector is being asked to do a lot more with the same amount of money. When possible, combine efforts with others in the community who are interested in the same issue.
  • Proposals should be brief and to the point. Write as though you are trying to recruit volunteers.
  • Avoid using jargon or acronyms. If you use an acronym, explain what it is the first time it is used.
  • Statistics are good, but should not be overdone. Charts and graphs are a good way to illustrate this information.
  • The budget should be detailed, with an explanation for line items. In-kind contributions should be kept separate.
  • Evaluation is very important. Explain what you have done and what is working. Give concrete reasons why the organization should stay in business.
  • Support letters are helpful, but need not be numerous. Pictures are always useful because they help the proposal reader understand what the writer is proposing.
  • Cover letters should describe what the organization does, what it wants from the funder, the contact person, and the amount requested.

Example of a Private Sector Giving Program

The Washington Regional Alcohol Program (WRAP)

WRAP established a membership program with various levels of support to encourage private sector businesses and individuals to join the organization. The levels of support include Platinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze levels of membership that are based on the amount of money corporations and individuals contribute each year. These companies are recognized in the organization’s newsletter and annual report. An annual solicitation is mailed out to current and prospective members. Board members and staff make follow up calls.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Sector Funding

The best way to demonstrate community buy-in and support is through active participation and funding from a variety of sources, including the private sector. Local financial support can increase the stability and longevity of a program. Raising funds from the private sector, however, can be time consuming and require a commitment from coalition or board members and staff to do the work that is necessary. Raising funds from the private sector also may take a longer time than many people expect. Foundations and private sector companies usually give at certain times of the year, and it is advisable to find out deadlines in advance.


In-Kind Contributions

Cold, hard cash is not the only way private sector businesses can support an underage drinking prevention or highway safety project. These groups can make contributions in-kind, which means providing a service and/or materials on behalf of the project.

It is important, however, to follow the same guidelines when requesting in-kind contributions as when asking for dollars. The recipient may not see dollars, but the expenditure is the same for the company or business and they should be recognized for their support.

Sometimes a corporation may be able to provide staff assistance in-kind. For instance, a company may be able to loan an executive to assist the organization on a short-term basis. Often this assistance will take the form of accounting or executive assistance that is invaluable to the coalition, which receives top level help without having to pay a top level salary.

Since most community organizations do not have budgets large enough to develop a professional media relations campaign, a corporation may be willing to provide assistance from their in-house public relations office or their outside advertising and media consultants.

Government agencies can also provide top-level expertise through technical assistance. As in the case of the loaned executive, the coalition receives the best help available and does not have to pay the cost.

Almost any activity, program, service or product that is required by an organization may be available in-kind from businesses, non-profits or other agencies. Strategies for obtaining in-kind contributions include the following:


Following is a partial list of many ways private sector businesses provide in-kind contributions:

  • Materials and/or information
  • Computers or other office equipment, furniture
  • Printing
  • Public service advertising in newspapers, radio and television
  • Office space
  • Meeting space
  • Food for meetings and events
  • Out of town travel, i.e., donated air miles
  • Volunteers
  • Graphic design and advertising assistance
  • Surveys, focus group research and analysis

Example of In-Kind Contribution Program

Community Traffic Safety Program (CTSP), Huntington, West Virginia

The CTSP developed a corporate outreach plan that included the following suggestions for private sector support:

Advantages and Disadvantages of In-Kind Contributions

Private sector organizations are often more willing to provide in-kind services than actual hard cash, which makes the job of obtaining the help easier. However, not everyone may see the value of an in-kind contribution. Some companies want to see a higher dollar for dollar match between government and private sector funding. It also may be difficult to quantify the in-kind contribution and equate it to actual dollars. Whenever possible, the coalition should make every effort to document in-kind contributions and estimate a dollar amount value to demonstrate widespread support for the effort.


Non-Profit Organizations

It is usually easier for non-profit organizations to raise money, particularly from foundations than it is for loosely organized, informal coalitions. Many foundations will give only to an organization that is qualified as a non-profit entity under the regulations of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Often the section number of the IRS Code dealing with non-profits, 501(c) (3), refers to these organizations.


Becoming a non-profit is not as daunting as many believe. Following is information drawn from The Chronicle of Philanthropy about how to avoid the most common stumbling blocks when starting a non-profit organization.

  • Conduct extensive research.
    • The biggest mistake organizers make is failing to figure out whether a new charity is really needed in the community.

  • Choose an appropriate board.
    • A typical board of directors has 15 to 20 members. Experts advise keeping the number as small as possible.
    • The initial board is almost always formed by the people who are most committed to the charity's cause.

  • Create a mission statement.
    • Before an organization takes the legal steps to become a charity, it should craft a mission statement that explains the group's goals.

  • Keep the legal paperwork up-to-date.
    • Groups need to take two steps to operate as a tax-exempt charity — become legally incorporated and file with the Internal Revenue Service for charity status.

  • Draft a sound business plan.
    • Charities are often started by people with a great idea who plunge in without a good business plan. To work out a reasonable budget, experts advise talking to other organizations that are similar in size, services and missions.

How To Apply to the IRS for Tax-Exempt Status

To qualify as a charity under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, an organization must prove that it operates exclusively for religious, educational, scientific, or similar purposes. Donors to such groups may take charitable contribution deductions from their taxes. Following are the basic steps involved in seeking charity status:

For more information, contact the Exempt Organizations Division of the IRS. Request a copy of Publication 557, Tax-Exempt Status for Your Organization, which outlines the basic procedures. Also ask for Form 1023 (to file for 501(c)(3) status), Form 8718 (to calculate the fee for filing the exemption), and Form SS-4 (to apply for an employer identification number). Contact information for the IRS is in the resource section of this guide, which also includes a list of organizations that can assist non-profits.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Becoming a Non-Profit Organization

Becoming a non-profit enables an organization to raise funds from the private sector, including the majority of foundations. However, before deciding to become a non-profit, an organization must be ready. There are a number of steps a group must take, such as forming a board of directors and adopting a set of by-laws. It is a big step that should be taken only when the group feels it is ready to become a more formalized entity. There are also certain accounting principles that must be followed, such as an annual audit, and there are restrictions on lobbying activities. (See Community How To Guide On Public Policy.)


