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DOT HS 808 730

February 2001


Aggressive Driving Programs

Spanish-language STOP Aggressive Driving logo "ALTO Al Manejo Agresivo"STOP Aggressive Driving logoThe following law enforcement programs have been developed to target aggressive drivers. In 1997, NHTSA's Traffic Law Enforcement Division began gathering information on these programs to learn which strategies are being used successfully to reduce or deter aggressive driving. This list is updated as new programs are discovered. The list is used as a clearinghouse for aggressive driving programs and a resource of contacts willing to share their experiences with other law enforcement agencies. If your agency has an active aggressive driving program that is not included in this publication, please contact the Traffic Law Enforcement Division at 202-366-4295 and ask for the staff person working on this issue.

District of Columbia
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of ArizonaArizona

The Arizona Department of Public Safety's Aggressive Driver Detail is the longest running in the country. It focuses both on enforcement and a strong media campaign. Arizona has received high praise and support from the communities throughout the state. Nine unmarked vehicles were purchased in 2000. Unmarked cars, motorcycles, and marked patrol cars are used. Officers are always in uniform while working the Aggressive Driving Detail. Rural areas are currently being tested with marked cars. Several aggressive driver details are scheduled each week throughout the State. There is a zero tolerance policy for aggressive driver violations. Grants have been provided to Arizona Department of Public Safety, Tucson Police Department, Phoenix Police Department, Mesa Police Department, and Pima County Sheriff's Office.

Mr. Alberto Gutier

Governor's Office of Community and Highway Safety
3010 North Second Street, Suite 105
Phoenix, AZ 85012
Phone: (602) 255-3216
Fax: (602) 255-1265

Arizona Department of Public Safety (DPS) -- The Arizona DPS aggressive driver program, named, "Operation Chill" uses aircraft, motorcycles and unmarked patrol units for enforcement, coupled with a strong media campaign. Arizona DPS just added a seventh motorcycle unit to their fleet, dedicated to enforcement of aggressive driving. Arizona's public service announcement (PSA) about aggressive driving, "30 Seconds, Is It Worth It?", recently won first place in a highway safety PSA campaign.

Arizona was the first state to enact legislation on aggressive driving. Their law went into effect in May 1998. The program targets drivers who are:
speeding, following too closely, making erratic or unsafe lane changes and all other criminal and traffic violations. A Traffic Complaint Hotline was established for reporting traffic complaints by citizens, including aggressive driving. Traffic complaints have increased 76% and 75% are speed-related.

The Arizona Department of Public Safety, the Phoenix Police Department, and the Mesa Police Department developed strategies to enhance existing traditional enforcement programs. An Aggressive Driver Interdiction Program was developed and implemented. Motor officers and supervisors work saturation-type patrols in pre-designated locations where aggressive driving behaviors have or are likely to adversely impact traffic. There is a "zero-tolerance" approach to the enforcement of all violators.

The Arizona Department of Public Safety currently conducts six aggressive driver enforcement programs per week. The program is staffed with up to 10 officers and/or sergeants, utilizing marked police motorcycles, two unmarked patrol vehicles, and aircraft. The details are conducted morning/early afternoon and three during late afternoon/evening hours each week. Problem areas are identified and saturated up to three times a week.

Commander Terry Conner
Arizona Department of Public Safety
2610 South 16 Street
Phoenix, AZ 85034
Phone: (602) 223-2852

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of CaliforniaCalifornia

California's Smooth Operator Campaign was the longest running aggressive driving media program in the country. The program used enforcement patrols, identifying six primary driving behaviors which contributed to traffic congestion. The program, known as Smooth Operator, was started in 1988 to deal with increasing traffic congestion in the major metropolitan areas. The efforts were a success largely demonstrated by the reaction and support received from the private sector, news media and the public. This program is no longer being conducted, however, the public information and education materials are still available.

Freda Radich
Office of Traffic Safety
7000 Franklin Boulevard, Suite 440
Sacramento, CA 95823
Phone: (916) 262-0990

California Highway Patrol -- The "Aggressive Driving Public Awareness and Enforcement Campaign" project was initiated during fiscal year 1999. The project funds personnel overtime, in-state travel, printing, promotional material and video public service announcements associated with a public information and education campaign, and a focus group. The main goal of the project is to conduct a public awareness campaign addressing the benefits of reducing aggressive driving behaviors and how to avoid confronting an aggressive driver. Overtime hours were distributed for officers in four divisions. A pre-campaign survey to establish and evaluate public perceptions of aggressive driving and road rage was conducted. One market research focus group was conducted for developing campaign images and messages. Public Affairs Officers have scheduled and delivered traffic safety presentations focused on the aggressive driving message. Development of six English and six Spanish language radio public service announcements is ongoing, campaign materials were developed through information gleaned from the aggressive driver survey.

Ben Walker
California Highway Patrol
2555 1st Ave.
Sacramento, CA 95818
Phone: (916) 657-7222

Nancy Kramer
California Highway Patrol Public Affairs
2555 1st Ave.
Sacramento, CA 95818
Phone: (916) 657-7202

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of ColoradoColorado

Colorado State Patrol began a program with Vision TEK Incorporated and Colorado wireless phone companies in June 1998, which allows motorists to "Be a STAR" and "Start Taking an Active Role" to fight "aggressive driving and road rage" by calling STAR CSP (*277). The Colorado State Patrol accepts calls from motorists dialing *CSP on their cell phones to report acts of aggressive driving.

