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REFERENCES

Screening and Brief Intervention for 
Alcohol Problems in the Emergency Department

  1. Secretary of Health and Human Services. Ninth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1997. (NIH publication no. 97-4017.)
  2. McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270:2207-2212.
  3. Freedland ES, McMicken DB, D’Onofrio G. Alcohol and trauma. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1993;3:225-339.
  4. Lowenstein SR, Weissberg M, Terry D. Alcohol intoxication, injuries, and dangerous behaviors-and the revolving emergency department door. J Trauma. 1990;30:1252-1257.
  5. Cherpitel CJ. Alcohol and violence-related injuries: an emergency room study. Addiction. 1993;88:79-88.
  6. Cherpitel CJ. Alcohol and injuries: a review of international emergency room studies. Addiction. 1993;88:651-665.
  7. Howland J, Hingston R. Alcohol as a risk factor for injuries of death due to fires and burns; review of the literature. Public Health Rep. 1987;102:475-483.
  8. Hingston R, Howland J. Alcohol as a risk factor for injury or death resulting from accidental falls: a review of the literature. J Stud Alcohol. 1987;48:212-219.
  9. Dunn CW, Donovan DM, Gentilello L. Practical guidelines for performing alcohol interventions in trauma center. J Trauma. 1997;42:299-304.
  10. Lieber CS. Medical disorders of alcoholism. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1058-1065.
  11. Saunders JB, Aasland OG, Babor TF, de la Fuente JR, Grant M. Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption-II. Addiction 1993;88:791-804.
  12. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The physician’s guide to helping patients with alcohol problems. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995. (NIH publication no. 95-3769)
  13. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The physician’s guide to helping patients with alcohol problems. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995. (NIH publication no. 95-3769)
  14. Cherpitel CJ. Breath analysis and self-report as measures of alcohol-related emergency room admissions.J Stud Alcohol 1989;50:155-161.
  15. Bernstein E, Tracey A, Bernstein J, Williams C. Emergency department detection and referral rates for patients with problem drinking. Subst Abuse. 1996;7:69-76.
  16. Cherpitel CJ. Screening for alcohol problems in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1995;26:158-166.
  17. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Current research in alcohol. Ann Emerg Med 1997;30:817-819.
  18. Cherpitel CJ. Alcohol consumption among emergency room patients: Comparison of county/community hospitals and an HMO. J Stud Alcohol 1993;54:432-440.
  19. O’Brien GM, Stein MD, Zierler S, Shapiro M, O’Sullivan P, Woolard R: Use of the ED as a regular source of care: Associated factors beyond lack of health insurance. Ann Emerg Med 1997;30:286-291.
  20. Davidson P, Koziol-McLain J, Harrison L, Lowenstein SR. Intoxicated ED patients: a 5-year follow-up of morbidity and mortality. Ann Emerg Med 1997;30:593-597.
