X. Remind participants that their first preference should always be to avoid an adverse weather situation. This module deals with what to do if you haven't been able to avoid it. You will discuss those situations where the school bus driver has to decide what to do.X.A. Tell participants that all the information covered in this section will be on a handout which you will distribute shortly.
X.B.3. Examples would be air conditioning, adequate heat, or defoggers.
X.C. Examples of such situations might be a traffic jam, a breakdown, or severe weather.
X.D. Distribute Handout #9, Extreme Temperatures. Review it with the participants.
X.D.1. The heat index is sometimes called the apparent temperature. It is an accurate measure of how hot it really feels when the relative humidity is added to the actual air temperature. Heat can begin to cause fatigue at temperatures over 80 degrees with a relative humidity of 40%. By temperatures in the low-90s and relative humidity as low as 45%, one can experience sunstroke or heat exhaustion.
X.D.4.i. Reference: Heat Wave, Document NOAA/PA 85001, available from the National Weather Service. Produced as a cooperative effort of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the American Red Cross. See also http://weather.noaa.gov/weather/hwave.html
X.E.1.b. The wind chill is based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by the combined effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, heat is carried away from the body at an accelerated rate, driving down the body temperature.
X.E.2.b. Some diesel fuels gel up in cold weather, becoming too thick to flow through the fuel lines.
X.E.3.b.7 It may take longer to heat the interior of the school bus.
X.E.3.b.8 Reference: Winter Storms ... the Deceptive Killers, Document NOAA/PA 91002, available from the National Weather Service. Produced as a cooperative effort of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the American Red Cross. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/wntrstm.html
X.E.3.b.8.ii If you heat the extremities first, it drives cold blood to the heart and can lead to heart failure.