Table of Contents

TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

Background
Methodology

CHAPTER 1: SEATING POSITION OF CHILDREN

Proportion of Trips That Child Age 12 or Younger Rides In Front Seat Of Vehicle
Change In Seating Position Of Child Age 12 or Younger From 12 Months Ago
Moving Children To Front Because Of Number Of Children

CHAPTER 2: TRANSPORTERS OF YOUNG CHILDREN

Driving With A Child Under Age 9
Drivers Who Do Not Live With The Child

CHAPTER 3: 2003 CAR SEAT USE

Parent/Caregiver Subgroup
Reported Frequency Of Car Seat Use
Type And Location Of Car Seat
Where Parents/Caregivers Believe It Is Safest To Place A Child Car Seat
Child Car Seats That Face Forward In Vehicles With Frontal Passenger Air Bags

CHAPTER 4: 2003 CAR SEAT INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND TRAINING

Acquisition Of Car Seat
Sources For Information On Car Seats
Ease Of Use
Understanding The Car Seat Instructions
LATCH System
Buckling Child Into Car Seat
Children Getting Out Of Car Seats
Use Of Inspection Stations To Check Whether Child Seat Is Being Installed Correctly
Frequency That Persons Outside Household Drive A Child Who Uses A Car Seat

CHAPTER 5: REASONS FOR NON-USE OF CAR SEATS

Part Time Car Seat Users
Children Who Never Use Car Seats

CHAPTER 6: BOOSTER SEAT ISSUES

Type of Restraint Used By Children Under Age 9
Awareness of Booster Seats
Concerns About The Safety of Booster Seats
Expected Restraint System After Outgrowing Current Seat

CHAPTER 7: ATTITUDES TOWARD ENFORCEMENT OF CHILD RESTRAINT LAWS

Support For Enforcement Of Car Seat Laws
Attitudes About Occupant Restraint Requirements For Children Who Outgrow Car Seats

CHAPTER 8: TRENDS 1994 - 2003

Proportion Of Trips That Child Age 12 Or Younger Rides In Front Seat, 1998-2003.
Change In Seating Position Of Child Age 12 Or Younger From 12 Months Ago, 1998-2003
Differences Between Current MVOSS Data And Previous MVOSS Data Concerning Child Restraint Use
Reported All The Time Car Seat Use By Child's Weight, 1994-2003
Reported All The Time Car Seat Use By Child's Age, 1994-2003
Location Of Car Seat, 1994-2003
Ease Of Use, 1994-2003
Expected Restraint System For Child After Outgrowing Current Seat, 1996-2003
Support For Enforcing Car Seat Laws, 1994-2003
Support For Laws Requiring Safety Belt Use After Child Has Outgrown Car Seat, 1994-2003

APPENDIX A: PRECISION OF SAMPLING ESTIMATES

Precision Of Sample Estimates
Estimating Statistical Significance

FIGURES AND TABLES

SECTION 1: 2003 SURVEY RESULTS

CHAPTER 1: SEATING POSITION OF CHILDREN

Figures

Figure 1. Proportion Of Trips That The Youngest Child Rode In The Front Seat In The Past 30 Days
Figure 2. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Sex Of Adult Respondent
Figure 3. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Race/Ethnicity Of Adult Respondent
Figure 4. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Education Of Adult Respondent
Figure 5. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Urbanicity
Figure 6. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Frontal Passenger Air Bag In Respondent’s Primary Vehicle
Figure 7. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Age Of Child
Figure 8. Proportion Of Youngest Child’s Trips In Front Seat In Past 30 Days By Region Of Country
Figure 9. Is The Youngest Child More Likely, Less Likely, Or Just As Likely To Ride In Front Seat Than Months Ago
Figure 10. Change From 12 Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Sex Of Adult Driver
Figure 11. Change From 12 Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Race/Ethnicity Of Adult Driver
Figure 12. Change From Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Education Of Adult Driver
Figure 13. Change From 12 Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Urbanicity
Figure 14. Change From 12 Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Presence Of Frontal Passenger Air Bag
Figure 15. Change From 12 Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Age Of Child
Figure 16. Change From 12 Months Ago In How Frequently Child Rides In Front Seat By Region Of Country
Figure 17. Reason Child Is More Likely To Ride In Front By Child’s Age
Figure 18. Whether Had To Place Child Up Front Because Of Number Of Children

Tables

Table 1. Reason Child Is More Likely To Ride In Front Than 12 Months Ago
Table 2. Reason Child Is Less Likely To Ride In Front Than 12 Months Ago

CHAPTER 2: TRANSPORTERS OF YOUNG CHILDREN

Figures

Figure 19. Driven In Past Year With Child Passenger Under Age 9
Figure 20. Frequency Of Driving Children Under Age 9: Drivers Who Do Not Live With A Young Child
Figure 21. Relationship To Child Outside Household Whom They Drive: Drivers Not Living With Young Child
Figure 22. Frequency Grandparents/Other Relatives Drive Child: Drivers Who Don’t Live With Young Child
Figure 23. How Often Child Uses Car Seat Or Safety Belt: Drivers (Not Parents) Of Children Outside Home

