REFERENCES

Adler, EV and Burns, M. (1994). Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) Validation Study. Arizona: Governor's Office of Highway Safety.

Augsburger, M. (2002). Drugs and driving: analytical strategy. Chimia 56(3): 63-65.

Augsburger, M and Rivier, L. (1997). Drugs and alcohol among suspected impaired drivers in Canton de Vaud (Switzerland). Forensic Science International 85(1997): 95-104.

Barbone, F; McMahon, AD; Davey, PG; Morris, AD; Reid, IC; McDevitt, DG; and MacDonald, TM. (1998). Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use. Lancet 352 (9137): 1331-6.

Benzodiazepine/driving Collaborative Group . (1993). Are benzodiazepines a risk factor for road accidents? Drug and Alcohol Dependence 33(1): 19-22.

Berghaus, G and Friedel, B. (1997). Aspects of time for the assessment of driver fitness under therapy with benzodiazepines. In: 14th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. September 21-26, 1997. Annecy, France. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Berghaus, G and Grass, H. (1997). Concentration-effect relationship with benzodiazepine therapy. In: 14th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. September 21-26, 1997. Annecy, France. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Betts, T; Harris, D; and Gadd, E. (1991). The effects of two anti-vertigo drugs (betahistine and prochlorperazine) on driving skills. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32(4): 455-458.

Betts, TA and Birtle, J. (1982). Effect of two hypnotic drugs on actual driving performance next morning. British Medical Journal 285(6345): 852.

Betts, T; Markman, D; Debenham, S; Mortiboy, D; and McKevitt, T. (1984). Effects of two antihistamine drugs on actual driving performance. British Medical Journal 288(6413): 281-282.

Bigelow, GE; Bickel, WE; Roache, JD; Liebson, IA; and Nowowieski, P. (1985). Identifying types of drug intoxication: Laboratory evaluation of a subject-examination procedure. DOT HS 806-753. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Bittencourt, PR; Wade, P; Smith, AT; and Richens, A. (1981). The relationship between peak velocity of saccadic eye movements and serum benzodiazepine concentration. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12(4): 523-33.

Bjorneboe, A; Bjorneboe, G; Bugge, A; Christophersen, A; Drevon, C; Gadeholt, G; Gjerde, H; and Morland, J. (1988). Drugged driving in Norway 1986. In: Proceedings of the Section on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, 35th International Congress on Alcohol and Drug Dependence. July 31-August 6, 1988. Oslo, Norway. Rockville, MD: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.

Bourin, M; Auget, JL; Colombel, MC; and Larousse, C. (1989). Effects of single oral doses of bromazepam, buspirone and clobazam on performance tasks and memory. Neuropsychobiology 22(3): 141-5.

Brookhuis, KA; Volkerts, ER; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1990). Repeated dose effects of lormetazepam and flurazepam upon driving performance. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 39(1): 83-87.

Brookoff, D; Cook, C; Williams, C; and Mann, C. (1994). Testing reckless drivers for cocaine and marijuana. The New England Journal of Medicine 331(8): 518-522.

Buchan, BJ; Walsh, JM; and Leaverton, PE. (1998). Evaluation of the accuracy of on-site multianalyte drug testing devices in the determination of the prevalence of illicit drugs in drivers. Journal of Forensic Science 43(2): 395-399.

Budd, R; Muto, J; and Wong, J. (1989). Drugs of abuse found in fatally injured drivers in Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, CA. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 23(2): 153-158.

Caplan, Y; Levine, B; and Goldberger, R. (1989). Drugs and driver fatalities: A preliminary study in the state of Maryland. In: Alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. 1989. Chicago, IL .

Chait, LD and Perry, JL. (1994). Acute and residual effects of alcohol and marijuana, alone and in combination, on mood and performance. Psychopharmacology 115(3): 340-9.

Charlier, C and Plomteux, G. (1998). Alcohol, psychotropic drugs and traffic accidents in Belgium. Revue Medicale de Liege 53(1): 25-28.

Christensen, LQ; Nielsen, LM; and Nielsen, SL. (1990). Traffic accidents and drivers suspected for drug influence. Forensic Science International 45(3): 273-280.