The STAR CSP Program automatically records and compiles calls into a database. CSP Communications Officers are able to obtain vital information in two to three seconds. The system prints out a complete report of the calls which is delivered to a CSP Dispatcher and automatically issues warning letters to the owner of the vehicle.

Colorado introduced an enforcement and education campaign called Aggressive Drivers Are a Public Threat (ADAPT). It urged motorists to be more civil on the highways and avoid unacceptable aggressive driving. ADAPT is a statewide program and using unmarked cars, motorcycles, and aircraft for enforcement. There is considerable public support for the enforcement effort. The Douglas County Sheriff's Office is also heavily involved in aggressive driver enforcement along with the State Patrol and other agencies south of Denver.

Maj. Guy King
Colorado State Patrol
18500 East Colfax Avenue
Aurora, CO 80011
Phone: (303) 344-2536
Fax: (303) 341-7126

Captain Steve Powell
Colorado State Patrol
900 Wilcox
Castle Rock, CO 80104
Phone: (303) 239-4532

Chill: Changing the Way We Drive -- Colorado has developed an aggressive driving campaign to encourage drivers to drive safer and calmer, with particular emphasis being paid to construction work zones. Thirty-five law enforcement agencies throughout Colorado are participating in the enforcement effort.

Ms. Mairi Nelson
Colorado Dept. of Transportation, Public Affairs
4201 E. Arkansas
Denver, CO 80222
Phone: (303) 202-0380

Douglas, Adams and Boulder County -- Sheriff's department officers from Douglas, Adams and Boulder counties, the police departments of Aurora, Greenwood Village and Thornton among others, patrol interstates and state highways in unmarked and marked cars and on motorcycles, targeting speeding, tailgating, weaving in and out of traffic, passing on the shoulder and running red lights and stop signs.

Sergeant Scott Stanton
Aurora Police Department
15001 E. Alameda Drive
Aurora, CO 80012
Phone: (303) 739-6000

Dep. Ken Rost
Douglas County Sheriff's Office
355 South Wilcox Street
Castle Rock, CO 80104
Phone: (303) 660-7505
Fax: (303) 688-1447

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of ConnecticutConnecticut

The Connecticut State Police's program started in 1997. Traffic units continue to be the cornerstone of the program. Traffic personnel use both marked and unmarked patrol vehicles. In addition, they use non traditional police vehicles, aircraft, and weather permitting, motorcycles to conduct their operations. Unmarked units are used to identify aggressive drivers and marked units to make the stop. Aircraft are sometimes used and work in tandem with ground units to minimize the hazards of high speed pursuits. The program has been funded by federal grants and other state funds. Statistics are collected for different enforcement projects and periods.

The department has been involved in project BIG ORANGE since 1995. Troopers use orange DOT trucks as a platform for conducting enforcement operations in construction and maintenance zones. Connecticut is also involved in short term projects. During the winter of 1999 they initiated Project ROAR (Roll Over Accident Reduction). This project brought out troopers from 0100 to 0500 hrs to monitor early morning crashes resulting in major traffic delays on the days and in the area the project was in effect.

The media is kept involved in the aggressive driving efforts. There are media releases on current and new programs. The media is allowed to participate in a "Ride with a Trooper" program. The holiday advisories are provided to the public through the media.

Sergeant Henry Perucki
Connecticut State Police
State Traffic Coordinator
P.O. Box 2794
Middletown, CT 06457-9294
Phone: (860) 685-8434

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of DelawareDelaware

Delaware State Police started its program known as Take It Easy on July 4, 1997. It uses marked and unmarked vehicles and nontraditional vehicles such as Chevrolet S-10 Blazers. Any time unmarked vehicles are used, marked patrol units must make the traffic stop. They have also developed a strong media campaign with radio public service announcements (PSA's). A poster campaign and a billboard campaign was developed statewide. Traffic safety blitzes are conducted throughout the year focusing on aggressive driving behavior. A grant is provided for aggressive driving enforcement on an overtime basis. Troopers work aggressive driving enforcement in a four-hour block.

In July, 1999, Delaware passed an aggressive driving law. The law defines aggressive driving as conduct which violates three or more specific traffic violations.

Lt. Barbara Conley
Delaware State Police Headquarters
P.O. Box 430
Dover, DE 19903
Phone: (302) 739-5937

Lt. Rick Chamberlin
Delaware State Police
Public Information Officer
P.O. Box 430
Dover, DE 19903
Phone: (302) 739-5962

(Oct. "Take It Easy" started in July 1997) Having just completed their first year of the "Take It Easy" campaign, a new wave of activity has begun and the campaign is continuing. On 10-13-9, a new photo session was held to develop new posters, bill boards and brochures. Once the art work is done, they will seek private sponsors for nine billboards, three in each of the three counties. The Delaware Troopers Associa-tion is sponsoring three billboards, but they requested all the photos have troopers. They will schedule that photo session. They have sought automobile dealerships, insurance agencies and other private sector businesses to sponsor bill boards. Some sponsors have come forward already asking to be a part of the billboard campaign. The Delaware Highway Safety Office provides overtime funds to agencies that demonstrate a need for holiday weekends. Ten citations have been identified as potential aggressive driving violations emphasized during the weekend enforcement effort.