CHAPTER 3: 2003 CAR SEAT USE

Figures

Figure 24. Frequency Child Under 9 Rides In Car Seat
Figure 25. “All Of The Time” Car Seat Use By Child’s Weight (Children Under Age 9)
Figure 26. “All Of The Time” Car Seat Use By Child’s Age (Children Under Age 9)
Figure 27. Last Time Child Didn’t Use Car Seat (If Child Was Reported To Use Seat “All Of The Time”)
Figure 28. Type Of Child Car Seat
Figure 29. Car Seat Position Of Children Who Should Be Riding Rear Facing
Figure 30. Whether Car Seat Is Convertible (Seats Other Than Booster Seats)
Figure 31. Placement Of Child’s Car Seat
Figure 32. Placement Of Child’s Car Seat By Type Of Car Seat
Figure 33. Placement Of Child’s Car Seat By Presence Of Frontal Passenger Air Bag In Primary Vehicle
Figure 34. Where It Is Safest To Place A Child Car Seat In The Vehicle
Figure 35. Safety Of Child In Front Seat With Frontal Passenger Air Bag When Car Seat Is Rear Facing

Tables

Table 3. Type Of Child Car Seat By Child’s Age
Table 4. Type Of Child Car Seat By Child’s Weight

CHAPTER 4: 2003 CAR SEAT INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND TRAINING

Figures

Figure 36. Whether Car Seat Was New Or Used When Acquired
Figure 37. How Child’s Car Seat Was Obtained
Figure 38. Whether Car Seat Was Obtained New Or Used: Seat Received As Gift Or Loaner From Relative/Friend
Figure 39. Presence Of Registration Cards With Car Seats, And Whether The Cards Were Mailed Back
Figure 40. Sources For Information On Child Car Seats
Figure 41. Ease Of Attaching Car Seat To Vehicle
Figure 42. Driven With Child In Car Seat And Found Car Seat Was Not Securely Attached
Figure 43. Frequency Car Seat Is Moved To Another Vehicle
Figure 44. How Learned To Attach Car Seat To Vehicle
Figure 45. How Easy Or Difficult The Car Seat Instructions Were To Understand
Figure 46. Source Of Car Seat Instructions Read By Parents/Caregivers
Figure 47. Very Easy To Understand Car Seat Instructions By Source Of Instructions
Figure 48. Ever Heard of LATCH
Figure 49. Heard About Additional Changes In Car Seat Designs
Figure 50. Ever Used LATCH Car Seat
Figure 51. Difficulties Attaching LATCH System
Figure 52. Attachment Of Child Car Seat To Vehicle
Figure 53. Other Methods Child Car Seat Is Attached To Vehicle
Figure 54. Does Child Car Seat Have Tether Strap
Figure 55. How Frequently Tether Strap Is Used
Figure 56. Reasons Tether Strap Is Not Attached
Figure 57. Ease Of Buckling Child In Car Seat
Figure 58. Child Has Gotten Out Of Car Seat While Respondent Was Driving
Figure 59. Ever Went To An Inspection Station To Check Child Car Seat Attachment
Figure 60. How Heard About Car Seat Check
Figure 61. Did The Technician Find Anything Wrong With How They Attached Seat/Buckled Child
Figure 62. Did Someone Suggest Alternative For Attaching Car Seat
Figure 63. Given A Chance To Practice Attaching The Seat And Buckling in Child
Figure 64. Last Person To Adjust Car Seat
Figure 65. How They Felt After Leaving Car Seat Check
Figure 66. What They Felt Most Unsure About After Car Seat Check
Figure 67. Child Had Ridden In Vehicle Driven By Someone Outside Household In Past Month
Figure 68. Frequency Child Was Driven By Respondent Vs. Person Outside Household In Past 30 Days
Figure 69. Identity Of Driver Outside Household Who Drove Child In Past Month

Tables

Table 5. What Is Difficult About Attaching Car Seat To Vehicle
Table 6. Reasons Why Car Seat Was Not Securely Attached
Table 7. Difficulties Attaching The LATCH Car Seat:Verbatim Responses
Table 8. What Is Difficult About Buckling Child Into Car Seat
Table 9. Sponsor Of The Inspection Station Attended
Table 10. Suggestions For Different Attachments