Christophersen, AS; Abotnes, B; and Skurveit, S. (2000). Recidivism among suspected drugged drivers in Norway with benzodiazepine detection. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Christophersen, AS; Beylich, KM; Bjorneboe, A; Fosser, S; Glad, A; and Morland, J. (1995). Prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from Norwegian drivers involved in road traffic accidents. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Christophersen, AS; Bjorneboe, A; and Gjerde, H. (1990). Screening for drug use among drivers suspected of drunken or drugged driving. In: Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. October 24-27, 1989. Chicago, IL. Chicago: National Safety Council.

Christophersen, AS and Morland, J. (1997). Drugged driving, a review based on experience in Norway. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 47: 125-135.

Cimbura, G; Lucas, DM; Bennett, RC; Warren, RA; and Simpson, HM. (1982). Incidence and toxicological aspects of drugs detected in 484 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario. Journal of Forensic Sciences 27(4): 855-867.

Cimbura, G; Lucas, D; Bennett, R; and Donelson, A. (1990). Incidence and toxicological aspects of cannabis and ethanol detected in 1394 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario (1982-1984). Journal of Forensic Sciences 35: 1035-1044.

Compton, RP. (1986). Field evaluation of the Los Angeles police department drug detection program. DOT HS 807 012. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Compton, RP. (1988). Use of controlled substances and highway safety: A report to Congress. DOT HS 807 261. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Compton, RP; Shinar, D; and Schechman, E. (2000). Laboratory identification of drug use based on observable signs and symptoms. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Consensus Development Panel. (No Date). Drug concentrations and driving impairment. Journal of the American Medical Association 254(18): 2618-2621.

Crouch, DJ; Birky, M; Gust, S; Rollins, D; Walsh, J; Moulden, J; Quinlan, K; and Beckel, R.(1993). The prevalence of drugs and alcohol in fatally injured truck drivers. Journal of Forensic Sciences 38(6): 1342-1353.

de Gier, JJ. (2000). Review of European investigations of illicit drug prevalence in traffic. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Del Rio, MC and Alvarez, FJ. (1994). Illegal drug taking and driving: patterns of drug taking among Spanish drivers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 37(1): 83-86.

Dischinger, P and Birschbach, J. (1990). Alcohol and drug use among victims of motor vehicle crashes admitted to trauma centers. In: Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Proceedings of the11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. October 24-27, 1989. Chicago, IL. Chicago: National Safety Council.

Donelson, AC; Marks, ME; Jones, RK; and Joscelyn, KB. (1980). Drug research methodology. Final Report. DOT HS 805 374. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Drummer, O. (1995). Drugs and accident risk in fatally-injured drivers. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Dubowski, KM. (1992). The technology of breath-alcohol analysis. ADM-92-1728. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Dussault, C; Lemire, AM; Bouchard, J; and Brault. M. (2000). Drug use among Quebec drivers: The 1999 roadside survey. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Ellingrod, VL; Perry, PJ; Yates, WR; MacIndoe, JH; Watson, G; Arndt, S; and Holman, TL. (1997). The effects of anabolic steroids on driving performance as assessed by the Iowa driver simulator. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 34(4): 632-636.

Ellinwood, EH and Heatherly, DG. (1985). Benzodiazepines, the popular minor tranquilizers: Dynamics of effect on driving skills. Accident Analysis and Prevention 17(4): 283-290.

Evans, SM; Troisi, JR 2nd; and Griffiths, RR. (1994). Tandospirone and alprazolam: comparison of behavioral effects and abuse liability in humans. Journal of Pharmacological Experimental Therapy 271(2): 683-94.

Everest, JT and Tunbridge, RJ. (1990). The incidence of drugs in road accident fatalities in Great Britain. In: Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. October 24-27, 1989. Chicago, IL. Chicago: National Safety Council.

Everest, JT; Tunbridge, RJ; and Widdop, B. (1988). The incidence of drugs in road accident fatalities in England and Wales. In: 11th World Congress of International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine. 1988. London.