Andrea Summers
Delaware Office of Highway Safety
P.O. Box 1321
Dover, DE 19903
Phone: (302) 739-4282

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia

The Washington, DC Metropolitan Police Department is a participating agency in the Smooth Operator program in the metropolitan area. Aggressive driving enforcement continues as part of the department's regular traffic enforcement.

Carole Lewis
Government of the District of Columbia
Department of Public Works
2000 14th St., NW - 7th Floor
Washington, DC 20009
Phone: (202) 671-0492
Fax: (202) 939-7185

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of FloridaFlorida

St. Petersburg Police Department -- St. Petersburg is in the process of changing the name of their aggressive driving program from "Where's Jocker's?" to "Where's Alf?" Officer Mike Jockers, who created the program after the ‘Where's Waldo' books, use non-traditional vehicles as a platform to observe the motoring public. He dresses in clothes appropriate for the vehicle he is sitting in and observes traffic. He has sat on bus benches and lawn mowers with radar guns, sat in buckets on power trucks observing red light violations. He calls ahead to marked patrol vehicles, to allow them to take enforcement action. In addition to "Where's Alf", there is also "Where's Willie". Every Friday, an officer from these two programs coordinates a city wide traffic operation with both patrol and community policing officers. Recently, the Sheriff's Department and Florida Highway Patrol became involved in the program.

The department has utilized the media extensively on their enforcement efforts announcing they were going to be working in a certain area. They have also done public education and training to make the citizens of St. Petersburg more aware of hazardous driving behaviors. A video is available from St. Petersburg Police Department showing the department at several different enforcement opportunities. St Petersburg Police Department is incorporating their new "Where's Alf?" program into a bigger program called "3-E's" which stand for enforcement, education and engineering. They want to use a broad based effort to educate the public, to look at roadway design and signing as possible
problems as well as enforcement to deal with the aggressive driving problem.

Lieutenant Tom Carey
St. Petersburg Police Department
1300 1st Avenue, North
St. Petersburg, FL 33705
Phone: (727) 893-7157
Fax: (727) 892-5099

Clearwater Police Department -- Clearwater Police Department launched their aggressive Driving Detection and Suppression program on July 27, 1999. The Traffic Enforcement Squad is looking for motorists who commit multiple hazardous moving violations.

The local mental health officials assisted in developing anger management tip cards for road rage suspects. Road rage reports were entered into a database, which support follow up mailing to suspects. In addition, criminal histories of suspects are checked and the database is shared with CID for future investigations. A traffic hotline was established to report aggressive drivers who receive follow up mailing.

This program is run on a monthly basis with the locations advertised on the department's television station. The operation is staffed with both traffic teams and community policing teams.

Lt. Steve Burch
Clearwater Police Department
645 Pierce St.
Clearwater, Florida 33756
Phone: (727) 562-4161

Florida Highway Patrol-Tallahassee-- Requested information about aggressive driving that could be used in a four-hour lesson block to train Florida Highway Patrol Troopers about the issues.

Lt. Ron Castlebury
Florida Highway Patrol
2908 Ridgeway St.
Tallahassee, Fl. 32310
Phone: (850) 414-1115

Institute of Police Technology Management - Jacksonville -- IPTM received a grant from the State of Florida to develop a program to train police officers about the issue of the aggressive driver. Tom Genest, is a retired police officer with Jacksonville Police Department and has been hired to head that program.IPTM held an Aggressive Driving Summit February 8 - 10, 2000. An array of public safety, legal, and adjudication representatives participated in the "Aggressive Driving Summit." There were six areas action steps were developed: enforcement strategies, applied technology, prosecution and adjudication, prosecution and legislative requirements, community leadership, and media relations. For more information on the summit contact Mr. Tom Genest.

Mr. Tom Genest
Institute of Police Technology and Management
University of North Florida
12000 Alumni Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32224
Phone: (904) 620-4786

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of HawaiiHawaii

In May 1999, Hawaii launched its first anti-road rage campaign, "Drive Akamai." A community partnership was formed with the City Department of Transportation Services, KITV4, KSSK Radio, and the AAA Hawaii Transportation Association to reduce road rage incidents.

Marilyn Kali
Department of Transportation
869 Punchbowl St.
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813-5097
Phone: (808) 587-2160
Fax: (808) 587-231

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of IdahoIdaho

The Idaho Office of Highway Safety is currently funding the four Selective Traffic Enforcement Program (STEP) Teams that emphasis risky driving behavior. Idaho law enforcement agencies, including sheriff's offices, police departments, and the Idaho State Police, conduct saturation patrols. The Idaho State Police and other agencies that have STEP Teams funds, conducting saturation patrols at least twice a month. Locations for the saturation patrols are identified based on citizen complaints or collision statistics.

Mark Strait
Grants/Contracts Office
Idaho Office of Highway Safety
P.O. Box 7129, 3311 West State St.
Boise, Idaho 83707-1129
Phone: (208)334-8102

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of IllinoisIllinois

The Illinois State Police kicked off a statewide aggressive driver campaign on December 19, 1997. The program is the responsibility of each District Commander and is tailored for the individual District. They use a variety of tactics for enforcement which include enforcement teams, catch cars, targeted patrols, air operations, covert operations, and speed enforcement. There are 33 high speed (unmarked) vehicles throughout Illinois. The program has been very successful. There is media involvement and a video on aggressive driving available to the public.

