Table of Contents

Title Page

I. Background and Overview of the Project

A CAUTION TO THE READER

II. Exploratory Research with High Risk Groups

METHODOLOGY

Sites
Participants
Procedures

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Intervention

KEY FINDINGS

Sleep Habits and Hygiene
The Importance of Sleep and Being Well Rested
Sleep Deprivation and Work in Shift Workers
Sleep Deprivation and Driving
Driving at Night
Long Driving Trips
Interventions
Countermeasures for drowsy driving
Influence of Others on Sleep Habits
Influence of Employers/Potential Work Site Interventions
Awareness of PSAs/Other Public Media Educational Efforts on Drowsy Driving

RECOMMENDATIONS

General
Young Men
Shift Workers

III. Exploratory Research Targeting Shift Workers

METHODOLOGY

Shift workers and Shift work Supervisors
Upper-level Managers

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

SHIFTWORKERS AND SUPERVISORS: DETAILED FINDINGS

Problem Identification
Sleep Behavior
Motivations for Working Shifts
Influence of the Family on Sleep Hygiene
Reliance on Shift Work/Overtime to Maintain Lifestyle
Interventions to Improve Sleep/Reduce Risky Driving

READINESS TO CHANGE SLEEP BEHAVIOR

PERCEIVED READINESS FOR EMPLOYERS TO TAKE ACTION

Extra Hour of the Day

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS

MANAGEMENT: DETAILED FINDINGS

Problem Identification
Current Company Policies and Practices
Intervention - Policies/Practices
Intervention - Employee Awareness
Installation of Bright Lights
Availability of Sleep-aid Supplies/Equipment to Shift Workers
Allowing Shift Workers to Be Involved in Setting Work Schedules
Education on Physical Activity, Nutrition and How it Effects Sleep/Alertness
Availability of Safe Walk/Exercise Area
Increasing the Availability of Healthy Foods on the Night Shift
Sleep or Napping During Break
Management/Company Support of Suggested Interventions
Wrap Up

MANAGEMENT: SUMMARY OF VERBATIM RESPONSES

Shift Work Experience
Problem Identification
Current Company Policies and Practices
Intervention
Quality of life
Productivity
Cost of injuries to employers
Cost of productivity losses
Specific case studies
Wrap Up

RECOMMENDATIONS

IV. Testing of Educational Strategies

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

METHODOLOGY

Participants
Procedures

SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS

DETAILED FINDINGS

Sleep Habits
The Effect of Work on Sleep
The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Job Performance
The Effect of Shift Work on Driving
Methods Used to Get Restful Sleep
Motivations for Changing Behavior
Language and Terms

TESTING OF PROGRAM CONCEPTS AND MESSAGE STRATEGIES

Sleep Education
Portraying a Concerned Management
Consequences of Drowsy Driving
Work Performance
Quality of Life
Tag Lines
Summary and Recommendations

Appendix A: Telephone Screener: Shift Workers and Young Males

Appendix B: Drowsy Driving Discussion Guide -- Shift Workers

Appendix C: Drowsy Driving Discussion Guide -- Young Males

Appendix D: Telephone Screener: Shift Work Supervisors

Appendix E: Shift Work Supervisors Discussion Guide

Appendix F: Telephone Screener: Shift Workers

Appendix G: Intervention Concepts Discussion Guide