TABLE OF CONTENTS

Technical Report Documentation Page
Executive Summary

CHAPTER 1: SAFETY BELT USE
Drivers And Vehicles
Adjustable Shoulder Belt
Drivers’ Use Of Safety Belts
Group Differences In Reported Safety Belt Use
Relating Safety Belt Use To Other (Problem) Behaviors
Clarifying Reported Usage
Revised Safety Belt Use
Reported Changes In Belt Use
Regional Differences
Demographic Differences
Reasons For Change
Company Safety Belt Policy
Company Enforcement Of Safety Belt Policy
Safety Belt Use At Work And Company Policy
Passenger Use Of Safety Belts

CHAPTER 2: REASONS FOR SAFETY BELT USE AND NON-USE
Reasons For Safety Belt Use
Most Important Reason For Safety Belt Use
Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts
Most Important Reason For Non-Use of Safety Belts
What Drivers Dislike Or Find Annoying About Safety Belts
Reasons For Safety Belt Use By Non-Drivers
Non-Drivers’ Reasons For Not Using Safety Belts

CHAPTER 3: ATTITUDES CONCERNING THE UTILITY OF SAFETY BELTS, RISK PERCEPTIONS, AND FATALISM
Background On Attitude Section
Attitudes Concerning Risk Perception And The Utility Of Safety Belts
Attitudes Toward Fatalism
Gender And Age Differences In Attitudes
Racial And Ethnic Differences In Attitudes
Differences In Attitudes By Educational Level
Differences In Attitudes By Type Of Primary Vehicle Driven

CHAPTER 4: ATTITUDES, KNOWLEDGE, AND EXPERIENCE WITH SAFETY BELT LAWS AND THEIR ENFORCEMENT
Attitudes Toward Safety Belt Laws
Attitudes Toward Enforcement Of Safety Belt Laws
Knowledge Of State Safety Belt Laws
Standard Or Secondary Enforcement Provisions Of Safety Belt Laws
Stopped For Traffic-Related Reason In Past Year
Ever Received Ticket Or Warning For Safety Belt Violation
Perceived Risk Of Being Ticketed For Non-Use Of Safety Belts
Preferred Level Of Enforcement

CHAPTER 5: 1994-2003 TRENDS
Drivers And Vehicles, 1994-2003
Type Of Driver-Side Safety Belts, 1994-2003
Driver’s Use Of Safety Belts, 1994-2003
Reported Changes In Driver Safety Belt Use, 1994-2003
Driving On The Job, 1994-2003
Company Safety Belt Policy, 1994-2003
Frequency Of Front Seat Passenger Safety Belt Use, 1996-2003
Frequency Of Back Seat Passenger Safety Belt Use, 1996-2003
Most Important Reason For Safety Belt Use By Drivers, 1994-2003
Most Important Reason For Non-Use of Safety Belts By Drivers, 1994-2003
Drivers Who Dislike Or Find Something Annoying About Safety Belts, 1994-2003
Attitudes Concerning Fatalism And The Utility of Safety Belts, 1998-2003
Support For Safety Belt Laws That Apply To The Front Seat, 1994-2003
Support For Safety Belt Laws That Apply To Both The Front And Back Seats, 1994-2003
Support For Fines And Points, 1994-2003
Likely Reaction To Receiving Safety Belt Ticket, 1994-2003
Believe Their State Has A Safety Belt Law, 1994-2003
Knowledge Of Standard Versus Secondary Enforcement, 1994-2003
Support For Standard Enforcement, 1996-2003
Ever Received A Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning, 1994-2003
Perceived Likelihood Of Being Ticketed, 1994-2003
Level Of Support For Enforcing Safety Belt Laws, 1994-2003

APPENDIX A: *PRECISION OF SAMPLE ESTIMATES

APPENDIX B: STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY LAWS AT TIME OF SURVEY

