Findings for All Drivers

SES States Show Bigger Gains in Awareness
The survey asked drivers whether they had seen the national ad in the past two weeks. Figure 1 shows that after the crackdown, many more drivers in the 13 SES States had seen the national ad (44.5%) than had drivers in the 4 Comparison States (24.5%) or in the National Sample (30.1%).

In the 13 SES States there was a 33.2% point increase in the percentage having seen the national ad on TV (from 11.3% to 45.5%), compared to an increase of 18.8% points in the National Sample (from 11.3% to 30.1%), and an increase of 17.6% points in the Comparison States (from 6.9% to 24.5%).

Figure 1
Recall Seeing National Ad on TV Recently
Among all drivers

Q20c. I’d like to find out if you recall seeing a particular ad on TV recently. It starts with police pulling over drivers, and asking if they had been drinking alcohol. The drivers are then told to step out of the car, and tested to see if they are breaking the drinking and driving laws. The ad ends with the drivers handcuffed, placed in a police car, and shows their mug shots. Do you recall seeing this ad in the past two weeks?
Base: National: Before=1,272, After=1,261; Comparison: Before=2,001, After=2,007; SES: Before=6,503, After=6,546

Drivers were asked whether they had heard or seen several slogans, including the You Drink and Drive. You Lose. slogan in the past 30 days (see Figure 2). Comparing the before and after surveys, the largest increase was found in the SES States with approximately 60% reporting having seen or heard the You Drink and Drive. You Lose. message after the crackdown (an increase of 19.5% points). This compares to 52% in the National Sample (a 15% point increase) and 50% in the Comparison States (a 13.7% point increase).

Figure 2
Aided Recall of National Slogan
You Drink & Drive. You Lose.

Among all drivers

Q21. Do you recall hearing or seeing the following slogans in the
past 30 days?
Base: National: Before=1,272, After=1,261; Comparison: Before=2,001, After=2,007; SES: Before=6,503, After=6,546

Paid Advertising Increased Awareness
States in the National Sample were partitioned into those where paid advertising for the national ad was supplemented by additional funds or those where no supplemental funds were used. In addition to the 13 SES States (all of which were supported by NHTSA with paid media campaigns), 9 of the other 15 States that spent money on paid ads spent $88,000 or more on paid advertising (9 Other Paid Ad States). Data from the 6 States where fewer dollars were spent on paid advertising were combined with data from the 22 States and DC where supplemental funding was not used (29 No/Low Paid Ad States).

Respondents were asked whether they had seen the national ad on TV recently. After the crackdown the paid ad States reported higher percentages of drivers having seen the ad, with 35.6% in the 13 SES States and 34.8% in the 9 Other Paid Ad States, while only 22.5% had seen the ad in the 29 No/Low Paid Ad States (Figure 3). A significant increase was found in the 13 SES States, and the increase in the Other Paid Ad States was in the correct direction but did not reach statistical significance, while no significant increase was seen in the 29 No/Low Paid Ad States.

Figure 3
Recall Seeing National Ad on TV Recently
Among all drivers

Q20c. I’d like to find out if you recall seeing a particular ad on TV recently. It starts with police pulling over drivers, and asking if they had been drinking alcohol. The drivers are then told to step out of the car, and tested to see if they are breaking the drinking and driving laws.
The ad ends with the drivers handcuffed, placed in a police car, and shows their mug shots. Do you recall seeing this ad in the past two weeks?
Base: SES: Before=536, After=481; Additional Paid: Before=235, After=270; No Paid: Before=501, After=510

Figure 4
Recognized Name of Slogan or Logo Used at End of National TV Ad
Among all drivers who saw national TV ad

Q20d.. What was the slogan or logo used at the end of this ad?
Base: SES: Before=71, After=171; Additional Paid: Before=27, After=94; No Paid: Before=44, After=115

When asked if they recognized the national You Drink and Drive. You Lose. slogan used at the end of the national ad only the drivers in the SES states showed a significant increase in correctly identifying the slogan (Figure 4). Recognition of the slogan increased in the 13 SES States from 1.2% in the Before survey to 9.9% in the After survey, while the recognition of the slogan was not significantly higher in the 9 Other Paid Ad States (going from 7.1% to 11.2%), and actually declined in the 29 No/Low Paid Ad States (from 7.5% to 3.5%).

Perceptions of Enforcement Activity and
Driving After Drinking Behavior

It was anticipated that an increase in driver awareness of the impaired driving crackdown coupled with an increased law enforcement effort would result in positive changes in perceptions of enforcement activity and in reported driver behavior.

The survey asked whether the drivers had seen or heard about police checkpoints or other enforcement efforts (e.g., saturation patrols) to catch impaired drivers in the past 30 days. Significant increases (from 36% to 43.5%) were obtained after the crackdown in the National Sample, in 9 of 13 SES States, and in 3 of 4 Comparisons States.

Figure 5
More Likely to Be Stopped by Police After Drinking Compared to Last Month
Among all drivers

Q16. Do you think the chances of being stopped have changed in the past month? That is, compared to a month ago, do you think a driver who had been drinking is more likely, less likely or about as likely to be stopped by the police?
Base: National: Before=1,272, After=1,261; Comparison: Before=2,001, After=2,007; SES: Before=6,503, After=6,546

As shown in Figure 5, when the drivers were asked whether they were more likely (compared to the last month) to be stopped by the police for driving after drinking, a small but statistically significant change was reported in the National Sample; however, significant changes were reported in only 2 of the 13 SES States, and in none of the 4 Comparison States.

Although there were some positive changes reported in driver perception of enforcement activity, in general there were no positive changes reported in police activity or in driver behavior.

Drivers were asked about the visibility of police on roads they normally drive during the past 30 days. Drivers in the National Sample, 13 SES States, and 4 Comparison States did not report seeing an increase in enforcement activity (Figure 6). One explanation for the lack of an increase in observed enforcement activity is that the before measure may have been elevated by increased enforcement activity associated with a national effort directed at increasing safety belt use in May 2003.

In addition, among the National, SES and Comparison samples only one of 36 pre to post comparisons showed a significant decline in self-reported behavior after the crackdown. A decrease was seen in the number of drivers reporting driving within 2 hours of drinking in only one of the SES States; however, no decreases were reported for driving when they thought they had too much to drink.

Figure 6
Seen Police on the Road More Often Than Usual in Past 30 Days
Among all drivers

Q14. In the past 30 days, have you seen police on the roads you normally drive more often than usual, less often than usual, about the same, or never?
Base: National: Before=1,272, After=1,261; Comparison: Before=2,001, After=2,007; SES: Before=6,503, After=6,546