|1. Report No.
- DOT HS 809 242
|2. Government Accession No.
|3. Recipient's Catalog No.
|4. Title and Subtitle
Costs of Injuries Resulting from Motorcycle Crashes:
A Literature Review
5. Report Date
6. Performing Organization Code
Bruce A. Lawrence, Wendy Max, and Ted R. Miller
|8. Performing Organization Report No.
|9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Calverton Office Park
11710 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300
Calverton, Maryland 20705-3102
|10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
|11. Contract or Grant No.
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Office of Traffic Injury Control Programs
Safety Countermeasures Division
400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20590
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered
- Survey conducted Nov. 8, 2000 to
Jan. 21, 2001
|14. Sponsoring Agency Code
|15. Supplementary Notes
Joey W. Syner served as the NHTSA Contracting Officer=s Technical Representative
for this project.
PIRE analysts reviewed 25 motorcycle safety studies, mostly
from the 1990s, on the costs of injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes.
Most of the studies employed data from a state, locality, or medical
institution, and seven linked data from multiple sources - e.g., police
crash reports and hospital records - with varying degrees of success.
Other studies drew data from multiple sources in computing aggregate
estimates of crash costs.
Most of the studies focused on either the benefits of wearing helmets
or the impact of state helmet laws. These consistently found that helmet
use reduced the fatality rate, the probability and severity of head
injuries, the cost of medical treatment, the length of hospital stay,
the necessity for special medical treatments, and the probability of
long-term disability. A number of studies examined the question of who
pays for medical costs. Only slightly more than half of motorcycle crash
victims have private health insurance coverage. For uninsured patients,
a majority of medical costs are paid by the government. A few studies
examined the frequency of alcohol use by motorcycle crash victims. They
found high rates of alcohol use and intoxication, particularly among
unhelmeted crash victims.
While the literature has widely explored acute medical costs, research
is sparse in the areas of long-term medical and work-loss costs, which
are potentially much greater. More research is needed on these subjects
to provide a more comprehensive picture of the full cost of motorcycle
|17. Key Words
Survey, Occupant Protection, Air Bags
|18. Distribution Statement
Document is available through the
National Technical Information Service
Springfield, VA 22161
|19. Security Classif. (of this
|20. Security Classif. (of this page)
|21. No. of Pages