Earmarked Public Funds

Government and foundation grants and contributions from private sector companies are not the only ways coalitions and organizations can achieve self-sufficiency. Earmarked public funds can also be a source of funding. Following is a description of the various types of earmarked funding sources.

Fines

Fines are monetary penalties that are assessed to individuals who violate certain laws, and are usually in addition to the fine established by the court. For example, a fine would be an additional charge assessed to individuals convicted of driving under the influence, or a fine assessed to liquor licensees that violate underage drinking laws.

Money from fines can be used to pay court costs, go to the general government fund, or given to prevention organizations with legislative approval. Because the latter alternative requires legislative approval, obtaining funding from fines can be difficult and time consuming, but not impossible.

Example of a Program Supported By Fines

New York State STOP DWI Program

In November of 1981, New York State passed a law which established the nation's first broad-based, financially self-sustaining alcohol and traffic safety program entitled "Special Traffic Safety Options Program for Driving While Intoxicated" or STOP DWI. STOP DWI established minimum fines and/or jail terms for DWI or (Driving While Impaired) offenses and provided for the use of fine monies by local counties for the creation of alcohol and highway safety programs.

The new law was an outgrowth of work by the Governor's Alcohol and Highway Safety Task Force, which conducted a study of the state's alcohol and highway safety system and recommended the change. One key to the success of this effort was the support from members of the State Legislature, particularly by a member of the State Senate who had considerable influence and prestige among his colleagues. He also had lost a family member in an alcohol-related crash. Without that support and personal commitment, it might have been far more difficult to pass the law. Today, the program generates approximately $21 million in funding annually and is considered a model for similar programs.

Fees

Fees are the amounts an organization charges the public for materials and/or services they provide. Many states and communities charge fees for DWI education for drunk drivers, defensive driving courses for corporate fleets, and substance abuse prevention services for juvenile programs, to name a few.

Examples of Programs Supported by Fees

Traffic Safety Education and Enforcement Fund (TSEEF)

In New Mexico, the Traffic Safety Education and Enforcement Fund (TSEEF) is funded through legislation, which provides for a $3 fee to be added to charges associated with every traffic citation. Revenues from the fee are collected by the courts, deposited in the TSEEF fund and appropriated by the Traffic Safety Bureau. Fifty percent is allocated to the law enforcement agency that issued the citation, 20 percent is allocated to new traffic safety education programs and the remainder to existing traffic safety education programs. One of the programs funded through TSEEF is a Traffic Safety Youth Campaign, which promotes safe driving behavior among 15-24 year olds.

Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS) – Novice Driver Road Map

The Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS) has developed a Novice Driver Road Map to encourage parents or other adults to spend time practicing behind the wheel with novice drivers. NETS charges $14.95 for each package.

Other Types of Earmarked Funds

While earmarked public funds can represent an on-going, stable source of funding, convincing a local or state government to relinquish them is very difficult because they are also a source of funding for government. Obviously, if state and local governments can collect substantial amounts from such things as fines, fees and surcharges, they can tax citizens at a lower rate.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Earmarked Public Funds

There are advantages and disadvantages to relying on earmarked public funds, including the following:

Appendix #4 is an Earmarked Public Funds Inventory Form which should be completely filled out before an organization or coalition decides to pursue an effort to obtain these kinds of funds.

Recommended Action Steps

Once an organization has completed the inventory form and determines it is feasible to embark on a program to obtain earmarked public funds, they should complete the following tasks:


Permanent Part of State or Local Government

Becoming a permanent part of state or local government is another strategy for achieving self-sufficiency. The success of this approach depends on whether the project/program meets a defined need within government.

Examples of State or Local Government Programs

Virginia Community Traffic Safety Program (CTSP)

Community Traffic Safety Programs in Virginia were made part of the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) and staffed by state employees. Additional support was provided by in-kind contributions from the community. Top management of the DMV supported the concept because it enhanced the department's commitment to promoting traffic safety at the grassroots level.

Travis County Underage Drinking Prevention Project

The Travis County Underage Drinking Prevention Project (see Pilot Projects) is housed in the Travis County Attorney's Office and receives approximately ten percent of its funding from a contingency fund in that office. The project is working to increase that level and eventually become a permanent part of the office.

"One of our goals," said project coordinator Gloria Souhami, "is to increase the visibility of the project and consequently increase the demand for service. I’m also inviting the county attorney to more events, thereby demonstrating how the project can help his office and local government achieve their goals," she said. In the future, the underage drinking prevention project may become linked with the domestic violence prevention initiative also housed in the County Attorney's Office, allowing the programs to share resources and streamline funding sources.

Advantages and Disadvantages of State or Local Government Programs

Being a permanent part of government stabilizes funding, and project coordinators are free from the task of constantly searching for dollars. It does not, however, eliminate the necessity to justify the program's continuation. State legislatures and county councils do not fund every element of an agency's budget. Department heads must demonstrate that taxpayer dollars are being spent wisely. That is why it is critical for both public and private sector programs to constantly evaluate their effectiveness.

As a part of government the project may be limited in the kinds of activities and programs in which it can engage. Depending on the agency, some projects are discouraged from conducting their own media outreach and are urged to work through the agency's public information office, which may not have time or an interest in the project's issue.

Government employees may be strictly prohibited from engaging in direct advocacy on funding for their agency or project budget, which changes but does not eliminate their ability to work with legislators. Government employees can educate legislators and other individuals and provide expertise and technical assistance, but the nuts and bolts of direct advocacy must be left to outside organizations. Finally, many government programs are prohibited from accepting direct contributions from the private sector and most private foundations do not provide funding to governmental entities.


