End Notes


1 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1996 - Motorcycles.. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

2 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fatality Analysis Reporting System data (1996).

3 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fatality Analysis Reporting System data (1996).

4 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1996 - Motorcycles. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

5 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (February 1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets. (DOT HS 808 347). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

6 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (December 1997). Traffic Safety Facts, 1996. (DOT HS 808 649). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

7 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1996 - Motorcycles. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

8 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (December 1997). Traffic Safety Facts, 1996. (DOT HS 808 649). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

9 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

10 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

11 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

12 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (February 1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets. (DOT HS 808 347). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

13 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (February 1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets. (DOT HS 808 347). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

14 Kelly, P., Sanson, T., Strange, G., & Orsay, E. (August 1991). A prospective study of the impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 20 (8), pp. 852-856.

15 Kraus, J. F., Peek, C., McArthur, D.L., & Williams, A. (1994). The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet usage law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. Journal of American Medical Association, 272 (19), pp 1506-1511.

16 Rowland, J., Rivara, F., Salzberg, P., Soderberg, R., Maier, R., & Koepsell, T. (January 1996). Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington state. American Journal of Public Health, 86 (1), pp. 41-45.

17 McSwain, N.E., & Wiley, B. (December 1984). Impact of the Re-enactment of the Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana. (DOT HS 806 760). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

18 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Fatality Analysis Reporting System data (1996).

19 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Fatality Analysis Reporting System data (1996).

20 Wilson, D.C. (March 1989). The Effectiveness of Motorcycle Helmets in Preventing Fatalities. (DOT HS 807 416). Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

21 Kraus, J. F., & Peak, C. (1994). The Evaluation of the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law: Change in Helmet Use, Statewide Fatalities, and Non-Injuries. Final Report. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

22 Kraus, J. F., & Peak, C. (1994). The Evaluation of the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law: Change in Helmet Use, Statewide Fatalities, and Non-Injuries. Final Report. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

23 Chenier, T.C., & Evans, L. (1987). Motorcycle fatalities and the repeal of mandatory helmet wearing laws. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 19 (2), pp. 133-139.

24 McSwain, N.E., & Wiley, B. (December 1984). Impact of the Re-enactment of the Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana. (DOT HS 806 760). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

25 Watson, G.S., Zador, P.L., & Wilks, A. (1980). The repeal of helmet use laws and increased motorcycle mortality in the United States 1975-1978. American Journal of Public Health, 70 (6), pp 579-585.

26 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

27 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

28 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (March 1992). Restraint System Use in 19 U.S. Cities: 1991 Annual Report. (DOT HS 808 148). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

29 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (March 1992). Restraint System Use in 19 U.S. Cities: 1991 Annual Report. (DOT HS 808 148). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

30 McSwain, N.E., & Wiley, B. (December 1984). Impact of the Re-enactment of the Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana. (DOT HS 806 760). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

31 McSwain, N.E., & Wiley, B. (December 1984). Impact of the Re-enactment of the Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana. (DOT HS 806 760). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

32 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (February 1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets. (DOT HS 808 347). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

33 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (February 1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets. (DOT HS 808 347). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

34 Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety. (August 1996). Motorcycle Helmets Laws: Questions and Answers. Washington, DC: Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety.

35 Bray, T., Szabo, R., Timmerman, L.Y., Yen, L., & Madison, M. (1985). Cost of orthopedic injuries sustained in motorcycle accidents, Journal of American Medical Association. 254 (17), pp. 2452-2453.

36 May, C., & Morabito, D. (1989). Motorcycle helmet use, incidence of head injury and cost of hospitalization. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 15 (5), pp. 389-392.

37 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (February 1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets. (DOT HS 808 347). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

38 Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety. (August 1996). Motorcycle Helmets Laws: Questions and Answers. Washington, DC: Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety.

39 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Fatality Analysis Reporting System data (1996).

40 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

41 Miller, T., Pindus, P.M., Leon, T.S., & Douglass, J.B. (1990). Motor vehicle injury costs by body region and severity. 34th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Des Plaines, IL, pp. 97-110.

42 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (January 1998). Research Note: Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

43 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (September 1995). Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey. (DOT HS 808 334). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

44 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (September 1995). Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey. (DOT HS 808 334). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

45 United States General Accounting Office. (July 1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. (GAO/RCED-91-170). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

46 Orsay, E., Holden, J.A., Williams, J., & Lumpkin, J.R. (1995). Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: Analysis of the Illinois department of public health trauma registry. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 26 (4), pp. 455-460.

47 Hurt, H.H., Ouellet, J.V., & Thom, D.R. (1981). Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification Countermeasures. (DOT HS 805 862). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

48 McKnight, J., & McKnight, A.S. (February 1994). The Effects of Motorcycle Helmets Upon Seeing and Hearing. (DOT HS 808 399). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

49 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1996 - Motorcycles. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.


Table of Contents / Comprehensive Approach to Safety / Anatomy of a Crash /
Preventing Brain Injuries / Reducing Injuries & Saving Lives / Helemet Laws Work /
Reducing Costs / Not a Stand Alone Issue / Common Myths /
Tax Payer vs. Personal Freedom / More Info. / End Notes