FIGURES AND TABLES

CHAPTER 1: SAFETY BELT USE

Figures
Figure 1. Driving Frequency
Figure 2. Primary Vehicle Driven
Figure 3. Have Adjustable Shoulder Belt
Figure 4. Effectiveness Of Adjustable Shoulder Belts
Figure 5. Any Reason They Have Never Tried To Adjust The Shoulder Belt
Figure 6. Reported Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 7. Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use: Belts Not Having Automatic Components
Figure 8. Frequency Of Driver Lap Belt Use: Shoulder Belt Used All The Time
Figure 9. Frequency Of Driver Shoulder Belt Use: Adjustable Versus Non-Adjustable Shoulder Belts
Figure 10. Reported Change In The Use Of Safety Belts By Drivers
Figure 11. Causes Of Increased Belt Use
Figure 12. Frequency Drive Vehicle As Part Of Job Or Business
Figure 13. Presence Of Company Safety Belt Policy
Figure 14. Enforcement Of Company Safety Belt Policy
Figure 15. Likelihood Of Wearing Safety Belt: Work Compared To Personal Driving
Figure 16. Causes Of Increased Belt Use When Driving On The Job
Figure 17. Drivers’ Job Versus Personal Safety Belt Use By Presence Of Company Policy
Figure 18. Drivers’ General Safety Belt Use By Presence Of Company Policy
Figure 19. Frequency Ride As Passenger
Figure 20. Usually Rides In Front or Back Seat
Figure 21. Reported Frequency Of Safety Belt Use As Passenger In Front Seat
Figure 22. Reported Frequency Of Safety Belt Use As Passenger In Back Seat

Tables
Table 1. Driving Frequency By Demographic Characteristics
Table 2. Safety Belt Configuration By Type Of Primary Vehicle
Table 3. Type Of Driver Safety Belt In Primary Vehicle
Table 4. Reasons Why Drivers Have Never Tried To Adjust The Adjustable Feature On Their Shoulder Belt
Table 5. Driver Safety Belt Use By Demographic And Other Characteristics
Table 6. Driver Safety Belt Use By Alcohol Use
Table 7. Driver Safety Belt Use By Driving Speed
Table 8. Last Time Drivers Did Not Wear Safety Belt By Frequency Of Reported Safety Belt Use
Table 9. Revised Safety Belt Use By Drivers
Table 10. Patterns Of Reported Driver Safety Belt Use By NHTSA Region
Table 11. Reported Change In Driver’s Use Of Safety Belts In The Past Year By Demographic Characteristics
Table 12. How Employer Enforces Safety Belt Policy
Table 13. Frequency Wear Safety Belt As Front Seat Passenger By Where Usually Ride As Passenger
Table 14. Frequency Wear Safety Belt As Back Seat Passenger By Where Usually Ride As Passenger
Table 15. Frequency Of Safety Belt Use As Driver By Frequency Of Safety Belt Use As Front Seat Passenger
Table 16. Frequency Of Safety Belt Use As Driver By Frequency Of Safety Belt Use As Back Seat Passenger

CHAPTER 2: REASONS FOR SAFETY BELT USE AND NON-USE

Figures
Figure 23. Reasons For Safety Belt Use - Drivers
Figure 24. Driver Reasons For Safety Belt Use By Reported Level Of Safety Belt Use
Figure 25. Most Important Reason For Safety Belt Use - Drivers
Figure 26. Most Important Reason For Driver Safety Belt Use By Reported Level Of Safety
Belt Use
Figure 27. Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts - Drivers
Figure 28. Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Drivers: Rare/Never Users Versus Part-Time Users
Figure 29. Most Important Reason For Non-Use Of Safety Belts - Drivers
Figure 30. Most Important Reason for Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Drivers: Rare/Never Users Versus Part-Time Users
Figure 31. Dislike Or Find Safety Belts Annoying: Drivers
Figure 32. Dislike Or Find Safety Belts Annoying By Reported Belt Use: Drivers
Figure 33. Dislike Or Find Safety Belts Annoying By Gender
Figure 34. Dislike Or Find Safety Belts Annoying By Type Of Primary Vehicle Driven
Figure 35. Dislike Or Find Safety Belts Annoying By Presence Of Adjustable Shoulder Belt In Primary Vehicle
Figure 36. Reasons For Safety Belt Use: Non-Drivers Versus Drivers
Figure 37. Most Important Reason For Safety Belt Use: Non-Drivers Versus Drivers
Figure 38. Reasons For Not Wearing A Safety Belt: Non-Drivers Versus Drivers
Figure 39. Most Important Reason For Not Wearing A Safety Belt: Non-Drivers Versus Drivers