Fafrowicz, M; Unrug, A; Marek, T; van Luijtelaar, G; Noworol, C; and Coenen, A. (1995). Effects of diazepam and buspirone on reaction time of saccadic eye movements. Neuropsychobiology 32(3): 156-60.

Fergusson, DM and Horwood, LJ. (2001). Cannabis use and traffic accidents in a birth cohort of young adults. Accident Analysis and Prevention 33(6): 703-711.

Fisch, HU; Baktir, G; Karlaganis, G; Minder, C; and Bircher, J. (1990). Excessive motor impairment two hours after triazolam in the elderly. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 38(3): 229-32.

Fortenberry, JC; Brown, DB; and Shevlin, LT. (1986). Analysis of drug involvement in traffic fatalities in Alabama. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 12(3): 257-267.

Galski, T; Williams, JB; and Ehle, HT. (2000). Effects of opioids on driving ability. Journal of Pain Symptom Management 19(3): 200-8.

Ghoneim, MM; Mewaldt, SP; and Hinrichs, JV. (1984). Behavioral effects of oral versus intravenous administration of diazepam. Pharmacological Biochemical Behavior 21(2): 231-6.

Gjerde, H; Beylich, K; and Morland, J. (1993). Incidence of alcohol and drugs in fatally injured car drivers in Norway. Accident Analysis and Prevention 25(4): 479-483.

Gjerde, H; Bjorneboe, A; Bjorneboe, G; Bugge, A; Drveon, CA; and Morland, J. (1988). A three-year prospective study of rearrest for driving under influence of alcohol or drugs. Accident Analysis and Prevention 20(1): 53-57.

Gjerde, H; Bjorneboe, A; Christophersen, A; Morland, J; Normann, P; and Sakshaug, J. (1988). A five-year prospective study of rearrests for driving under influence of alcohol or drugs. In: Proceedings of the Section on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, 35th International Congress on Alcohol and Drug Dependence. July 31-August 6, 1988. Oslo, Norway. Rockville, MD: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.

Gjerde, J; Christophersen, AS; and Morland, J. (1992). Amphetamine and drugged driving. Journal of Traffic Safety Medicine 20(1): 21-25.

Grant, SA; Murdoch, J; Millar, K; and Kenny, GNC. (2000). Blood propofol concentration and psychomotor effects on driving skills. British Journal of Anaesthesia 85(3): 396-400.

Griffiths, RR; Bigelow, GE; and Liebson, I. (1983). Differential effects of diazepam and pentobarbital on mood and behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry 40(8): 865-73.

Heishman, SJ; Arasteh, K; and Stitzer, ML. (1997). Comparative effects of alcohol and marijuana on mood, memory, and performance. Pharmacology and Biochemical Behavior 58(1): 93-101.

Heishman, SJ; Huestis, MA; Henningfield, JE; and Cone, EJ. (1990). Acute and residual effects of marijuana: profiles of plasma THC levels, physiological, subjective, and performance measures. Pharmacology and Biochemical Behavior 37(3): 561-5.

Heishman, SJ; Stitzer, ML; and Bigelow, GE. (1988). Alcohol and marijuana: comparative dose effect profiles in humans. Pharmacology and Biochemical Behavior 31(3): 649-55.

Heishman, SJ; Stitzer, ML; and Yingling, JE. (1989). Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol content on marijuana smoking behavior, subjective reports, and performance. Pharmacology and Biochemical Behavior 34(1): 173-179.

Hemmelgarn, B; Suissa, S; Huang, A; Bolvin , JF; and Pinard, G. (1997). Benzodiazepine use and risk of motor vehicle crash in the elderly. Journal of the American Medical Association 278: 27-31.

Hersch, R; Crouch, D; and Cook, R. (2000). Field test of on-site drug detection devices. DOT HS- 809 192. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Hindmarch, I; Subhan, Z; and Stoker, MJ. (1983). The effects of zimeldine and amitriptyline on car driving and psychomotor performance. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 68(308, Supplement): 141-146.