CHAPTER 5: REASONS FOR NON-USE OF CAR SEATS

Figures

Figure 70. Reasons Child Does Not Ride In Car Seat: Part Time Users
Figure 71. Does Child Usually Sit On Someone’s Lap When Not Riding In The Car Seat?
Figure 72. Does Child Usually Sit In Front Seat Or Back Seat When Not Riding In The Car Seat
Figure 73. Frequency Of Safety Belt Use When Child Is Not In Car Seat
Figure 74. Weight Of Children Who Always Or Most Of The Time Use Safety Belts When Not In Their Car Seat
Figure 75. Weight Of Children Who Never Use Car Seats
Figure 76. Reasons Child Never Rides In Car Seat
Figure 77. Frequency Child Uses Safety Belt: Children Who Never Use Car Seats
Figure 78. Where Child Usually Sits In Vehicle: Children Who Never Use Car Seats
Figure 79. Shoulder Belt Fit Problems By Child’s Age: Non-Users Of Car Seats Ages 5 Through 8

Tables

Table 11. How Safety Belt Fits The Child: Part Time Users Of Car Seats
Table 12. Age At Which Parent/Caregiver Believes A Child Is Ready To Begin Wearing A Safety Belt: Part Time Versus Full Time Car Seat Users
Table 13. How Safety Belt Fits The Child: Non-Users Of Car Seats Versus Part Time Users Of Car Seats
Table 14. Age At Which Parent/Caregiver Believes A Child Is Ready To Begin Wearing A Safety Belt: Non-Users Versus Users Of Car Seats

CHAPTER 6: BOOSTER SEAT ISSUES

Figures

Figure 80. Knowledge And Use Of Booster Seats: Parent/Caregiver Group
Figure 81. Age First Used Booster Seat
Figure 82. Weight Of Child(ren) When First Used Booster Seat
Figure 83. How Booster Seat Is Safer
Figure 84. Have Concerns About The Safety Of Booster Seats
Figure 85. Awareness And Concerns About Booster Seats
Figure 86. Expected Restraint System For Child After Outgrowing Current Seat By Type Of Seat

Tables

Table 15. Percentage Of Children Who At Least On Occasion Use A Child Restraint By Age
Table 16. Percentage Of Children Who At Least On Occasion Use A Child Restraint By Weight
Table 17. Most Important Reason For Booster Seat
Table 18. Concerns About Booster Seat Safety

CHAPTER 7: ATTITUDES TOWARD ENFORCEMENT OF CHILD RESTRAINT LAWS

Figures

Figure 87. Level Of Support For Enforcing Car Seat Laws
Figure 88. Level Of Support For Enforcing Car Seat Laws By Sex Of Respondent
Figure 89. Level Of Support For Enforcing Car Seat Laws By Race/Ethnicity Of Respondent
Figure 90. Level Of Support For Enforcing Car Seat Laws By Presence Of Child Under Age 9 In Household
Figure 91. Preferred Minimum Fine For Violation Of Car Seat Laws
Figure 92. Children Should Be Required To Wear Safety Belts When They Have Outgrown Car Seats
Figure 93. Age At Which Children Should No Longer Be Required To Wear Safety Belts
Figure 94. Believe Children Of All Ages Should Be Required To Wear Safety Belts If They Are Too Big For Car Seats By Sex Of Respondent
Figure 95. Believe Children Of All Ages Should Be Required To Wear Safety Belts If They Are Too Big For Car Seats By Race/Ethnicity

CHAPTER 8: TRENDS 1994-2003

Figures

Figure 96. Proportion Of Trips That Youngest Child Rode In The Front Seat In The Past 30 Days, 1998-2003
Figure 97. More Likely To Ride In the Front Seat Than 12 Months Ago By Child’s Age, 1998-2003
Figure 98. Reported All Of The Time Car Seat Use By Child’s Weight, 1994-2003
Figure 99. Reported All Of The Time Car Seat Use By Child’s Age, 1994-2003
Figure 100. Placement Of Child’s Car Seat, 1994-2003
Figure 101. Where It Is Considered Safest To Place The Child Car Seat, 1994-2003
Figure 102. Safe Or Unsafe To Place Rear Facing Car Seat In Front With Frontal Passenger Air Bag, 1994-2003
Figure 103. Ease Of Attaching Car Seat To Vehicle, 1994-2003
Figure 104. Ease Of Buckling Child In Car Seat, 1994-2003
Figure 105. Expect Child To Use Safety Belts After Outgrowing Current Car Seat, 1996-2003
Figure 106. Level Of Support For Enforcing Car Seat Laws Using 10-Point Scale, 1994-2003
Figure 107. Children Should Be Required To Wear Safety Belts When They Have Outgrown Car Seats, 1994-2003

APPENDIX A: PRECISION OF SAMPLING ESTIMATES

Tables

Table 19. Expected Sampling Error (Plus Or Minus) At The 95% Confidence Level (Simple Random Sample)
Table 20. Design Effect On Confidence Intervals For Sample Estimates Between Disproportionate Sample Used In Occupant Protection Survey And A Proportionate Sample Of Same Size
Table 21. Pooled Sampling Error Expressed As Percentages For Given Sample Sizes (Assuming P=Q)