Contracts

Contracts are similar to grants and fees and may be provided by a government agency or a private sector organization. In a contract, a coalition or organization agrees to perform specific tasks that are usually set forth in a contract document signed by both parties. The amount of the contract is also usually specified in the contract document, indicating the work will be done for a set amount of money. Contracts are legal documents and should be reviewed by a lawyer to insure everything is done correctly.

An example of a contract would be a county juvenile services agency that contracts with an underage drinking prevention coalition to provide training to parents of underage youth who have been charged with alcohol violations.


Conclusion

This booklet is designed to inform coalitions and project managers about various strategies for achieving self-sufficiency and to stimulate their creative thinking. Finding appropriate resources for your coalition or organization —whether that is people, money, materials, or supplies—is the key to success.

Structure a self-sufficiency program, which serves the needs and suits the goals and character of each individual organization. What may work for one group may not be the solution for another. There is no magic to achieving self-sufficiency and achieving that goal may sometimes seem difficult. The ultimate goal of reducing underage drinking makes the task that much easier.


APPENDICES


Appendix 1 -- A Proposal Writing Short Course

PDF -- A Proposal Writing Short Course


Introduction

The subject of this short course is proposal writing. But the proposal does not stand alone. It must be part of a process of planning and of research on, outreach to, and cultivation of potential foundation and corporate donors.

This process is grounded in the conviction that a partnership should develop between the nonprofit and the donor. When you spend a great deal of your time seeking money, it is hard to remember that it can also be difficult to give money away. In fact, the dollars contributed by a foundation or corporation have no value until they are attached to solid programs in the nonprofit sector.

This truly is an ideal partnership. The non-profits have the ideas and the capacity to solve problems, but no dollars with which to implement them. The foundations and corporations have the financial resources but not the other resources needed to create programs. Bring the two together effectively, and the result is a dynamic collaboration.

You need to follow a step-by-step process in the search for private dollars. It takes time and persistence to succeed. After you have written a proposal, it could take as long as a year to obtain the funds needed to carry it out. And even a perfectly written proposal submitted to the right prospect may be rejected.

Raising funds is an investment in the future. Your aim should be to build a network of foundation and corporate funders, many of which give small gifts on a fairly steady basis and a few of which give large, periodic grants. By doggedly pursuing the various steps of the process, each year you can retain most of your regular supporters and strike a balance with the comings and goings of larger donors.

The recommended process is not a formula to be rigidly adhered to. It is a suggested approach that can be adapted to fit the needs of any nonprofit and the peculiarities of each situation. Fundraising is an art as well as a science. You must bring your own creativity to it and remain flexible.

Gathering Background Information

The first thing you will need to do in writing the master proposal is to gather the documentation for it. You will require background documentation in three areas: concept, program, and finance.

If all of this information is not readily available to you, determine who will help you gather each type of information. If you are part of a small nonprofit with no staff, a knowledgeable board member will be the logical choice. If you are in a larger agency, there should be program and financial support staff who can help you. Once you know with whom to talk, identify the questions to ask. This data-gathering process makes the actual writing much easier. And by focusing again on mission and available resources, it also helps key people within your agency seriously consider the project’s value.

Concept

It is important that you have a good sense of how the project fits into the philosophy and mission of your agency. The need that the proposal is addressing must also be documented. These concepts must be well articulated in the proposal. Funders want to know that a project reinforces the overall direction of an organization, and they may need to be convinced that the case for the project is compelling. You should collect background data on your organization and on the need to be addressed so that your arguments are well documented.

Program

Here is a checklist of the program information you require:

Financials

You will not be able to pin down all the expenses associated with the project until the program details and timing have been worked out. Thus, the main financial data gathering takes place after the narrative part of the master proposal has been written. However, at this stage you do need to sketch out the broad outlines of the budget to be sure that the costs are in reasonable proportion to the outcomes you anticipate. If it appears that the costs will be prohibitive, even with a foundation grant, you should then scale back your plans or adjust them to remove the least cost-effective expenditures.

Components of a Proposal

Executive Summary An umbrella statement of your case and summary of the entire proposal.
1 page
Statement of Need Why this project is necessary.
2 pages
Project Description Nuts and bolts of how the project will be implemented.
3 pages
Budget Financial description of the project plus explanatory notes.
1 page
Organization Information History and governing structure of the nonprofit; its primary activities, audience and services.
1 page
Conclusion Summary of the proposal’s main points.
2 paragraphs

The Executive Summary

This first page of the proposal is the most important section of the entire document. Here you will provide the reader with a snapshot of what is to follow. Specifically, it summarizes all of the key information and is a sales document designed to convince the reader that this project should be considered for support. Be certain to include the following:

Problem — A brief statement of the problem or need your agency has recognized and is prepared to address (one or two paragraphs).

Solution — A short description of the project, including what will take place and how many people will benefit from the program, how and where it will operate, for how long, and who will staff it (one or two paragraphs).

Funding requirements — An explanation of the amount of grant money required for the project and what your plans are for funding it in the future (one paragraph).

Organization and its expertise — A brief statement of the name, history, purpose, and activities of your agency, emphasizing its capacity to carry out this proposal (one paragraph).

The Statement of Need

If the funder reads beyond the executive summary, you have successfully piqued his or her interest. Your next task is to build on this initial interest in your project by enabling the funder to understand the problem that the project will remedy.

The statement of need will enable the reader to learn more about the issues. It presents the facts and evidence that support the need for the project and establishes that your nonprofit understands the problems and therefore can reasonably address them. The information used to support the case can come from authorities in the field, as well as from your agency’s own experience.

You want the need section to be succinct, yet persuasive. Like a good debater, you must assemble all the arguments. Then present them in a logical sequence that will readily convince the reader of their importance. As you marshal your arguments, consider the following six points.

  1. Decide which facts or statistics best support the project.

    Be sure the data you present are accurate. There are few things more embarrassing than to have the funder tell you that your information is out of date or incorrect. Information that is too generic or broad will not help you develop a winning argument for your project. Information that does not relate to your organization or the project you are presenting will cause the funder to question the entire proposal. There also should be a balance between the information presented and the scale of the program.

