safety belts save lives
 

References

  1. NHTSA Press Release DOT 141-05, “Transportation Secretary Mineta Announces Record Safety Belt Usage in the U.S.,” September 30, 2005.

  2. Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Safety Belt Use in 2005, Overall Results. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 932. August 2005.

  3. Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes as a Leading Cause of Death in the United States, 2003. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DOT HS 810 568, March 2006.

  4. NHTSA Press Release 09-05, “2004 Highway Deaths Projected to Reach 42,800; Transportation Secretary Mineta Calls Fatalities a “National Epidemic,” April, 21, 2005.

  5. Traffic Safety Facts 2004 Data. Occupant Protection. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 909.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Safety Belt Use in 2005, Overall Results. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DOT HS 809932. August 2005.

  8. Traffic Safety Facts. Laws, Strengthening Safety Belt Use Laws, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, March 2005.

  9. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  10. Traffic Safety Facts. Laws, Strengthening Safety Belt Use Laws, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. January 2006.

  11. Ibid.

  12. A. Crancer, “Analysis of the Impact of Washington State’s Primary Seat Belt Law and Click It or Ticket on Restraint Use in Passenger Vehicle Fatalities, 2002,” December 2003.

  13. P. M. Salzberg and J. M. Moffat “Ninety Five Percent: An Evaluation of Law, Policy, and Programs To Promote Seat Belt Use In Washington State,” published by of the Washington Traffic Safety Commission, November 2003.

  14. Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes as a Leading Cause of Death in the United States, 2003. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DOT HS 810 568, March 2006.

  15. A.T. McCarett and V.I. Shabanova. “Teenage Seat Belt Use: White Paper Update.” Prepared for The National Safety Council’s Air Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign, April 2004.

  16. L. Blincoe, E. Seay, M.T. Zaloshnja, E. Romano, S. Luchter, R. Spicer, “The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes 2000,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 446, May 2002.

  17. “The Economic Burden of Traffic Crashes on Employers-Costs by State and Industry and by Alcohol and Restraint Use,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 682, August 2005.

  18. M.G. Solomon, R.G. Ulmer, D.F. Preusser. “Evaluation of Click It or Ticket Model Programs.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT 809 498, November 2002.

  19. M. G. Solomon, R.H.B. Chaffe, and L. A. Cosgrove, “May 2004 Click It or Ticket Safety Belt Mobilization Evaluation.” USDOT/NHTSA (2006, in progress).

  20. Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. “States with Primary Enforcement Laws Have Lower Fatality Rates.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 557, February 2006.

  21. C.F. Farmer and A.F. Williams, “Effect on fatality risk of changing from secondary to primary seat belt enforcement,” Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, Virginia, December 2004.

  22. Ibid.

  23. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Status Report, Vol. 40, No. 2, January 31, 2005.

  24. N. K Chaudhary and D. F. Preusser, “Lives Lost by States’ Failure to Implement Safety Belt
    Laws,” published by the National Safety Council’s Air Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign, November 5, 2003.

  25. L. Blincoe, E. Seay, M.T. Zaloshnja, E. Romano, S. Luchter, R. Spicer, “The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes 2000,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 446, May 2002.

  26. T. B. Dinh-Zarr, PhD, MPH; D. A. Sleet, PhD, MA; R. A. Shults, PhD, MPH; S. Zaza, MD, MPH; R. W. Elder, Med; J. L. Nichols, PhD; R. S. Thompson, MD; D. M. Sosin, MD, MPH; and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, “Reviews of Evidence Regarding Interventions to Increase the Use of Safety Belts,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, October 2003.

  27. 2003 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, Volume 2, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 789, September 2004.

  28. Ibid.

  29. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Status Report, Vol. 38, No. 1, January 11, 2003.

  30. Governors’ Highway Safety Association, Highway Safety Policies and Priorities, Updated 2004.

  31. J. M. Boyle and P. Vanderwolf, 2003 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey Safety Belt Report, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 789, September 2003.

  32. Simon v. Sargent, D.C.Mass.1972, 346 F.Supp. 277, affirmed 93 S.Ct. 463, 409 U.S. 1020, 34 L.Ed.2d 312.

  33. D. W. Eby, L. P. Kostyniuk, L. J. Molnar, J. M. Vivoda, L. L. Miller, “The Effect of Changing from Secondary to Primary Safety Belt Enforcement on Police Harassment,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, Elsevier, Vol. 36, 2004.

  34. R.G. Ulmer, C.W. Preusser, D.F Preusser, Evaluation of Georgia’s Safety Belt Law Change to Primary Enforcement. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in progress.

  35. D.F. Preusser, C.W. Preusser, Evaluation of Louisiana’s Safety Belt Law Change to Primary Enforcement. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 808 620, 1997.

  36. R.G. Ulmer, C.W. Preusser, D.F. Preusser, Evaluation of California’s Safety Belt Law
    Change to Primary Enforcement. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 808 205, 1994.

  37. Evaluation of Maryland, Oklahoma, and the District of Columbia’s Seat Belt Law Change to Primary Enforcement, Final Report, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 213, March 2001.

  38. Unless otherwise noted, all information is taken from 2004 fact sheets prepared by NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis. See NCSA Homepage on NHTSA’s website,
    www.nhtsa.gov.

  39. Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes as Leading Cause of Death in the United States, 2003. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT 810 568, March 2006.

  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Ten Leading Causes of Death, http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/osp/charts.htm.

  41. Ibid.

  42. L. Blincoe, E. Seay, M.T. Zaloshnja, E. Romano, S. Luchter, R. Spicer, The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes, 2000, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 446, May 2002

  43. “The Economic Burden of Traffic Crashes on Employers-Costs by State and Industry and by Alcohol and Restraint Use,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 682, August 2005.

  44. N. Russell, P. Dreyfus, M. Cosgrove, Legislative History of Recent Primary Safety Belt Laws. DOT HS 808 833, January 1999.