  21. Degutis LC. Screening for alcohol problems in emergency department patients with minor injury: Results and recommendations for practice and policy. Contemp Drug Prob; 1998;25:463-475.
  22. Soderstrom C, Crowley R. A National Alcohol and Trauma Center survey: Missed opportunities, failures of responsibility. Arch Surg 1987;122:1067-1071.
  23. Becker BM, Woolard RH, Longabaugh R, Minugh PA, Nirenberg TD, Clifford PR. Alcohol use among subcritically injured emergency department patients and injury as a motivator to reduce drinking. Acad Emerg Med 1995;2:784-790.
  24. Connecticut General Statutes, 1998.
  25. Reid MC, Fiellin DA, O’Connor, PG. Hazardous and harmful drinking in primary care. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159:1681-1689
  26. Seppa K. Intervention in alcohol abuse among macrocytic patients in general practice. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 1992;10:217-22.
  27. Chang G, Behr H, Goetz MA, Hiley A, Bigby J. Women and alcohol abuse in primary care: Identification and intervention. American Journal on Addictions 1997;6:183-92
  28. Drummond DC, Thom B Brown GE, Mullan MJ. Specialist versus general practitioner treatment of problem drinkers. Lancet 1990;336:915-18.
  29. Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York: Guilford Press, 1991.
  30. Bien TH, Miller WR, Tonigan JS. Brief interventions for alcohol problems: A review. Addiction 1993;88:315-335.
  31. Wilk AI, Jensen NM, Havighurst TC. Meta-analysis of randomized control trials addressing brief interventions in heavy alcohol drinkers. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12:274-283.
  32. Wallace P, Cutler S, Haines A. Randomized controlled trial of general practitioner intervention in patients with excessive alcohol consumption. BMJ 1988;297:663-668.
  33. WHO Brief Intervention Study Group. A cross-national trial of brief interventions with heavy drinkers. Am J Public Health 1996;86:949-955.
  34. Fleming MF, Barry KL, Manwell LB, Johnson K, London R. Brief physician advice for problem alcohol drinkers: A randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices. JAMA 1997;277:1039-1045.
  35. Marlatt GA, Baer JS, Kivlahan DR, Dimeff LA, Larimer ME, Quigley LA, Somers JM, Williams E. Screening and brief intervention for high-risk college student drinkers: Results from a 2-year follow-up assessment. J of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1998;66:604-615.
  36. Gentilello LM, Rivara, FP, Donovan DM, Jurkovich JG, Daranciang E, Dunn C. et al. Alcohol interventions in a trauma center as a means of reducing the risk of injury recurrence. Ann Surg. 1999;230:473-484.
  37. Bernstein E, Bernstein J, Levensons. Project ASSERT: An ED-based intervention to increase Access to primary care prevention services and the substance abuse treatment system. Ann Emerg Med 1997: 30:181-189.
  38. Monti PM, Spirit A, Myers M, Colby SM, Barnett NP, Rohsenow DJ, Woolard R, Lewander W. Brief intervention for harm reduction with alcohol-positive older adolescents in a hospital emergency department. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67:989-994.
  39. Longabaugh, RH. Emergency department-brief intervention for ethanol positive injured patients. NIAAA 5 RO1 AA09835-03.