  2. Give the reader hope.

    The picture you paint should not be so grim that the solution appears hopeless. The funder will wonder if this investment in a grant would be worth it. Here’s an example of a solid statement of need: Impaired driving kills, but statistics prove that increased enforcement and education reduces the likelihood of death. Hence, a program to encourage prevention of impaired driving will reduce the risk of death. Avoid overstatement and overly emotional appeals.

  3. Decide if you want to put your project forward as a model.

    This could expand the base of potential funders, but serving as a model works only for certain types of projects. Don’t try to make this argument if it doesn’t really fit. Funders may well expect your agency to follow through with a replication plan if you present your project as a model. If the decision about a model is affirmative, you should document how the problem you are addressing occurs in other communities. Be sure to explain how your solution could be a solution for others as well.

  4. Determine whether it is reasonable to portray the need as acute.

    You are asking the funder to pay more attention to your proposal because either the problem you address is worse than others or the solution you propose makes more sense than others. Here is an example of a balanced but weighty statement: “Drug abuse is a national problem. Each day, children all over the country die from drug overdose. In the South Bronx the problem is worse. More children die here than any place else. It is an epidemic. Hence, our drug prevention program is needed more in the South Bronx than in any other part of the city.”

  5. Decide whether you can demonstrate that your program addresses the need differently or better than other projects that preceded it.

    It is often difficult to describe the need for your project without being critical of the competition. But you must be careful not to do so. Being critical of other non-profits will not be well received by the funder. It may cause the funder to look more carefully at your own project to see why you felt you had to build your case by demeaning others. The funder may have invested in these other projects or may begin to consider them, now that you have brought them to their attention.

    If possible, you should make it clear that you are cognizant of, and on good terms with, others doing work in your field. Keep in mind that today’s funders are very interested in collaboration. They may even ask why you are not collaborating with those you view as key competitors. So at the least you need to describe how your work complements, but does not duplicate, the work of others.

  6. Avoid circular reasoning.

    In circular reasoning, you present the absence of your solution as the actual problem. Then your solution is offered as the way to solve the problem. For example, the circular reasoning for promoting alcohol- and drug-free activities for youth might go like this: “One of the reasons youth drink is because they cite a lack of things to do. Sponsoring alcohol- and drug-free dances, parties or films would help to solve that problem.” A more persuasive case would refer to statements from young people who are committed to help with the planning of the activities.

    The statement might also refer to any survey data that cites a lack of recreation or entertainment options as a reason why youth drink alcohol.

The statement of need does not have to be long and involved. Short, concise information captures the reader’s attention.

The Project Description

This section of your proposal should have four subsections: objectives, methods, staffing/administration, and evaluation. Together, objectives and methods dictate staffing and administrative requirements. They then become the focus of the evaluation to assess the results of the project. Taken together, the four subsections present an interlocking picture of the total project.

Objectives

Objectives are the measurable outcomes of the program. They define your methods. Your objectives must be tangible, specific, concrete, measurable, and achievable in a specified time period. Grantseekers often confuse objectives with goals, which are conceptual and more abstract. For the purpose of illustration, here is the goal of a project with a subsidiary objective:

Goal: Our after-school program will help children read better.

Objective: Our after-school remedial education program will assist fifty children in improving their reading scores by one grade level as demonstrated on standardized reading tests administered after participating in the program for six months.

The goal in this case is abstract: improving reading, while the objective is much more specific. It is achievable in the short term (six months) and measurable (improving fifty children’s reading scores by one grade level). With competition for dollars so great, well-articulated objectives are increasingly critical to a proposal’s success.

Using a different example, there are at least four types of objectives:

  1. Behavioral — A human action is anticipated.

    Example: Fifty of the seventy children participating will learn to swim.

  2. Performance — A specific time frame within which a behavior will occur, at an expected proficiency level, is expected.

    Example: Fifty of the seventy children will learn to swim within six months and will pass a basic swimming proficiency test administered by a Red Cross-certified lifeguard.

  3. Process — The manner in which something occurs is an end in itself.

    Example: We will document the teaching methods utilized, identifying those with the greatest success.

  4. Product — A tangible item results.

    Example: A manual will be created to be used in teaching swimming to this age and proficiency group in the future.

In any given proposal, you will find yourself setting forth one or more of these types of objectives, depending on the nature of your project. Be certain to present the objectives very clearly. Make sure that they do not become lost in verbage and that they stand out on the page. You might, for example, use numbers, bullets, or indentations to denote the objectives in the text. Above all, be realistic in setting objectives. Don’t promise what you can’t deliver. Remember, the funder will want to be told in the final report that the project actually accomplished these objectives.

Methods

By means of the objectives, you have explained to the funder what will be achieved by the project. The methods section describes the specific activities that will take place to achieve the objectives. It might be helpful to divide our discussion of methods into the following: how, when, and why.

The methods section enables the reader to visualize the implementation of the project. It should convince the reader that your agency knows what it is doing, thereby establishing its credibility.

Staffing/Administration

In describing the methods, you will have mentioned staffing for the project. You now need to devote a few sentences to discussing the number of staff, their qualifications, and specific assignments. Details about individual staff members involved in the project can be included either as part of this section or in the appendix, depending on the length and importance of this information.

“Staffing” may refer to volunteers or to consultants, as well as to paid staff. Most proposal writers do not develop staffing sections for projects that are primarily volunteer run. Describing tasks that volunteers will undertake, however, can be most helpful to the proposal reader. Such information underscores the value added by the volunteers as well as the cost-effectiveness of the project.

For a project with paid staff, be certain to describe which staff will work full time and which will work part time on the project. Identify staff already employed by your nonprofit and those to be recruited specifically for the project. How will you free up the time of an already fully deployed individual?