Illinois State Police
Master Sergeant Flynn Hanners
201 E. Adams, Suite 100
Springfield, IL 62701
Phone: (217) 782-6269

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of IndianaIndiana

The Indiana State Police began targeting flagrant traffic violators in 1988. This vigorous traffic enforcement targeted the same drivers as current aggressive driving programs: the major difference was lack of a name. They use unmarked, nontraditional law enforcement vehicles and aircraft to detect the aggressive driver. They also use vehicles that appear to belong to the Department of Transportation for enforcement purposes in construction zones.

1st Sergeant Carol Ruby
Indiana State Police
100 North Senate Avenue
IGCN Room N340
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: (317) 232-8246
Fax: (317) 232-0652

The Indianapolis Police Department (in cooperation with the Marion County Traffic Safety Partnership) received a grant for an aggressive driving enforcement and public information and education campaign. There will be six other agencies participating: Marion County Sheriff's Department, Indiana State Police, Lawrence Police Department, Speedway Police Department, Beech Grove Police Department, and Cumberland Police Department.

The partnerships will utilize various tactics for enforcement: Single Officer Tactic will use marked patrol vehicles. The Centipede Tactic consists of placing 4-6 marked and unmarked police cars from the seven law enforcement agencies, approximately two miles apart. The Ghost Vehicle Tactic utilizes two officers with a marked and unmarked car. The unmarked car locates the aggressive driver and the marked car apprehends the violator. The Over-pass Tactic places an officer on foot on an overpass and radios a marked car to apprehend the violator. The Work Zone Tactic utilizes an officer to patrol a work zone where aggressive drivers often appear.

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of KansasKansas

In April 1999, "Operation CEERAD" (Concentrated Enforcement Effort to Reduce Aggressive Driving) was the aggressive driving awareness campaign. Seven local police agencies, including officers from the Highway Patrol, contributed to the campaign. Operation CEERAD is an on-going cooperative effort to promote highway safety through education and enforcement efforts.

E. Dean Carlson
Kansas Department of Transportation
Docking State Office Building
915 SW Harrison ST., Rm. 730
Topeka, Kansas 66612-1568
Phone: (785) 296-3461
Fax: (785) 296-1095 (fax)

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of MaineMaine

The Maine State Police currently have a "Process Action Team" studying aggressive driving. They are in the process of developing both printed material and public service announcements on this issue as well as enforcement strategies.

Richard Perkins, Director
Bureau of Highway Safety
Department of Public Health
164 State House Station
Augusta, Maine 04333-0164
Phone: (207) 624-8756
Fax: (207) 624-8768

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of MarylandMaryland

Maryland State Police is a major participant in the Smooth Operator program conducted in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. The Maryland State Police aggressive driver program, known as Aggressive Driver Video and Non-Contact Enforcement (ADVANCE), uses digital video cameras coupled with lidar to identify and record aggressive drivers and other violators on the Washington Capital Beltway. This enforcement effort consists of PSA's, and letters and photographs of the violation are sent to offending drivers. The effectiveness of this program, which started in November 1997, will be measured by before/after opinion polls of the motoring public.

Sergeant Dave Perry
Maryland State Police
1201 Reistertown Road
Pikesville, MD 21208-3899
Phone: (410) 653-4215

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of MassachusettsMassachusetts

This program, known as the Drunk, Drugged, and Dangerous (3D) Program, began on September 12, 1997, with a large media campaign. The program uses a sergeant and three troopers assigned full time to the unit. They drive video-equipped, unmarked cars to conduct the enforcement effort. They also have fostered a good working relationship with the prosecutor's office, Department of Motor Vehicles, and the courts.

Massachusetts State Police -- The Massachusetts State Police is using unmarked, non-traditional police vehicles that are fully equipped with concealed emergency lights, police radio, radar, video cameras and high performance engines. The unmarked vehicle is operated by a uniformed trooper who patrols, observing traffic, looking for the aggressive, unsafe driver. In the area around the unmarked vehicle, there are at least three other marked patrol vehicles. When an unsafe driving behavior is observed, the unmarked unit will catch up to the violator and activate the video camera. The radar is connected to the video camera, so the speed of the driver is constantly recorded. The trooper that is following the violator is narrating into the video microphone the driving pattern the trooper is observing. The trooper will call for a marked unit and give vehicle description, license number, direction of travel, etc. If the marked unit is ahead of the unmarked unit following the violator, the marked patrol vehicle will slow down and allow the violator to catch up. Once the unmarked police vehicle pulls in behind a violator, the trooper activates red and blue lights to the rear of the unmarked police vehicle, so other motorists know it is a police vehicle. If the driving behavior by the violator is so offensive, the trooper in the unmarked vehicle
initiates a traffic stop immediately and does not wait for one of the marked patrol units.

The history, to date has been very little arguing on the roadside, once the violator understands that his/her driving behavior has been videotaped. There have not been any chases from these traffic stops. Once the trooper returns to the barracks at the end of the shift, the trooper runs a driver's license history check on the driver. If the driving records that show two (aggressive driving type) offenses within the last year or three within the last two years, they initiate a process called, "Immediate Threat" report. The trooper files the report, attaches the driver license history, as well as the current citation and forwards this package to the driver's license office. This process is civil in nature. The driver's license division schedules a driver's license hearing and the driver has an order to show cause why his/her driver's license should not be revoked or suspended for aggressive driving. To date, over 200 "Immediate Threat" reports have been filed with the driver's license division, and the driver's license has been suspended in every case. The media coverage has been extensive both in the United States and Europe. There have been numerous printed articles done as well as video interviews.

