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In-Service Safety Series
ADVERSE CONDITIONS
In-Service Safety Series
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LESSON PLAN
INSTRUCTOR NOTES


X. Extreme Temperatures

  1. Extreme temperatures include both heat and cold
  2. Remember this module assumes that, if extreme temperatures are forecast, your supervisor will have taken appropriate actions
    1. Your departure will be delayed or the trip or route canceled
    2. An alternative route may have been planned
    3. A vehicle with the appropriate temperature control equipment may be provided
  3. NOTE: This section addresses those situations when the school bus can’t move forward for some reason and the driver must deal with an extreme weather situation
  4. Extreme heat
    1. Extreme heat causes a problem when the temperature and the humidity combine to create high heat indices
      1. This makes hot weather seem hotter
    2. The heat index was devised for shady, light wind conditions
      1. Exposure to full sun can increase the heat index by up to 15 degrees Fahrenheit
      2. Strong winds, especially hot dry winds, can be very hazardous
    3. You also have to add to the equation the school bus environment
      1. Are there fans or air conditioning?
      2. Are the students very young or do they have special needs?
    4. How the school bus driver should respond to extreme heat
      1. Call for help
        1. Another bus
        2. Medical assistance
      2. If you don’t have a radio, flag down assistance
        1. If you send someone for help, it must be an adult, not a student
      3. Open windows, door, and roof vents
      4. Turn on your fans
      5. Evacuate the students to shade
        1. Trees
        2. An overpass
        3. The opposite side of the school bus from the sun
      6. If you have air conditioning that you are running
        1. Watch the temperature gauge to make sure the bus does not overheat
        2. Plan your fuel use to make sure you don’t run out
      7. Gather water and other liquids and make a distribution plan
      8. Have students remove any extra or unnecessary clothing
      9. Watch for heat disorder and treat it
        1. Symptoms
          1. Skin is sweaty and cold

            • As the heat disorder worsens, skin becomes hot, dry, and red
          2. Person feels weak
          3. Person may faint or vomit
        2. Treatment
          1. Cool down immediately

            • Remove clothing

            • Apply cool wet cloths

            • Fan the student
          2. Give sips of water
          3. Get medical attention immediately
    5. Review local policy and procedures
    6. Are there any questions about extreme heat and what you should do?
  5. Extreme cold
    1. Dangerous cold occurs in 2 situations
      1. When there are actual temperatures below freezing
      2. When the low temperature and cooling effect of the wind combine to create wind chill
        1. This makes cold weather seem colder
    2. You also have to add to the equation the school bus environment
      1. Are there heaters?
      2. Is it a diesel engine?
      3. Are the students very young or do they have special needs?
      4. Do the students have adequate clothing?
    3. How the school bus driver should respond to extreme cold
      1. Before you drive
        1. Be sure to warm the school bus up thoroughly to avoid stalls
      2. On your route
        1. Call for help
          1. Another bus
          2. Medical assistance
        2. If you don’t have a radio, flag down assistance
          1. If you send someone for help, it must be an adult, not a student
        3. Stay on the bus
        4. Huddle the students, rotating who is in the middle
        5. From time to time exercise vigorously to keep blood circulating and to keep warm
          1. Move arms, legs, fingers, and toes
        6. Gather your resources and make a distribution plan
          1. Clothes
          2. Blankets
          3. Water and other liquids
          4. Food
        7. When you need heat, run the engine for 10 minutes, then stop
          1. When the engine is on, crack a window and run the rear exhaust fan
          2. If you are stuck in snow, periodically check that snow hasn’t accu-mulated around the exhaust fan
        8. Watch for frost bite and hypothermia and treat it
          1. Frostbite

            • Loss of feeling and white or pale appearance

            • Rewarm affected area slowly
          2. Hypothermia

            • Shivering, disorientation, slurred speech, drowsiness

            Warm the person slowly

            a) Warm the body core first, not the extremities

            b) If need be, use your own body heat to help
    4. Review local policy and procedures
    5. Are there any questions about extreme cold and what you should do?


X.A - Display Slide #16

X.D - Distribute Handout #9, Extreme Temperatures



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


X. Remind participants that their first preference should always be to avoid an adverse weather situation. This module deals with what to do if you haven’t been able to avoid it. You will discuss those situations where the school bus driver has to decide what to do.X.A. Tell participants that all the information covered in this section will be on a handout which you will distribute shortly.

X.B.3. Examples would be air conditioning, adequate heat, or defoggers.

X.C. Examples of such situations might be a traffic jam, a breakdown, or severe weather.

X.D. Distribute Handout #9, Extreme Temperatures. Review it with the participants.

X.D.1. The heat index is sometimes called the apparent temperature. It is an accurate measure of how hot it really feels when the relative humidity is added to the actual air temperature. Heat can begin to cause fatigue at temperatures over 80 degrees with a relative humidity of 40%. By temperatures in the low-90s and relative humidity as low as 45%, one can experience sunstroke or heat exhaustion.

X.D.4.i. Reference: Heat Wave, Document NOAA/PA 85001, available from the National Weather Service. Produced as a cooperative effort of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the American Red Cross. See also http://weather.noaa.gov/weather/hwave.html

X.E.1.b. The wind chill is based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by the combined effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, heat is carried away from the body at an accelerated rate, driving down the body temperature.

X.E.2.b. Some diesel fuels gel up in cold weather, becoming too thick to flow through the fuel lines.

X.E.3.b.7 It may take longer to heat the interior of the school bus.

X.E.3.b.8 Reference: Winter Storms ... the Deceptive Killers, Document NOAA/PA 91002, available from the National Weather Service. Produced as a cooperative effort of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the American Red Cross. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/wntrstm.html

X.E.3.b.8.ii If you heat the extremities first, it drives cold blood to the heart and can lead to heart failure.



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