Best Practice Standards: 
What Has Research Revealed? Part 1

  1. Teplin LA, Abram KM, & Michaels SL. (1989). Blood alcohol level among emergency room patients: a multivariant analysis. J Stud Alcohol 50, 441-447.
  2. Cherpitel CJ. (1995). Screening for alcohol problems in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 26, 158-166.
  3. Rivara FP, Jurkovich GJ, Gurney JG, et al, (1993). The magnitude of acute and chronic alcohol abuse in trauma patients. Arch Surg 128, 907-913.
  4. Treno AJ, Cooper K, Roeper P. (1994). Estimating alcohol involvement in trauma patients: Search for a surrogate. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18, 306-1311.
  5. Soderstrom CA, Smith GS, Dischinger PC, et al, (1997). Psychoactive substance use disorders among seriously injured trauma center patients diagnosed using a standardized interview. JAMA 277, 1769-1774.
  6. Maio RF, Waller PF, Blow FC, et al, (1997). Alcohol abuse/dependence in motor vehicle crash victims presenting to the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 4, 256-262.
  7. Stoduto G, Vingilis E, Kapur BM, et al, (1993). Alcohol and drug use among motor vehicular collision victims admitted to a regional trauma unit: demographic, injury, and crash characteristics. Accid Anal & Prev 25, 411-420.
  8. Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Smith GS, et al, (1997). Alcoholism at the time of injury among trauma center patients: Vehicular crash victims compared with other patients. Accid Anal and Prev 29, 715-721.
  9. Rivara FP, Mueller BA, Fligner CL, et al, (1989). Drug use in trauma patients. J Trauma 29, 462-470.
  10. Cornwell EE III, Belzberg H, Velhamos G, et al, (1998). The prevalence and effect of alcohol and drug abuse on cohort-matched critically injured patients. Amer Surg 64, 461-464.
  11. Gentilello LM, Villaveces A, Ries RR, et al, (1999). Detection of acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence by trauma center staff. J Trauma 47, 1131-1139.
  12. Geller G, Levine DM, Mamon JA, et al, (1989). Knowledge, attitudes, and reported practices of medical students and house staff regarding the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism. JAMA 261, 3115-3120.
  13. Chang G, Astrachan B, Weil U, et al, (1992). Reporting alcohol-impaired drivers: Results from a national survey of emergency physicians. Ann Emerg Med 21, 284-290.
  14. Soderstrom CA, Dailey JT, Kerns TJ. (1994). Alcohol and other drugs: An assessment of testing and clinical practices in U.S. trauma centers. J Trauma 26, 68-73.
  15. Danielsson PE, Rivara FP, Gentilello LM, et al, (1999). Reasons why trauma surgeons fail to screen for alcohol problems. Acrh Surg 134, 564-568.
  16. Committee on Trauma, American College of Surgeons (1999). Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient. American College of Surgeons: Chicago.
  17. Monti PM, Spirito A, Myers M, et al, (1999). Brief intervention for harm reduction with alcohol-positive older adolescents in a hospital emergency department. J Consult Clin Pscyhol 67, 989-994.
  18. Gentilello LM, Rivara FP, Donovan DM, et al, (1999). Alcohol interventions in a trauma center as a means of reducing the risk of injury recurrence. Ann Surg 230,473-483.
  19. Rivara FP, Tollefson S, Tesh, Tesh E, et al, (2000). Screening trauma patients for alcohol problems: Are insurance companies barriers? J Trauma 48, 115-118.
  20. Secretary of Health and Human Services (1997). Ninth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health, NIH No. 97-4017.
  21. Salaspuro M. Biological state markers of alcohol abuse (1994). Alcohol Health and Research World 18, 131-135.
  22. Ryb GE, Soderstrom CA, Kufera JA, et al, (1999). Use of alcohol concentration and laboratory tests to detect current alcohol dependence in trauma center patients. J Trauma 47, 874-880.
  23. Soderstrom CA, Smith GS, Dischinger PC, et al, (1997). The accuracy of the CAGE, the Brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in screening trauma center patients for alcoholism. J Trauma 43, 962-969.
  24. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (1995). The Physician’s Guide to Helping Patients with Alcohol Problems. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health, NIH No. 95-3769.
  25. Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Kerns TJ, et al, (1998). Use of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questions to screen trauma patients for alcoholism according to suggested guidelines. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22, 1470-1475.

(Acknowledgement: Financial support for Dr. Soderstrom’s contribution to this effort were provided in part from National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism grants AA09050-01A259 and AA09050-04A2.)