Major Stephen Leary
Massachusetts State Police
Phone: (508) 829-5336

Sergeant Dan Wicks
Massachusetts State Police
2 Troop A Headquarters
485 Maple Street
Danvers, MA 01923
Phone: (508) 538-6045

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of MichiganMichigan

(Oct. 29, 1998) Michigan State Police Operation BAD (Bust Aggressive Drivers) uses an old clunker car to let nasty drivers be themselves. The Oak Park Post recently started using an old gray car with a rusty roof and peeling paint, commonly called their stealth vehicle, to observe aggressive drivers. A uniformed trooper rides in the old car, while troopers in marked patrol vehicles drive in the area. When the driver of the stealth vehicle observes aggressive driving behavior, the trooper calls to a marked unit to initiate the traffic stop.

Sgt. Dan Davis
Michigan State Police
Traffic Service Section
714 South Harrison
East Lansing, MI 48823
Phone: (517) 336-6518

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of MinnesotaMinnesota

The Minnesota State Patrol has equipped its helicopters with cameras that produce extremely clear pictures of license platenumbers up to 500 feet. The pictures are downloaded via satellite to the traffic control center. A portable receiver allows the video to be seen in a squad car and is used to stop and take appropriate action with aggressive and drunk drivers.

Kathy Swanson
Office of Traffic Safety
Department of Public Safety
444 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN 55101
Phone: (651) 296-9507
Fax: (651) 297-4844

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of MissouriMissouri

The Missouri Highway Patrol program used traffic crash and fatality data to select targeted areas. The State Highway Safety Office coordinates the media aspect of the program while the police agencies around the State coordinate the enforcement aspect of the program. The Highway Patrol uses aircraft, unmarked patrol cars, and non-conventional vehicles to detect aggressive drivers. They also involve local law enforcement agencies and sheriffs' departments in the enforcement efforts.

Captain Sandy Karsten
Missouri Highway Patrol
P.O. Box 568
Jefferson City, MO 65102
Phone: (573) 526-6226

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of New HampshireNew Hampshire

In November 1999 the New Hampshire State Police formed an aggressive driving unit. The unit consisted of four uniformed troopers and one sergeant. Each unit member was issued an unmarked vehicle (Chevy Tahoe, Luminas, Mustang, and Crown Vic). The unmarked cars are fully equipped with lights and sirens. The unit works in day light hours and usually during rush hours. They saturate a selected area (high complaint area) and looks for two or more moving violations.

The media has ridden on several occasions as well as the local news paper reporters. The ride along's have been reported on TV and in the local paper.

In the first five months the unit totaled 700 violator contacts and issued close to 1100 summons' to aggressive drivers. Less than 10% have contested the summons'. The unit has had a 100% conviction rate.

Sergeant Bill Quigley
New Hampshire State Police
10 Hazen Dr.
Concord, NH 03305
Phone: (603) 271-3636

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of New JerseyNew Jersey

New Jersey State Police started its program when it was determined that 63 percent of fatal crashes were the result of violations attributed to aggressive drivers. The multi-agency enforcement program uses semi-marked patrol cars and unconventional vehicles.

Lt. Bill Wade
New Jersey State Police
Traffic Bureau
Division Headquarters
P.O. Box 7068
West Trenton, NJ 08628
Phone: (609) 882-2000 ext. 2305

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of New MexicoNew Mexico

The Albuquerque Police Department city developed a program, called "Safe Streets," to use intensive traffic enforcement to reduce violent felony crimes. By coordinating their efforts with their Crime Analysis Department, they were able to chart areas of the city that had high drug traffic, high numbers of violent felony episodes and aggressive driving. They use the media whenever possible and feel that media involvement can make or break their efforts. In the early years of their program, they had overtime funds. More recently they have had to learn to do the saturation patrols during on-duty time. There has been a dramatic decrease in the number of crash fatalities and violent criminal events.

The Albuquerque Police Department expanded the successful "Safe Streets" program into "Safe Street 2000." Due to heavy construction on a major Interstate Interchange, the department is taking a pro-active approach to the aggressive driving problem. The solution the department chose was an unprecedented partnering with the State Highway Department, Traffic Safety Bureau, the construction company, city and state engineers, and the New Mexico State Police. Saturation patrols of both the interstate and city streets with increased congestion are conducted. Enforcement is planned based on weekly statistical updates. Cameras placed throughout the construction area observes problems as they occur. A sergeant monitors the cameras and radio's an officer to take action as the violation occur's. The program has received overwhelming support from the public.

Sergeant Jay Gilhooly
Albuquerque Police Department
5408 2nd Street
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone: (505) 761-8805

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of New YorkNew York

New York State Police -- The New York State Police uses low profile vehicles (unconventional emergency lighting systems) with front and rear mounted video cameras. A toggle switch allows the troopers to change cameras without taking their eyes off the road. The department also uses passenger vans equipped with two video cameras also. They are used in conjunction with marked patrol vehicles to initiate the traffic stop. The height of the vans allows a better vantage point for videotaping and because it is a nontraditional police vehicle, unsuspecting motorists are videotaped before they realize it. NYSP has identified twenty target zones where aggressive driving appears to be a problem and concentrate enforcement efforts in those zones at least once a month. NYSP hasproduced several different pieces to use in their media campaign to educate the public such as magnets, pictures, pamphlets, pens, etc.

