A Review of New York State's STOP-DWI Program

IV. FINDINGS

Analysis of Counties by Groups

The findings section begins with the description of the counties, programs, and the four groups, using population data presented in Table 9.

Table 9. County Groups by Population (based on 2000 U.S. Census)

GROUP 1
Population
GROUP 2
Population
NEW YORK
8,084,316
ONONDAGA
458,336
SUFFOLK
1,458,655
ORANGE
341,367
NASSAU
1,344,892
ALBANY
294,565
ERIE
945,049
ROCKLAND
286,753
WESTCHESTER
937,279
DUTCHESS
280,150
MONROE
738,422
Mean = 339K
1,661,171
Mean = 2.23M
13,508,613
     
 
 
     
GROUP 3
Population
GROUP 4
Population
ONEIDA
235,469
STEUBEN
98,726
NIAGARA
219,846
TOMPKINS
96,501
SARATOGA
200,635
PUTNAM
95,745
BROOME
200,536
WAYNE
93,765
ULSTER
177,749
CHEMUNG
91,070
RENSSELAER
152,538
CATTARAUGUS
83,955
SCHENECTADY
146,555
CAYUGA
81,963
CHAUTAUQUA
139,750
CLINTON
79,894
OSWEGO
122,337
SULLIVAN
73,966
ST. LAWRENCE
111,738
MADISON
69,441
JEFFERSON
111,655
LIVINGSTON
64,328
ONTARIO
100,224
WARREN
63,303
Mean = 160K
1,919,032
COLUMBIA
64,427
    
HERKIMER
63,094
    
OTSEGO
61,676
    
WASHINGTON
61,042
    
GENESEE
60,370
    
FULTON
55,073
    
TIOGA
51,784
    
CHENANGO
51,401
    
FRANKLIN
51,134
    
ALLEGANY
49,927
    
MONTGOMERY
49,708
    
CORTLAND
48,599
    
GREENE
48,195
    
DELAWARE
48,055
    
ORLEANS
44,171
    
WYOMING
43,424
    
ESSEX
38,851
    
SHOHARIE
33,342
    
SENECA
31,582
    
LEWIS
26,944
    
YATES
24,621
    
SCHUYLER
19,224
    
HAMILTON
5,379
    
Mean = 58K
2,024,680

 

Based on budget and census data, including adjusted budget per capita (weighted by proportional representation of total STOP-DWI programs for New York counties), these four groups can be described as:

Group 1 - High Population (>500,000 people). For the 6 most populous New York counties (STOP-DWI programs), these program budgets average $1,508,500 (range $920,000 - $2,419,000) with a mean budget per capita of $0.11.

Group 2 – Moderate High Population (250,000-499,999 people). For these 5 New York counties, program budgets average $761,600 (range $340,000 - $1,058,000) with a mean budget per capita of $0.20.

Group 3 - Moderate Low Population (249,999-100,000 people). For these 12 New York counties, program budgets average $362,083 (range $221,000 - $524,000) with a mean budget per capita of $0.46.

Group 4 - Low Population (<100,000 people). For these 35 New York counties, program budgets average $178,400 (range $16,000 - $443,000) with a mean budget per capita of $1.92.

*Note that as population goes down, the STOP-DWI program budget goes up on a per capita basis.

These four groups, depicted in Figure 10, provide a real world model with characteristics that can be applied by State, county, or local impaired driving programs. Using this approach, a community or program can apply countermeasures appropriate to population and available resources. For example, impaired driving program activities in urban New York may not be applicable in rural Montana. Therefore, presenting activity and outcome data by these four groups is logical and relevant for those interested in comparing impaired-driving program components and activities.

Figure 10. Map of Four Groups, by Population.

Figure 10  - click for long description


Data source(s): United States Census Bureau & National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 2004.

New York has achieved continued success in the reduction of alcohol-related fatalities, as previously presented in Figure 1. This section will examine county level data in detail, and present four county groups that reflect community or regional models for comparison by other programs. For the past 20 years New York State has remained consistent with the national trend of declining alcohol-related fatality rates; however, the State has remained lower than the national average throughout this time period. New York’s fatality rate has decreased from 1.41 in 1982 to 0.36 per 100M VMT in 2002.

This section will briefly describe New York county level data in general and for the four groups. Table 10 summarizes 2001 crash data for New York counties to provide context for the discussion of motor vehicle crash deaths among the four groups.

Table 10. New York County Population (2000) and Motor Vehicle Crash Data (2001).