Best Practice Standards: 
What Has Research Revealed? Part 2

  1. West J, Trunkey DD, Lim RC. Systems of trauma care: A study of two counties. Arch Surg 1979;114:497-501.
  2. Gentilello LM, Donovan DM, Dunn C, Rivara FP. Alcohol interventions in level 1 trauma centers: Current practice, future directions. JAMA 1995;274:1043-1048.
  3. Soderstrom CA, Smith GS, Dischinger PC, et al. Psychoactive substance use disorders among seriously injured trauma center patients. JAMA 1997;277:1769-1774.
  4. Rivara FP, Koepsell TD, Jurkovich GJ, Gurney JG, Soderberg R. The effects of alcohol abuse on readmission for trauma. JAMA 1993;270:1962-1964.
  5. Bien TH, Miller WR, Tonigan JS. Brief intervention for alcohol problems: A review. Addiction 1993;88:315-335.
  6. Babor TF, Grant M. Program on Substance Abuse: Project on identification and management of alcohol-related problems. Report on Phase II: A randomized clinical trial of brief interventions in primary health care. Geneva, SW: World Health Organization: 1992.
  7. World Health Organization Brief Intervention Study Group. A cross national trial of brief intervention with heavy drinkers. Am J Public Health 1996;86:948-955.
  8. Gentilello LM, Rivara FP, Donovan DM, Jukovich GJ, Daranciang E, Dunn CW, Villaveces A, Copass M, and Ries RR. Alcohol Interventions in the trauma center as a means of reducing the risk of injury recurrence. Annals of Surgery 230(4):473-483,1999.
  9. Dunn CW, Donovan DM, Gentilello LM. Practical guidelines for performing alcohol interventions in the trauma centers. Journal of Trauma 42(2):299-304,1997.
  10. Injury in America. A continuing public health problem. National Academy Press, 1985, Washington, DC.
  11. Danielsson PE, Rivara FP, Gentilello LM, Maier RV. Reasons why trauma surgeons fail to screen for alcohol problems. Arch Surgery 134:564-68, 1999.
  12. Livingston DH, Lavery RF, Passannante MR, et al. Admission or observation is not necessary after a negative abdominal computed tomographic scan in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma: Results of a prospective, multi-institutional trial. J Trauma. 1998;44:273-80.
  13. Gentilello LM, Villaveces A, Ries RR, Nason KS, Daranciang, E, Donovan DM, Copass M, Jurkovich GJ, Rivara FP. Detection of acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence by trauma center staff. Journal of Trauma 47(6):1131-1139,1999.

Measurement of Alcohol Levels 
and Reporting Impaired Drivers

  1. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1999.
  2. Onder JJ. Medical professionals helping with the drunk driving problem. J Fla Med Assoc 1984; 71:255-60.
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  4. Hutson HR, Anglin D, Harris JS, Jolly BT, Runge JW, Todd KH. Commentary: Intervening in alcohol-related automobile crash fatalities among ethnic minorities—a call to action for emergency physicians [comment]. Ann Emerg Med 1999; 34:551-3.
  5. Du Bois MB. Drunk driving: Physicians can and must make the difference. J Indiana State Med Assoc 1983; 76:604-5.
  6. D’Onofrio G, Bernstein E, Bernstein J, et al. Patients with alcohol problems in the emergency department, Part 1: Improving detection. SAEM Substance Abuse Task Force. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Acad Emerg Med 1998; 5:1200-9.
  7. D’Onofrio G, Bernstein E, Bernstein J, et al. Patients with alcohol problems in the emergency department, Part 2: Intervention and referral. SAEM Substance Abuse Task Force. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Acad Emerg Med 1998; 5:1210-7.
  8. Colquitt M, Fielding LP, Cronan JF. Drunk drivers and medical and social injury. N Engl J Med 1987; 317:1262-6.
  9. Aschkenasy M. A trend towards state sanctioning of physician reporting of the medically impaired driver. Unpublished abstract, 1999.
  10. Pasewark RA, Durbin JR. Pre- and posthospitalization alcoholic arrests in a rural state. Int J Addict 1978; 13:675-81.
  11. Orsay EM, Doan-Wiggins L, Lewis R, Lucke R, RamaKrishnan V. The impaired driver: Hospital and police detection of alcohol and other drugs of abuse in motor vehicle crashes [see comments]. Ann Emerg Med 1994; 24:51-5.
  12. McLaughlin JG, Smith RJ, Mattice CR, Scholten DJ. Hospitalization and injury influence on the prosecution of drunk drivers. Am Surg 1993; 59:484-8; discussion 488-9.
  13. Maull KI, Kinning LS, Hickman JK. Culpability and accountability of hospitalized injured alcohol-impaired drivers. A prospective study. Jama 1984; 252:1880-3.
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  17. Cole TB, Patetta MJ. Why does the injured drunk driver escape arrest and conviction? A case presentation and discussion by health care and law enforcement professionals. N C Med J 1992; 53:453-8.
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  30. Simel DL, Feussner JR. Driving-impaired patients leaving the emergency department. The problem of inadequate instructions. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112:365-70.
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