Tables
Table 17. Driver Reasons For Safety Belt Use By Gender And Age
Table 18. Driver Reasons For Safety Belt Use By Race And Ethnicity
Table 19. Driver Reasons For Safety Belt Use By Education
Table 20. Driver Reasons For Safety Belt Use By Type Of Primary Vehicle
Table 21. Most Important Reason For Driver Safety Belt Use By Gender And Age
Table 22. Most Important Reason For Driver Safety Belt Use By Race And Ethnicity
Table 23. Most Important Reason For Driver Safety Belt Use By Education
Table 24. Most Important Reason For Driver Safety Belt Use By Primary Vehicle Driven
Table 25. Driver Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Gender And Age
Table 26. Driver Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Race And Ethnicity
Table 27. Driver Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Education
Table 28. Driver Reasons For Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Primary Vehicle Driven
Table 29. Most Important Reason For Non-Use Of Safety Belt: “Other” Reasons Reported By Rare/Never Users
Table 30. Most Important Reason For Driver Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Gender And Age
Table 31. Most Important Reason For Driver Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Race And Ethnicity
Table 32. Most Important Reason For Driver Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Education
Table 33. Most Important Reason For Driver Non-Use Of Safety Belts By Primary Vehicle Driven
Table 34. What Drivers Dislike Or Find Annoying About Safety Belts


CHAPTER 3: ATTITUDES CONCERNING THE UTILITY OF SAFETY BELTS, RISK PERCEPTION, AND FATALISM

Figures
Figure 40. Would Want Safety Belt On In An Accident
Figure 41. Would Want Safety Belt On In An Accident By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 42. Safety Belts Are Just As Likely To Harm You As Help You
Figure 43. Safety Belts Are Just As Likely To Harm As Help By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 44. Medical Insurance Costs Would Be Lower If More People Wore Safety Belts
Figure 45. Medical Insurance Costs Would Be Lower By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 46. Putting On A Safety Belt Makes Me Worry More About Being In An Accident
Figure 47. Putting On A Safety Belt Makes Me Worry More By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 48. Most Motor Vehicle Accidents Happen Within Five Miles Of Home
Figure 49. Most Motor Vehicle Accidents Happen Within Five Miles Of Home By Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 50. An Accident Close To Home Is Usually Not As Serious As An Accident Farther Away
Figure 51. Accidents Close To Home Are Less Serious By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 52. Would Feel Self-Conscious Around Friends If Wore A Safety Belt And Friends Did Not
Figure 53. Would Feel Self-Conscious Around Friends By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 54. Have A Habit Of Wearing A Safety Belt Because Parents Insisted I Wear Them When I Was A Child By Age Group
Figure 55. Believe Wearing Safety Belt Doesn’t Matter By Driver Safety Belt Use

Tables
Table 35. Attitudes Concerning Risk Perception, Fatalism, And The Usefulness Of Safety Belts By Gender And Age
Table 36. Attitudes Concerning Risk Perception, Fatalism, And The Usefulness Of Safety Belts By Race And Ethnicity
Table 37. Attitudes Concerning Risk Perception, Fatalism, And The Usefulness Of Safety Belts By Education
Table 38. Attitudes Concerning Risk Perception, Fatalism, And The Usefulness Of Safety Belts By Type Of Primary Vehicle Driven