Salary and project costs are affected by the qualifications of the staff. Delineate the practical experience you require for key staff, as well as level of expertise and educational background. If an individual has already been selected to direct the program, summarize his or her credentials and include a brief biographical sketch in the appendix. A strong project director can help influence a grant decision.

Describe for the reader your plans for administering the project. This is especially important in a large operation, if more than one agency is collaborating on the project, or if you are using a fiscal agent. It needs to be crystal clear who is responsible for financial management, project outcomes, and reporting.

Evaluation

An evaluation plan should not be left for consideration as your project is winding down; instead, it should be built into the project. Including an evaluation plan in your proposal indicates that you take your objectives seriously and want to know how well you have achieved them. Evaluation is also a sound management tool. Like strategic planning, it helps a nonprofit refine and improve its program. An evaluation can often be the best means for others to learn from your experience.

There are two types of formal evaluation. One measures the product; the other analyzes the process. Either or both might be appropriate to your project. The approach you choose will depend on the nature of the project and its objectives. For either type, you will need to describe the manner in which evaluation information will be collected and how the data will be analyzed. You should present your plan for how the evaluation and its results will be reported and the audience to which it will be directed. For example, it might be used internally or be shared with the funder, or it might deserve a wider audience. Your funder might even have an opinion about the scope of this dissemination

The Budget

The budget for your proposal may be as simple as a one-page statement of projected expenses. Or your proposal may require a more complex presentation, perhaps including a page on projected support and revenue and notes explaining various items of expense or of revenue.

Expense Budget

As you prepare to assemble the budget, go back through the proposal narrative and make a list of all personnel and non-personnel items related to the operation of the project. Be sure that you list not only new costs that will be incurred if the project is funded but also any ongoing expenses for items that will be allocated to the project. Then get the relevant costs from the person in your agency who is responsible for keeping the books. You may need to estimate the proportions of your agency’s ongoing expenses that should be charged to the project and any new costs, such as salaries for project personnel not yet hired. Put the costs you have identified next to each item on your list.

Your list of budget items and the calculations you have done to arrive at a dollar figure for each item should be summarized on worksheets. You should keep these to remind yourself how the numbers were developed. These worksheets can be useful as you continue to develop the proposal and discuss it with funders; they are also a valuable tool for monitoring the project once it is under way and for reporting after completion of the grant. A portion of a worksheet for a year-long project might look like the following:

Item Description Cost
Executive director Supervision 10% of salary = $10,000
25% benefits = $ 2,500
Project director Full time 11 months at $35,000 = $32,083
25% benefits = $ 8,025
Tutors 12 working 10 hours per week for three months 12 x 10 x 13 x $ 4.50 = $ 7,020
Office space Requires 25% of current space 25% x $20,000 = $ 5,000
Overhead 20% of project cost 20% x $64,628 = $12,926

With your worksheets in hand, you are ready to prepare the expense budget. For most projects, costs should be grouped into subcategories, selected to reflect the critical areas of expense. All significant costs should be broken out within the subcategories, but small ones can be combined on one line. You might divide your expense budget into personnel and non-personnel costs; your personnel subcategories might include salaries, benefits, and consultants.

Subcategories under non-personnel costs might include travel, equipment, and printing, for example, with a dollar figure attached to each line.

Budget Narrative

A narrative portion of the budget is used to explain any unusual line items in the budget and is not always needed. If costs are straightforward and the numbers tell the story clearly, explanations are redundant. If you decide a budget narrative is needed, you can structure it in one of two ways. You can create “Notes to the Budget,” with footnote-style numbers on the line items in the budget keyed to numbered explanations. If really extensive or more general explanation is required, you can structure the budget narrative as just that—straight text. Remember though, the basic narrative about the project and your organization belong elsewhere in the proposal, not in the budget narrative.

Organizational Information and Conclusion

Organizational Information

Normally a resume of your nonprofit organization should come at the end of your proposal. Your natural inclination may be to put this information up front in the document. But it is usually better to sell the need for your project and then your agency’s ability to carry it out.

It is not necessary to overwhelm the reader with facts about your organization. This information can be conveyed easily by attaching a brochure or other prepared statement. In two pages or less, tell the reader when your nonprofit came into existence; state its mission, being certain to demonstrate how the subject of the proposal fits within or extends that mission; and describe the organization’s structure, programs, and special expertise.

Discuss the size of the board, how board members are recruited, and their level of participation. Give the reader a feel for the makeup of the board. (You should include the full board list in an appendix.) If your agency is composed of volunteers or has an active volunteer group, describe the function that the volunteers fill. Provide details on the staff, including the numbers of full and part-time staff, and their levels of expertise.

Describe the kinds of activities in which your staff engage. Explain briefly the assistance you provide. Describe the audience you serve, any special or unusual needs they face, and why they rely on your agency. Cite the number of people who are reached through your programs. Tying all of the information about your nonprofit together, cite your agency’s expertise, especially as it relates to the subject of your proposal.

Conclusion

Every proposal should have a concluding paragraph or two. This is a good place to call attention to the future, after the grant is completed. If appropriate, you should outline some of the follow-up activities that might be undertaken to begin to prepare your funders for your next request. Alternatively, you should state how the project might carry on without further grant support.

This section is also the place to make a final appeal for your project. Briefly reiterate what your nonprofit wants to do and why it is important. Underscore why your agency needs funding to accomplish it. Don’t be afraid at this stage to use a bit of emotion to solidify your case

What Happens Next?

Submitting your proposal is nowhere near the end of your involvement in the grantmaking process. Grant review procedures vary widely, and the decision-making process can take anywhere from a few weeks to six months. During the review process, the funder may ask for additional information either directly from you or from outside consultants or professional references. Invariably, this is a difficult time for the grantseeker. You need to be patient but persistent. Some grantmakers outline their review procedures in annual reports or application guidelines. If you are unclear about the process, don’t hesitate to ask.