County
% Popu-
lation
Fatal Crashes
Total Crashes
County
% Popu-
lation
Fatal Crashes
Total Crashes
County
% Popu-
lation
Fatal Crashes
Total Crashes
Albany
1.5
20
6,733
Herkimer
0.3
7
970
Saratoga
1.1
18
2,801
Allegany
0.3
9
797
Jefferson
0.6
17
1,833
Schenectady
0.8
11
2,625
Broome
1.0
13
3,777
Lewis
0.1
3
472
Schoharie
0.2
6
634
Cattaraugus
0.4
13
1,267
Livingston
0.3
8
1,396
Schuyler
0.1
1
394
Cayuga
0.4
5
1,287
Madison
0.4
12
1,309
Seneca
0.2
4
704
Chautauqua
0.7
13
2,587
Monroe
3.9
55
14,387
Steuben
0.5
12
1,669
Chemung
0.5
6
1,327
Montgomery
0.3
8
965
Suffolk
7.6
164
30,518
Chenango
0.3
9
1,020
Nassau
7.0
93
32,297
Sullivan
0.4
10
1,653
Clinton
0.4
13
1,511
Niagara
1.1
25
3,349
Tioga
0.3
10
817
Columbia
0.3
3
1,239
Oneida
1.2
20
4,893
Tompkins
0.5
7
1,988
Cortland
0.3
6
1,061
Onondaga
2.4
30
9,971
Ulster
0.9
27
3,766
Delaware
0.2
4
1,017
Ontario
0.5
18
2,414
Warren
0.3
7
1,673
Dutchess
1.5
39
5,921
Orange
1.8
36
8,183
Washington
0.3
8
1,089
Erie
5.0
76
13,941
Orleans
0.2
9
644
Wayne
0.5
21
1,445
Essex
0.2
8
884
Oswego
0.6
18
2,544
Westchester
4.9
54
17,359
Franklin
0.3
7
919
Otsego
0.3
11
1,258
Wyoming
0.2
9
891
Fulton
0.3
3
1,040
Putnam
0.5
10
2,344
Yates
0.1
3
239
Genesee
0.3
19
1,367
Rensselaer
0.8
15
2,435
NYC Total
42.2
352
112,637
Greene
0.3
8
950
Rockland
1.5
20
6,069
NYS Total
100
1,431
331,363
Hamilton
< 0.1
2
159
St. Lawrence
0.6
16
1,924
NYS w/o NYC
57.8
1,079
218,726

Data source(s): ITSMR, 2004, New York Department of Motor Vehicles (crash data is 2001 data), United States Census Bureau (2000 data).

Figure 11 presents motor vehicle crash incident and injury data. In general, the numbers of crashes and injury crashes are very similar for all groups, except for the High Population (Urban) group. This data, with the similar exposure data presented in Figure 12, illustrates the significant difference in the Low Population (Rural) group.

Figure 11. Total Motor Vehicle Crashes versus Injury Crashes, by Group, 2000.

Figure 11 - click for long description

Note(s): County Groups: 1=High Population (Above 500,000), 2=Moderate High Population (250,000-500,000), 3=Moderate Low Population (100,000-250,000), and 4=Low Population (Below 100,000).
Data source(s): New York Department of Motor Vehicles, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

In general, the ratio of reportable (police-reported) crashes to crash injuries is 2:1, except for the High Population (Urban) group, where the ratio is ~ 3:1. Crash injuries account for approximately one-third to one-half of all crashes, and the overall number of crash fatalities is relatively small. For all groups, crash deaths represent less than 1 percent of all crashes; however, the highest rate (0.006 fatal crashes/reportable crash) occurs in the Low Population (Rural) group. Fewer deaths occurred in the two Moderate Population groups than in the Low Population (Rural) group.

Scholars agree New York City is unlike any other major American urban area in that there are many licensed drivers who rarely or never use automobiles (due to pedestrians and transit use). Therefore, the numbers reported in the High Population (Urban) group likely do not reflect the actual numbers of motor vehicles and drivers on the roads in that area. Figure 12 displays the number of motor vehicle registrations and licensed drivers by the four groups.

Figure 12. Driver License and Vehicle Registrations, by Group, 2002.

Figure 12  - click for long description

Note(s): County Groups: 1=High Population (Above 500,000), 2=Moderate High Population (250,000-500,000), 3=Moderate Low Population (100,000-250,000), and 4=Low Population (Below 100,000).
Data source: New York Department of Motor Vehicles, 2004.