CHAPTER 4: ATTITUDES, KNOWLEDGE, AND EXPERIENCE WITH SAFETY BELT LAWS AND THEIR ENFORCEMENT

Figures
Figure 56. Support For Front Seat Safety Belt Laws
Figure 57. Favor Front Seat Safety Belt Laws By Gender And Age
Figure 58. Favor Front Seat Safety Belt Laws By Race And Ethnicity
Figure 59. Favor Front Seat Safety Belt Laws By Drivers’ Reported Safety Belt Use
Figure 60. Support For Safety Belt Laws That Apply To Back Seat Adult Passengers
Figure 61. Favor Safety Belt Laws For Adult Front And Back Seat Passengers By Gender, Race, And Ethnicity
Figure 62. Favor Safety Belt Laws For Adult Front And Back Seat Passengers By Age
Figure 63. Support For Fines And Points
Figure 64. Support For Fines And Points By Gender, Race, And Ethnicity
Figure 65. Support For Fines And Points By Age
Figure 66. Suggested Minimum Fine For Violation Of Safety Belt Law: Fine Supporters
Figure 67. Someone They Know Would Probably Or Definitely Wear Safety Belts More Often If Assessed The State Fine
Figure 68. Likely Reaction To Receiving Ticket For Safety Belt Violation
Figure 69. Deserve Safety Belt Ticket By Favor Or Oppose Front Seat Safety Belt Laws
Figure 70. Likely Reaction To Receiving Safety Belt Ticket By Gender, Race, And Ethnicity
Figure 71. Believe Their State Has A Law Requiring Safety Belt Use
Figure 72. Who Is Required To Wear Safety Belts According To State Law
Figure 73. Driver Reported Safety Belt Use By Whether Driver Believes Law Covers Drivers
Figure 74. Adults’ Reported Front Passenger Safety Belt Use By Whether Believe Law Covers That Position
Figure 75. Adults’ Reported Back Passenger Safety Belt Use By Whether Believe Law Covers That Position
Figure 76. Beliefs About Which Adults Are Required To Wear Safety Belts
Figure 77. Beliefs About Whether State Law Permits Standard Or Secondary Enforcement
Figure 78. Knowledge Of Standard Versus Secondary Enforcement By Provisions Of State Law
Figure 79. Reported Safety Belt Use By Whether Driver Lives In Standard Or Secondary Enforcement State
Figure 80. Reported Safety Belt Use By Whether Driver Believes Law Allows Standard Or Secondary Enforcement
Figure 81. Support For Standard Enforcement By Whether State Allows It
Figure 82. Support For Standard Enforcement By Whether Respondent Thinks Law Is Standard Or Secondary
Figure 83. Reasons People Believe Safety Belt Violations Should Be Treated Differently From Other Violations
Figure 84. Drivers Stopped In Past Year By Police For Traffic-Related Reason By Gender, Race, And Ethnicity
Figure 85. Drivers Stopped In Past Year By Police For Traffic-Related Reason By Age
Figure 86. Drivers Stopped By Police In Past Year By Age And Race
Figure 87. Drivers Stopped By Police In Past Year By Age And Ethnicity
Figure 88. Drivers Stopped In Past Year For Traffic-Related Reason By Enforcement Provisions Of State Law
Figure 89. Whether Driver Was Wearing Safety Belt At Traffic Stop
Figure 90. Outcome Of Traffic Stop
Figure 91. Outcome Of Traffic Stop By Enforcement Provisions Of State Law
Figure 92. Ever Received Ticket Or Warning For Safety Belt Violation
Figure 93. Ever Received Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning By Race And Ethnicity
Figure 94. Ever Received Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning By Enforcement Provisions Of State Law
Figure 95. Reported Change In Frequency Of Safety Belt Use After Receiving Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning
Figure 96. Driver “All the Time” Safety Belt Use By Whether Ever Received Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning
Figure 97. Likelihood Of Receiving A Safety Belt Ticket If Safety Belts Were Not Worn For Six Months
Figure 98. Perceived Risk Of Being Ticketed For Non-Use By Enforcement Provisions Of State Law
Figure 99. Perceived Risk Of Being Ticketed For Non-Use By Drivers’ Reported Frequency Of Safety Belt Use
Figure 100. Police In My Community Generally Do Not Bother To Write Tickets For Safety Belt Violations
Figure 101. Police In Community Do Not Bother To Write Belt Tickets By Enforcement Provisions Of State Law
Figure 102. Police In Community Do Not Bother To Write Safety Belt Tickets By Frequency Of Driver Safety Belt Use
Figure 103. Level Of Support For Enforcing Safety Belt Laws
Figure 104. Level Of Support For Enforcing Safety Belt Laws By Enforcement Provisions Of State Law
Figure 105. Average Level Of Support For Enforcing Safety Belt Laws By Gender, Race, And Ethnicity
Figure 106. Average Level Of Support For Enforcing Safety Belt Laws By Age