If your hard work results in a grant, take a few moments to acknowledge the funder’s support with a letter of thanks. You also need to find out whether the funder has specific forms, procedures, and deadlines for reporting the progress of your project. Clarifying your responsibilities as a grantee at the outset, particularly with respect to financial reporting, will prevent misunderstandings and more serious problems later.

Nor is rejection necessarily the end of the process. If you’re unsure why your proposal was rejected, ask. Did the funder need additional information? Would they be interested in considering the proposal at a future date? Now might also be the time to begin cultivation of a prospective funder. Put them on your mailing list so that they can become further acquainted with your organization. Remember, there’s always next year.

This short course in proposal writing was excerpted from The Foundation Center’s Center’s Guide to Proposal Writing (New York: The Foundation Center, 1993), by Jane C. Geever and Patricia McNeill, fundraising consultants with extensive experience in the field. The Foundation Center’s Guide to Proposal Writing and other resources on the subject are available for free use in Foundation Center libraries and Cooperating Collections.

Additional Readings

Burns, Michael E. Proposal Writer’s Guide. New Haven, CT: Development & Technical Assistance Center.

Coley, Soraya M., and Cynthia Scheinberg. Proposal Writing. Newburg Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Gooch, Judith Mirick. Writing Winning Proposals. Washington, D.C.: Council for Advancement and Support of Education.

Hall, Mary. Getting Funded: A Complete Guide to Proposal Writing. 3rd ed. Portland, OR: Continuing Education Publications.

Kiritz, Norton J. Program Planning and Proposal Writing. Expanded version. Los Angeles, CA: The Grantsmanship Center.

Copyright , The Foundation Center. All rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, and/or distribute this document in whole or in part for non-commercial purposes without fee is hereby granted provided that this notice and appropriate credit to the Foundation Center is included in all copies. Commercial use of this document requires prior written consent from The Foundation Center (http://fdncenter.org).


Appendix 2 -- Proposal Checklist

PDF -- Proposal Checklist


Appendix 3 -- Proposal Checklist and Evaluation Form

PDF -- Proposal Checklist and Evaluation Form


Appendix 4 -- Earmarked Public Funds Inventory Form

PDF -- Earmarked Public Funds Inventory Form


RESOURCES


Resources Cited In How To Guide

Community Traffic Safety Program (CTSP) Huntington, WV
Governor's Highway Safety Representative
Criminal Justice & Highway Safety Office
1204 Kanawha Boulevard, East
Charleston, WV 25301
304-558-8814

Network of Employers for Traffic Safety
1900 L Street, NW, Suite 705
Washington, DC 20036
202-452-6005
Fax: 202-223-7012
E-mail: nets@trafficsafety.org
Web site: http://www.trafficsafety.org

New York Stop DWI Program
Governor's Highway Safety Representative
Department of Motor Vehicles
Swan Street Building
Empire State Plaza
Albany, NY 12228
518-474-0841

Safe and Sober Youth Coalition
Executive Director
Children at Risk Today
14005 Steeplestone Drive, Suite A
Midlothian, VA 23113
804-378-7752
Fax: 804-378-7752

Traffic Safety Education and Enforcement Fund (TSEEF), New Mexico
Governor's Highway Safety Representative
Highway & Transportation Dept.
P.O. Box 1149
1120 Cerillos Road
Sante Fe, NM 87504-1149
505-827-5110

Travis County Underage Drinking Prevention Project
Director
P.O. Box 1748
Austin, TX 78767
512-473-4229
Fax: 512-473-9316
E-mail: gloria.souhami@co.travis.tx.us

Virginia's Community Traffic Safety Program (CTSP)
Governor's Highway Safety Representative
Department of Motor Vehicles
P.O. Box 27412
2300 West Broad Street
Richmond, VA 23269
804-367-6602

Washington Regional Alcohol Program (WRAP)
Kurt Erickson, Executive Director
8027 Leesburg Pike, Suite 314
Vienna, VA 22182
703-893-0461
Fax: 703-893-0465
Web site: http://www.wrap.org


Government Resources

Internal Revenue Service
1111 Constitution Avenue, NW
CP:E:EO, Room 6411
Washington, DC 20224
202-622-8100
Fax: 202-622-5088
Web site: http://www.irs.gov

U.S. Department of Education
OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
Safe and Drug Free Schools
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20202
800-USA-LEARN
Fax: 202-401-0689
Web site: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CENTER FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION
5600 Fishers Lane, Rockwall II
Rockville, MD 20857
301-443-0365
Web site: http://www.samhsa.gov/csap

INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE
Parklawn Building
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
301-443-3593
Fax: 301-443-0507.
Web site: http://www.ihs.gov

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH BUREAU
Office of State and Community Health
Room 18-31, Parklawn Building
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
301-443-2204
Fax: 301-443-9354
E-mail: BlockGrantGuidance@hrsa.gov
Web site: http://www.mchdata.net

NATIONAL CENTER FOR INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Mailstop K65
4770 Buford Highway, NE
Atlanta, GA 30341-3724
770-488-1506
Fax: 770-488-1667
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc

U.S. Department of Justice

OFFICE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION (OJJDP)
810 7th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
202-307-5911
Fax: 202-307-2093
Web site: http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE
810 7th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
202-307-5911
Fax: 202-307-2093
Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

U.S. Department of Transportation

NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION
400 7th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-9588
Fax: 202-366-2766
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

FINANCIAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY STUDY & GUIDELINES
DOT HS # 808 240, 1995
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
400 7th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-6616 or 202-366-9588
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

SAFE COMMUNITIES SERVICE CENTER
c/o NHTSA Region VI
819 Taylor Street, Room 8A38
Fort Worth, TX 76102
Phone: 817-978-3653
Fax: 817-978-8339
E-mail: Safe.Communities@nhtsa.dot.gov
Web site: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/safecommunities

Federal Government Agencies
Web site: http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/fedgov.htm
Includes a list of and links to all agencies and their administrations in the federal government.