Sergeant Jim Halvorsen
New York State Police
1220 Washington Ave. Bldg. 22
Albany, NY 12226
Phone: (518) 457-3258

Suffolk County Police Department -- Suffolk County Police Department's developed a program called "Returning Courtesy To Our Highways" and received a grant from The New York State Governor's Traffic Safety Board. The pilot project has proven successful.

Officer's are utilized on overtime for a two hour period following either the midnight tour or day tour. An unmarked vehicle is used and officers are instructed to specifically enforce violations commonly associated with aggressive driving. The program is in the process of being changed to include additional hours and updated recording of enforcement activities.

Officer David Williams
SCPD Highway Patrol Bureau
Expressway Enforcement Section
PO Box 4477
Bayshore, NY 11706
Phone: (631) 854-7300
Fax: (631) 854-7311

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of North CarolinaNorth Carolina

In October, 1998, the North Carolina Highway Patrol began its aggressive driving campaign. The patrol has instituted a statewide educational campaign to educate citizens on the dangers of aggressive driving behavior. A poster and public service announcements, using Dale Earnhardt, the NASCAR driver is part of the aggressive driving campaign.

The Sheriff's department and local police agencies throughout the state are using increased enforcement to address the aggressive driving problem.

Frank Hackney
Manager External Affairs
Governor's Highway Safety Program
215 East Lane St.
Raleigh, North Carolina 27601
Phone: (919) 733-3083
Fax: (919) 733-0604

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of  OhioOhio

The Ohio State Highway Patrol kicked off its state-wide aggressive driver program, known as Targeting Reckless & Intimidating Aggressive Drivers (TRIAD), on July 4, 1997. The aviation division in Columbus is responsible for the administration of TRIAD. It uses thirteen aircraft and ground units from the Highway Patrol and other local agency vehicles to pursue violators.

Sergeant Mark Groves
Ohio State Highway Patrol
Aviation Section
2829 West Dublin-Granville Road
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone: (614) 466-4468

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of  OklahomaOklahoma

The Oklahoma City Police Department started their aggressive driving program September 1, 1998. They have used an extensive media campaign to advise the public about their aggressive driving campaign. The media filmed the unmarked patrol vehicles, as well as possible target locations of where the special unit would be working, but no specific locations were given. When the media blitz first started, no citations were issued the first week. Prior to officers working the aggressive driving campaign, they must attend an eight-hour class to educate them about aggressive driving behaviors that lead to crashes. There are 230 officers trained to work the Reduction of Accident and Aggressive and Inconsiderate Drivers (RAID) cars. The officers are also made aware that if they target the aggressive driving behavior, they will reduce crashes. OCPD has done research, gathered statistics from crashes and fatalities, selected ten high crash areas to target special enforcement and continually reevaluate those numbers to see if new areas are surfacing at high crash areas. They have done several speed surveys and found that after the special unit has worked a high crash area, the travel speed of motorists decreases. The City of Oklahoma is supporting the RAID Program.

Lt. Nancy Rateliff
Oklahoma City Police Department
701 Colcord Drive
Oklahoma City, OK 73102
Phone: (405) 297-1280

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of OregonOregon

The “Safe and Courteous Driving Campaign” addresses Oregon’s aggressive and unsafe driving issues by aiming messages at work zones, sharing the road with vulnerable road users, extending courtesy to other drivers, and safe driving behaviors. The campaign uses billboards, transit placards, movie theater slides, and radio and television advertising. A public service announcement video has also been released.

Walt Mc Allister
Transportation Safety Division
Department of Transportation
555 13th Street, NE, Suite 3
Salem, OR 97301
Phone: (503) 986-4187
Fax: (503) 986-4189

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania

(July 1998) The Pennsylvania State Police’s program is known as Ticket the Aggressive Driver (Tag-D). It uses unmarked cars, aircraft, and Department of Transportation vehicles. In some cases, officers in civilian clothes are used to call in violations to other officers in marked units for enforcement action.

Pennsylvania State Police
Bureau of Patrol
1800 Elmerton Avenue
Harrisburg, PA 17110
Phone: (717) 772-1825
Fax: (717) 783-7690

The Pennsylvania State Police’s “Centipede” program started in 1997, is still be used during high traffic volume times, such as holidays, special events and long weekends. The “Centipede” program consists of placing six or more troopers along a highway, spaced approximately two miles apart. The primary technology used is radar, but the troopers are looking for any type of aggressive driving behavior. As the motorist travels past the first officer, the driver may feel it is safe to speed or resume previous behavior. The motorist would then meet the second officer, spaced two miles down the highway and that officer could take enforcement action and this would continue down the line of officers involved in the “Centipede” detail. Any one of the six officers spaced out along the highway would take enforcement action when they see a violation occur. While one officer is busy on a traffic stop and out of the line, the space between the officers may be 2, 4, or 6 miles. The motoring public would not know when and where the next officer may be located. “T.A.G.D.”- Ticket the Aggressive Driver is still used by individual officers and by groups of officers on special details. Both programs have received extra funding at times to allow for overtime shifts, but the program has also been used during regular working hours. There is no media campaign, no public information and education associated with the “Centipede” or “T.A.G.D.” campaigns.

