APPENDIX G:
Discussion Guide

Drowsy Driving Focus Groups, Phase III
Shift Workers Discussion Guide
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I. Self-Introductions and Warm up (10 minutes)

  1. What is a focus group? What will be discussed this evening.

  2. How focus groups work. . .


  3. Microphones, recording, assurance of privacy

  4. Observers behind the one-way mirror

  5. Role of the moderator:


  6. Ground rules


  7. Self-introductions: tell us your name, what you do, and the kind of hours you work.

II. Sleep habits (15 minutes)

  1. Tell me about your sleep habits. What is the usual amount of sleep that you get each night? How much sleep do you think you need?

  2. How does working at night or on rotating shifts affect your sleep? Your performance on the job? Your performance in other things throughout your day? How do you balance sleep and other things in your life? How much control do you think you have regarding sleep?

    If not mentioned here, probe if they are concerned about their lack of sleep and if it affects their driving.

  3. What are some things you do to get enough sleep to be sure you are rested at work and when you are driving?

    Probe: Sleep before going to work? Nap during breaks? Exercise? Room darkening shades? White noise machines? Turn off the telephone?

  4. How big of a problem do you think fatigue or drowsy driving is on the roads today? What would encourage or convince you not to drive when you are sleepy or fatigued?

    Probe: The thought of being in a car crash or losing you life? Putting the life of someone else in jeopardy? Putting your health in jeopardy? Losing your job? Not performing well in your job? Not performing well in other areas of your life, i.e., as a parent, a spouse, a friend?

III. Creative Testing

Before we get into the main portion of why we are here tonight, I would like to get your opinion on a couple of terms/words.

A. Terms (10 minutes)

HOLD UP ALL THREE BOARDS WITH DIFFERENT TERMS, SLEEPY DRIVER, DROWSY DRIVERS AND FATIGUED DRIVERS, AND ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

  1. Which one do you like the best? Why?

    Probe: Is it clear? Easy to understand? Too vague?

  2. Which one would be best to use in a print ad, posters, educational brochure or a video? Why?

  3. Is there another term or word(s) you would use to describe these types of drivers?

B. Strategies (5 minutes)

MODERATOR STATEMENT: Our discussion here tonight represents the third phase of the project. Starting last Fall, we have talked with shift workers in other parts of the country to find out some basic information about the unique challenges you face in terms of managing work, family and sleep, especially in regard to your workplace. A key part of our previous discussions was to figure out how we could most effectively get your attention with materials and information on how improving the quality of your sleep could mean better quality of life, increased personal safety on the road and on the job, etc.

What we came up with--and what you will see in the next section--are a series of ideas that fall under five basic areas, or ways we could approach how we develop materials that you might see in the workplace or be asked to use at home. We need to find out which is the most compelling "angle" to use. The five areas, approaches, or "angles," are as follows:

  1. General sleep education

  2. Concerned management

  3. Consequences of driving while sleepy

  4. Effect on your performance at work

  5. Effect on your quality of life


C. Concepts/Messages (50 minutes)

MODERATOR STATEMENT: Researchers use groups like this to test ideas. We have some ideas or messages that will ultimately become posters, print advertising, brochures or even a video that could possibly be in your workplace or given to you by your employer. Because are in the development stage, we have prepared preliminary versions. There are no visuals and no specific design or layout. Put your focus on what the message is communicating and not how it looks.

It is important to remember that these are in the development stage and your answers will influence the final message. Please give me your honest opinions -- no matter what the rest of the group thinks. There are no right or wrong answers.

HOLD UP EACH BOARD, ONE AT A TIME, READ COPY POINTS ON THE BACK AND ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS (CHANGE THE ORDER WITH EACH GROUP).

  1. Overall, what is this message saying? What is the message trying to convince people to do?

    Probe: What parts of this message are most convincing? Which parts are least convincing?

  2. What do you like about this message? What do you not like?

    Probe: What do you think about the way they're trying to get the message across?

  3. What do you think about the situation presented in this message?

    Probe: Something that you could get interested in? In what way?

  4. Who do you think this message is speaking to?

    Probe: Does this message speak to you? Why or why not?

  5. Who would be the best person to deliver a message such as this one? Why? How should it be delivered?

  6. Would this message convince people to take the recommended actions? Why/why not?

D. Testing of taglines (10 minutes)

IF NOT ALREADY COVERED IN DISCUSSION, ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS SPECIFICALLY ABOUT THE TWO TAG LINES.

Focus on just the two tag lines presented, "Sleep. Work. Drive. Make sure you're up for all of them." and "Wake up and get some sleep."

  1. Which one would grabs your attention the most? Why?

  2. Which one is clearest and easiest to understand?

  3. Which one would be most likely to influence people to take the recommended action?

E. Compare concepts (10 minutes)

COMPARE CONCEPTS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND GET A SHOW OF HANDS WHICH CONCEPTS WERE THE BEST.

  1. Which of all the messages presented tonight is the best to convince shift workers to get more or better sleep? Why/why not?

  2. What are some others steps that you can think of that could be taken to communicate to shift workers the importance of more or better sleep?

  3. What ways can you think of to remind people periodically of the dangers of drowsy driving?

  4. What is the best way to deliver a message to shift workers about proper sleep hygiene and drowsy driving? Who should deliver that message?

IV. Pass out samples of materials from other sources.

Pose questions from the back room. Return to room and ask participants the following question.

1. What do you think of these materials?

Probe: Would you read them? Are they eye catching? Informative? Cluttered? Interesting? Boring? Would you take the information seriously?

2. Any other thoughts on this subject?


V. Thank you and close.

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