Grant Information—Government

Fedix
555 Quince Orchard Road, Suite 360
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
301-975-0103
Fax: 301-975-0109
Web site: http://www.fie.com

The Federal Information Exchange, a collaborative effort run by several federal agencies, sends out free electronic messages to let people know about grants that are available from federal research and education programs.

GPO Access
202-512-1530 or 888-293-6498
Fax: 202-512-1262
Web site: http://www.gpo.gov

This site provides links to government data bases, some of which include information on government grants. It links to the Federal Register, which contains a searchable list of federal grants that links to detailed guidelines.

GrantsNet
Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
202-619-0257
877-696-6775
Web site: http://www.dhhs.gov

Guide to Federal Funding for Governments and Nonprofits
Cost: $339.95, plus $14.95 for postage and handling
Edwards, Bodell and Lin, Editors
ISBN 0933544715 (listed at Barnes and Noble)
Web site: http://www.bn.com

This book contains information on 387 federal programs which provide grants to state and local government agencies and private non-profit organizations. Purchasers receive the two-volume guide, a twice-monthly calendar of federal grant deadlines, and periodic updates on changes in grants programs.


Grant Information—Private Sector

The Chronicle of Philanthropy
1255 Twenty-Third Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
1-800-728-2819
Web site: http://www.philanthropy.com

The Chronicle of Philanthropy is the newspaper of the non-profit world. Published every other week, it is the No. 1 news source for charity leaders, fund raisers, grant makers, and other people involved in the philanthropic enterprise. In print, The Chronicle is published biweekly except the first last two weeks in June and the last two weeks in December (a total of 24 issues a year). A subscription includes full access to the Web site and news updates by e-mail at no extra charge. The Web site offers the complete contents of the new issue, an archive of articles from the past two years, and more than four years' worth of grant listings — all fully searchable. The Chronicle Guide to Grants is an electronic data base of all corporate and foundation grants listed in The Chronicle of Philanthropy since 1995. Subscriptions are available for periods of one week to one year. There is a significant discount if the organization is a subscriber to The Chronicle of Philanthropy.

Foundation Center
79 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10003-3076
212-620-4230
Web site: http://www.fdncenter.org

Washington, D.C.
1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 938
Washington, D.C. 20036
202-331-1400

Atlanta
50 Hurt Plaza, Suite 150
Atlanta, GA 30303-2914
404-880-0095

Cleveland
1422 Euclid Avenue, Suite 1356
Cleveland, OH 44115-2001
216-861-1933

San Francisco
312 Sutter Street, Suite 606
San Francisco, CA 94108-4314
415-397-0902

The Foundation Center is an independent nonprofit information clearinghouse estab-lished to foster public understanding of the foundation field by collecting, organizing, analyzing, and disseminating information on foundations, corporate giving, and related subjects. The Center provides grant seekers, grant makers, researchers, journalists and the general public with easy access to a range of valuable resources, including the following:

Resources available for purchase from the Center include the following:

Note: The cost of these publications range from $200-$300 for a year’s subscription. Organizations with small budgets may consider partnering with other organizations in the community to share the cost of these publications.

Of special interest to organizations working to reduce underage drinking are the following:

Note: The cost of these publications range from $75 to $100 for a year’s subscription.

Fundsnet Services Online
419 Inmaculada Street
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00915-1234
Web site: http://www.fundsnetservices.com
E-mail: webmail@Fundsnet Services

Fundsnet™ is a privately owned web site created in 1996 to assist nonprofit organizations, college and universities and grant writers find financial resources on the Internet. The membership section includes over 1,500 addresses to access information about grant writing, grant seeking, grant makers, and other grant related resources. The cost for membership is $44.95 per year.

Grantsmanship Center
1125 W. Sixth Street, Fifth Floor
P.O. Box 17220
Los Angeles, CA 90017
213-482-9860
Fax: 213-482-9863
Web site: http://www.tgci.com

TGCI was founded in 1972 to offer grantsmanship training and low-cost publications to nonprofit organizations and government agencies. TGCI conducts some 200 workshops annually in grantsmanship, proposal writing and fundraising. The Center lists daily announcements of grants from the Federal Register and Commerce Business Daily as well as sections on arts foundations, community foundations, corporate foundations, donors, associations of grant makers, international foundations, private grant makers, and charities.

National Society of Fundraising Executives
1101 King Street, Suite 700
Alexandria, VA 22314-2967
800-666-3863
Fax: 703-684-0540
Web site: http://www.nsfre.org

The National Society of Fundraising Executives (NSFRE) is the professional association for individuals responsible for generating philanthropic support for a wide variety of not-for-profit, charitable organizations. Founded in 1960, NSFRE advances philanthropy through its more than 20,000 members in 154 chapters throughout North America. In addition to certification and professional standards, NSFRE provides education programs and information about fundraising through their resource center. Their new web site includes a calendar of events, articles and a directory of fundraising consultants.

Research Grant Guides, Inc.
P.O. Box 1214
Loxahatchee, FL 33470
561-795-6129
Fax: 561-795-7794
Web site: http://www.researchgrant.com

Research Grant Guides publishes six directories in the following categories: Operating Grants, Building and Equipment Grants, Education Grants, Health Grants, Social Service Grants, Computer and High Tech Grants, and Grants for Organizations Serving People with Disabilities. Each directory contains the following:

Information in the Directory of Operating Grants is not restricted to a specified project or a set of activities. These grants can support general, ongoing operating expenses that sustain an organization. Grants can underwrite salaries, rent, mortgage payments, utilities, office supplies, and additional overhead expenses.


Non-Profit Resources

National Center for Non-Profit Boards
1828 L Street, NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 20036-5104
202-452-6262 or 800-883-6262
Fax: 202-452-6299
Web site: http://www.ncnb.org

NCNB is the world's largest, most comprehensive publisher of material on nonprofit governance, offering more than 100 booklets, books, videos, and audio tapes. In addition to printed materials, NCNB provides assistance and resources through its Information Center, web site, and workshops.