Trooper John Spishock
Pennsylvania State Police
1800 Elmerton Ave.
Harrisburg, PA 17110
Phone: (717) 783-5517

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of Rhode IslandRhode Island

In 1997, the Rhode Island State Police initiated its aggressive driver program. The program was started because Rhode Island had experienced a 54 percent increase in fatal crashes. Many of the fatal crashes were the result of traffic violations usually attributed to aggressive drivers. A weekly deployment of four unmarked cars equipped with in-car video systems targeting aggressive drivers in specific areas. The program also involves the use of a media campaign, which includes interviews and (media) ride-along’s in an effort to enhance public awareness regarding aggressive driving.

Lt. John Blessing
Rhode Island State Police
Traffic Services/Planning & Research Unit
311 Danielson Pike
North Sinuate, RI 02857
Phone: (401) 444-1115
Fax: (401) 444-1141

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of South CarolinaSouth Carolina

The South Carolina Highway Patrol has an Aggressive Driving Program called State Trooper On Patrol (STOP). Operation Stop uses unmarked vehicles, vehicles that look like a taxi and other used vehicles. There are seven districts and each district has an aggressive driving team. Each team consists of a supervisor and four troopers. The supervisor identifies the violator and the trooper makes the stop. Each team focuses on high speed and a combination of other violations.During various times of the year, three teams will focus on a particular interstate. An aircraft is used along with two motorcycles per team. There has been some media involvement. There was a Thanksgiving Blitz (2000) with strong media coverage.

Traffic fatalities in 2000 were up by 64 by the end of June compared to 1999. Within three months of the Aggressive Driving Program actively working in teams, traffic fatalities dropped the next three months. There were 11 less fatalities compared to the same time in 1999.

The South Carolina Highway Patrol instructs a two hour aggressive training to all of there officers. The training is to familiarize the officers with the problem posed by the aggressive driver and provide the necessary information for identifying the interdiction of the aggressive driver.

Lt. Col. M.W. Kelly
South Carolina Highway Patrol HQ
5400 Broad River Road
Columbia, SC 29210
Phone: (803)896-7878

In early 1997, the Greer Police Department began an extensive education program for both the citizens of the community and the officers. The program is known as Targeting the Aggressive Driver. Its primary purpose is to make everyone aware of the importance of obeying traffic laws and reducing crashes. In addition, an enforcement program was implemented to supplement the education portion. The overall result has been a 22 percent decrease in crashes in the first seven months of the campaign compared with the same period in 1996.

Sergeant Jolene Vancil
Greer Police Department
101 West Poinsett Street
Greer, SC 29650
Phone: (864) 848-2188
Fax: (864) 848-2163

On April 7, 2000, Sheriff Johnny Mack Brown, Greenville County Sheriff’s Office, held a press conference discussing the problems associated with aggressive driving. Sheriff Brown announced strategies that the Sheriff’s Office is implementing to address the growing concern of aggressive driving. Greenville teamed up with the South Carolina Highway Patrol. The Sheriff’s Office is using their helicopter to identify and videotape drivers who speed, follow too closely, change lanes improperly, and disregard the rules of the road.

Sergeant Mike Brown
Greenville County Sheriff’s Office
4 McGee Street
Greenville, SC 29601
Phone: (864) 467-5362

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of TexasTexas

In the latter half of 1997, the cities of Arlington and Fort Worth began targeting aggressive drivers to reduce crashes and associated injuries. Patrol officers were encouraged to become more involved in traffic enforcement with an increased emphasis on aggressive driving. The team enforcement concept was used along with marked patrol cars and motorcycles. A call-in program was developed for citizens to report aggressive drivers. The calls are screened and letters are sent to violators seeking voluntary compliance with traffic laws. In more serious cases, the traffic unit conducts a follow-up investigation.

Lt. Travis Moore
Arlington Police Department
Traffic Division
P.O. Box 1065
Arlington, TX 76004-1065
Phone: (817) 459-5612

Lt. Greg Schnake
Fort Worth Police Department
Traffic Division
1100 Nashville
Fort Worth, TX 76105
Phone: (817) 871-7110 or 871-7112

Richardson (Texas) Police Department “Downstream” lights are used for red light enforcement. After much frustration in trying to effect traffic stops by red light violators, because of the width of the intersection, the Richardson Police Department worked with the city engineering department to devise a system that could be used to safely enforce the law against red light violators. The construction of the highway system through Richardson has created wide intersections and increased hazards for the officer to pursue a motorist that had run a red light. If a motorists ran a red light, he would be driving through the intersection for several seconds and the potential of being hit by other motorists entering the intersection was extremely high.

They developed a system to install 40 watt traffic lights that would come on when the traffic light turned red. The light was off-set from the red, yellow and green lights, would be visible from any direction. With the “downstream” lights, one police officer could work traffic at the intersection. As the traffic signal turns red, the white light would come on and the officer could see the vehicle that had driven through the red light, and know that the light was red. Because the officer was sitting downstream, it is easy to direct the vehicle to the side of road or pull in behind the vehicle, for a traffic stop. In an effort to make sure the technology was accepted by the courts, the police department did demonstrations for the judges to make them aware of how the technology was designed to work and how easy the lights were to observe. Costs to install this light system is: $500 for materials, services of two people and approximately six work hours, per intersection. During a recent red-light enforcement campaign, over 300 citations were issued in the first two days. Over 70% of the citations were the result of the use of the downstream enforcement lights.