Tables
Table 39. Support For Fines And Points By Demographic Characteristics
Table 40. Beliefs About Who Is Required To Wear Safety Belts By Seating Positions Covered By State Law
Table 41. Self-Reported Safety Belt Use By Seating Positions Covered By State Law
Table 42. Attitudes Concerning Utility Of Safety Belts By Whether State Safety Belt Law Permits Standard Or Secondary Enforcement
Table 43. Support For Standard Enforcement By Gender, Age, Race, And Ethnicity
Table 44. Perceived Risk Of Being Ticketed By Whether Ever Received A Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning
Table 45. Perceived Risk Of Being Ticketed For Non-Use By Gender, Age, Race, And Ethnicity
Table 46. Police In My Community Generally Do Not Bother To Write Tickets For Safety Belt Violations By Gender, Age, Race, And Ethnicity

CHAPTER 5:1994-2003 TRENDS

Figures
Figure 107. Have Adjustable Shoulder Belt In Primary Vehicle, 1996-2003
Figure 108. Frequency Of Reported Driver Safety Belt Use, 1994-2003
Figure 109. Last Time Did Not Wear Safety Belt By Drivers Who Said They Use Safety Belts All The Time
Figure 110. Reported Change In The Use Of Safety Belts Among Drivers, 1994-2003
Figure 111. At Least Sometimes Drive A Vehicle As Part Of A Job Or Business, 1994-2003
Figure 112. Dislike Or Find Something Annoying About Safety Belts, 1994-2003
Figure 113. Support For Front Seat Safety Belt Laws, 1994-2003
Figure 114. Support For Safety Belt Laws That Apply To Both The Front And Back Seats, 1994-2003
Figure 115. Support For Fines And Points, 1994-2003
Figure 116. Likely Reaction To Receiving Safety Belt Ticket, 1994-2003
Figure 117. Believe Their State Has A Safety Belt Law, 1994-2003
Figure 118. Believe State Law Is Standard Or Secondary, 1994-2003
Figure 119. Support Standard Enforcement, 1996-2003
Figure 120. Ever Received A Safety Belt Ticket Or Warning, 1994-2003
Figure 121. Likelihood Of Being Ticketed If Don’t Wear Safety Belt While Driving Over Next 6 Months, 1994-2003
Figure 122. On A 10-Point Scale, How Strictly Police Should Enforce Safety Belt Laws, 1994-2003

Tables
Table 47. Driving Frequency, 1994-2003
Table 48. Type Of Primary Vehicle Driven, 1994-2003
Table 49. Safety Belt Configuration In Front Seat Of Primary Vehicle, 1994-2003
Table 50. Company Safety Belt Policy — Written Or Unwritten, 1994-2003
Table 51. Frequency Wear Safety Belt As Front Seat Passenger, 1996-2003
Table 52. Frequency Wear Safety Belt As Back Seat Passenger, 1996-2003
Table 53. Most Important Reason For Safety Belt Use: Drivers, 1994-2003
Table 54. Most Important Reason For Not Wearing A Safety Belt: Drivers, 1994-2003
Table 55. Attitudes Concerning Risk Perception, Fatalism, And The Usefulness Of Safety Belts, 1998-2003

APPENDIX A: PRECISION OF SAMPLING ESTIMATES

Tables
Table 56. Expected Sampling Error (Plus Or Minus) At The 95% Confidence Level (Simple Random Sample)
Table 57. Design Effect On Confidence Intervals For Sample Estimates Between Disproportionate Sample Used In Occupant Protection Survey And A Proportionate Sample Of Same Size
Table 58. Pooled Sampling Error Expressed As Percentages For Given Sample Sizes (Assuming P=Q)

APPENDIX B: STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY LAWS AT TIME OF SURVEY

Tables
Table 59. Key Provisions Of State Highway Safety Laws At Time Of Survey

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Front Matter and Introduction /Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Appendices


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