The Non-Profit Resource Center
Web site: http://www.not-for-profit.org/grant.htm

The Nonprofit Resource Center is a directory of internet resources of interest and value to nonprofit organizations. This site is designed for managers, board members and volunteers of nonprofit and tax-exempt organizations, as well as people who are considering forming a nonprofit organization. Information on the web site includes management and resources, staffing and volunteer management, grants and grantsmanship, fundraising, financial and accounting services, advocacy and public relations, and publications and mailing lists.

Support Centers of America
706 Mission Street, Fifth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94103-3113
415-541-9000
Workshop Info: 415-541-9197
Fax: 415-541-7708
Web site: http://www.supportcenter.org

The Support Center/NDC is a consulting and training organization, which workshops, publications, and special management programs. The Center assists non-profits in utilizing the best management tools and concepts to help them best serve their communities.


Ideas

Achieving Excellence in Fund Raising: A Comprehensive Guide to Principles, Strategies and Methods
by Henry A. Rosso
Jossey-Bass Publishers
350 Sansome Street
San Francisco, CA 94104
888-378-2537 800-956-7739
Web site: http://www.josseybass.com

Experts explain various fund-raising techniques, describe the importance of research and leadership in seeking donations, and discuss what organizations should do to prepare to solicit private gifts.

Asking for Money
by Susan Scribner and Florence Green
1125 W. Sixth Street, Fifth Floor
P.O. Box 17220
Los Angeles, CA 90017
213-482-9860
Fax: 213-482-9863
Web site: http://www.tgci.com

This booklet describes the basic techniques for asking for gifts in person.

Black Tie Optional: The Ultimate Guide to Planning and Producing Successful Events
by Harry Freedman and Karen Feldman Smith.
Order from Harry Freedman & Associates
1520 Spruce Street, Suite 708
Philadelphia, PA 19102
215-875-0111
Web site: http://www.harryfreedman.com

Shows non-profits how to organize special fund-raising events.

The Board Member's Guide to Fund Raising
by Fisher Howe
Jossey-Bass Publishers
350 Sansome Street
San Francisco, CA 94104
888-378-2537 800-956-7739
Web site: http://www.josseybass.com

This book shows why board members must take the lead in fund raising efforts and provides a concise, yet comprehensive resource for the entire fund raising process. A publication of the National Center for Nonprofit Boards
Cost: $25.95

The Business of Special Events
by Harry Freedman and Karen Feldman Smith.
Order from Harry Freedman & Associates
1520 Spruce Street, Suite 708
Philadelphia, PA 19102
215-875-0111
Web site: http://www.harryfreedman.com

This book takes organizations through the process of selecting an event, creating a budget, securing corporate sponsorship, managing staff and volunteers, organizing committees, getting publicity, providing food and beverages, booking entertainment and evaluating the outcome.

Cashing In On Funding Ideas
Join Together
441 Stuart Street, 6th Floor
Boston, MA 02116
617-437-1500
E-mail: info@jointogether.org
Web site: http://www@jointogether.org

Cashing In on Funding Ideas contains a wealth of advice, tips and creative ideas to jump-start fundraising efforts. Learn how others have raised funds to support substance abuse prevention programs with ideas like selling vanity license plates, partnering with realtors, and starting a check-off box for donations on a state income tax form. In addition, learn about the Foundation Center's home page, find out about a variety of federal grants, get some keys "do's" and "don'ts" for proposal writing and understand how to describe your program in terms that corporations and foundations will understand. To order Cashing In, mail your name, address and phone number along with a $25 check to Trustees of the Boston University School of Public Health to Join Together.

Fearless Fund Raising for Nonprofit Boards
by G. Worth George
1828 L Street, NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 20036-5104
202-452-6262 or 800-883-6262
Fax: 202-452-6299
Web site: http://www.ncnb.org

This booklet outlines the board's role in fund raising and suggests ways to motivate and involve board members. It includes a worksheet and describes 40 specific fund-raising activities to help board members identify the ones they wish to pursue.

Great American Duck Races
1525 North Hayden Road, #F1
Scottsdale, AZ 85257
602-957-3825
Fax: 602-954-8217
E-mail: info@duckrace.com
Web site: www.duckrace.com

The Great American Duck Races leases ducks (not real ducks) to charities and teaches groups how to run a successful duck race. The races, which have many variations, usually work by people buying a duck (generally for $5) for every duck they want to enter in the race. Each duck has a number on it, so the duck can be matched to the sponsor. Sponsors of the first ducks to cross the finish line win prizes such as gift certificates to restaurants, new cars, etc. Charities get the money left over after the expenses of the races have been paid.

How to Form a Non-Profit Corporation
by Anthony Mancuso
Nolo Press
P.O. Box 722
Occidental, CA 95465
707-874-3105
Fax: 707-874-1323
Web site: http://www.nolo.com

This publication provides an indepth guide to the legal aspects of starting a non-profit organization, including how to obtain tax-exempt status from the IRS.

Raising Money and Cultivating Donors Through Special Events
by Darcy Campion Devney
Council for Advancement and Support of Education
1307 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20005
202-328-5900
Fax: 202-387-1973
Web site: http://www.case.org

Shows fund raisers how to select a special event that matches their organizations' needs and budget, how to determine costs and who will pay for them, how to train volunteers, how to publicize the event and how to plan for the event the next time.

Winning Grants Step by Step: Support Centers of America's Complete Workbook for Planning, Developing and Writing Successful Proposals
by Mim Carlson
Jossey-Bass Publishers
350 Sansome Street
San Francisco, CA 94104
888-378-2537 800-956-7739
Web site: http://www.josseybass.com

This book is structured to lead the reader through the key steps in writing a proposal, with the idea that as each exercise is completed, the grant proposal will be closer to completion. It provides a bibliography, extra work sheets and tips on how to conduct research on grant makers and how to respond to foundation requests for a brief letter describing the proposal.

DOT HS 809 209
March 2001

Logos of sponsoring organizations and programs: NHTSA, Zero Tolerance, NAGHSR, and Safe Communities

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