Deputy Chief Larry Zacharias
(for enforcement information)
Richardson Police Department
P.O. Box 831078
Richardson, TX 75083
Phone: (972) 238-3800

The San Antonio Police Department received a grant to implement their Aggressive Driving Program. SAPD has a six month program to decrease aggressive driving within the city through a three-part approach, including Education, Enforcement, and Assessment.

Each officer attends a 16 hour in-service course designed to give each officer an insight into the behavior of an aggressive driver, how to identify those characteristics, and what enforcement will best correct those behavior patterns.

A “Drive Cool” campaign will focus on educating the public about the dangers of aggressive driving. After the public has been educated, the officers will work target sites in marked SAPD patrol cars and plain unmarked vehicles driven by an officer in plain clothes. Uniformed officers will make the traffic stop. Motorcycle officers and helicopter support will be utilized when needed.

Captain Tom Polonis
Lieutenant Larry Cisneros
Traffic Section
515 S. Frio
San Antonio, Texas 78207
Phone: (210) 207-7400

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of UtahUtah

The Utah Highway Patrol started an aggressive driver enforcement program in Salt Lake City because of the extensive construction project underway on I-15 through the city. The Highway Patrol has started using unmarked cars and other non-conventional police vehicles to patrol for aggressive drivers. A training program was developed and is taught by public information officers across the State by request.

Lieutenant Judy Hamacker
Utah Highway Patrol
State Capitol Bldg., B-13
400 North State Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84114
Phone: (801) 538-1116

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of VirginiaVirginia

The Fairfax County Police’s “Operation Road Shark” started September 21, 1998 as a spin off from the “Smooth Operator” program done in the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area. During the first week of operation, 1,800 citations were written for aggressive driving, with speed being the most common. Sixty-eight percent of the violators were male. The most common reason given for the aggressive driving behavior, late for work.

Officer Robert Barton
Fairfax County Police Department
3911 Woodburn
Annandale, VA 22003
Phone: (703)280-0561

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of WashingtonWashington

The Washington State Patrol started its aggressive driving program on Memorial Day weekend, 1998. Two unmarked vehicles and motorcycles were assigned to target flagrant violators. Currently, there are 10 Aggressive Driving Apprehension Team (ADAT) vehicles throughout the state. There are also 2 vehicles that look like taxi cabs. The trooper calls ahead to a marked patrol vehicle, who initiates the stop. Video camera’s are mounted in each vehicle. Most of the funding for equipment and vehicles have been paid for by Washington State Traffic Safety grants.

Each district has the option of teaming up with other agencies, but most of the ADAT vehicles work the interstate system. Troopers are assigned to the ADAT vehicle, working during rush hour or high traffic areas on a three month rotating basis. There has not been any incidents with violators failing to stop for the unmarked vehicles. Marked vehicles and motorcycle officers participate in the Aggressive Driving Program. Training on aggressive driving is provided to cadets and troopers.

In the beginning of the Aggressive Driving Program there was strong media involvement. A media blitz advised the public about the program. The media has ridden with troopers and video of violators was aired on the local news. The media continues to be involved with the Aggressive Driving Program. An educational video on aggressive driving was made and is available upon request.

Lieutenant Timothy Braniff
Washington State Patrol
PO Box 42600
Olympia, WA 98504-2600
Phone: (360) 753-6890

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the greater Washington D.C. metropolitan areaGreater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

(Includes law enforcement agencies in Washington, D.C., Maryland and Virginia) Twenty-six law enforcement agencies throughout Northern Virginia, Suburban Maryland, and the District of Columbia participate in the National Capital Area Smooth Operator Program. This anti-aggressive driving initiative began in 1997 with an emphasis on four one-week waves of selective enforcement by the participating agencies. It has since evolved into a comprehensive traffic safety program with four main focus areas: data collection and analysis; public awareness and education; coordinated enforcement efforts; and driver improvement strategies.

The Smooth Operator Campaign combines the efforts of law enforcement with public relations and research to address all areas of aggressive driving. A public awareness program was launched in April of 2000, in conjunction with ongoing waves of law enforcement aimed at the aggressive driving problem. It was targeted at motorists, and one of its primary goals was to make the public more aware of jurisdictional efforts to reduce aggressive driving.

1st Sergeant Carl Miller
Maryland State Police
1201 Reistertown Road
Pikesville, MD 21208-3899
Phone: (410) 653-4217

Stylized graphic representation of a map of the state of WisconsinWisconsin

The City of Milwaukee Aggressive Driving Enforcement Project called “Aggression Suppression” is the first NHTSA-sponsored aggressive driving enforcement demonstration. The six-month program combined intensified general and targeted enforcement, incorporating innovative strategies and technologies, with publicity about the dangers of aggressive driving and the heightened enforcement. The program was organized into a series of three-week highly visible enforcement and public education media effort focusing on a specific aggressive driving offense.

Milwaukee Safety Commission
Milwaukee Police Department
6680 N. Teutonia Ave #151
Milwaukee, WI 53209-3117
Phone: (414) 935-7991
Fax: (414) 935-3561

Pending the outcome of more definitive research, NHTSA considers the aggressive driver problem to be primarily an urban, rush hour problem. The aggressive driver programs enumerated in this document have been designated as being such by the state or local jurisdictions in which they are being or have been conducted.