Hingson, R; Heeren, T; Mangione, T; Morelock, S; and Mucatel, M. (1982). Teenage driving after using marijuana or drinking and traffic accident involvement. Journal of Safety Research 13(1): 33-38.

Hobi, V; Gastpar. M.; Gastpar, G; Gilsdorf, U; Kielholz, P; and Schwarz E. (1982). Driving ability of depressive patients under antidepressants. Journal of International Medical Research 10(2): 65-81.

Hobi, V; Kielholz, P; and Duback, UC. (1981). The effect of bromazepam on fitness to drive.Muenchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 123(42): 1585-1588.

Holmgren, P; Loch, E; and Schuberth, J. (1985). Drugs in motorists traveling Swedish roads: on-the-road-detection of intoxicated drivers and screening for drugs in these offenders. Forensic Science International 27(1): 57-65.

ICADTS Working Group on Illegal drugs and Driving. (2000). Illegal drugs and driving. The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Jeffrey, W; Leslie, J; and Mercer, G. (1995). Drug and alcohol concentrations of drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle accidents in British Columbia: a one year study. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Jernigan, JD. (1992). Removing the "High" from the highways: The impact of Virginia's efforts to combat drug-related DUI. Virginia: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Johnson, LC; Spinweber, CL; and Gomez, SA. (1990). Benzodiazepines and caffeine: effect on daytime sleepiness, performance, and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 101(2): 160-7.

Jones, RK and Lacey, JH. (2001). Alcohol and highway safety 2001: A review of the state of knowledge. DOT HS 809 383. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Joscelyn, KB; Donelson, AC; Jones, RK; McNair, JW; and Ruschmann, PA. (1980). Drugs and highway safety 1980. Final report. HS 805 461. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Joscelyn, KB and Maickel, RP. (1975). Drugs and driving: A research review. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Judd, L. (1985). The effect of antipsychotic drugs on driving and driving related psychomotor functions. Accident Analysis and Prevention 17(4): 319-322.

Kelly, TH; Foltin, RW; Serpick, E; and Fischman, MW. (1997). Behavioral effects of alprazolam in humans. Behavioral Pharmacology 8(1): 47-57.

Kintz, P. (1999). The role of saliva and sweat in detecting cases of driving under the influence. In: Road Traffic and Drugs. ISBN 92-871-4144-4. Council of Europe.

Kirby, JM; Maull, KI; and Fain, W. (1992). Comparability of alcohol and drug use in injured drivers. Southern Medical Journal 85(8): 800-802.

Klebel, VE; Saam, R; and Hoffman, H. (1985). The effect of celiprolol on driving ability. An experimental psychological and comparative clinical study. Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research 35(12): 1850-1853.

Koelega, HS. (1989). Benzodiazepines and vigilance performance: a review. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 98(2): 145-56.

Krueger, HP; Perrine, MW; Mettke, M; and Huessy, F. (1999). Illicit drugs in road traffic - Overview of the legal provisions, difficulties faced by police, and analysis of prevention attempts in selected European countries. In: Co-operation group to combat drug abuse and illicit trafficking in drugs (Pompidou Group). Burlington, Vermont: Addiction Research Institute.

Krueger, HP; Schulz, E; and Magerl, H. (1995). The German roadside survey 1992-1994. Saliva analyses from an unselected driver population: Licit and illicit drugs. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Kubitzki, JH. (1997). Driving behavior and personality in methadon patients. In: 14th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. September 21-26, 1997. Annecy, France. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Kuitunen, T; Meririnne, E; and Seppala, T. (1994). Correlation between blood diazepam concentrations and performance on the clinical test for drunkenness in acute and chronic diazepam users. Journal of Traffic Medicine 22(3): 105-111.

Kunsman, GW; Manno, JE; Manno, BR; Kunsman, CM; and Przekop, MA. (1992). The use of microcomputer-based psychomotor tests for the evaluation of benzodiazepine effects on human performance: a review with emphasis on temazepam. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 34(4): 289-301.

Kunsman, GW; Manno, JE; Przekop, MA; Manno, BR; and Kunsman, CM. (1992). The effects of temazepam and ethanol on human psychomotor performance. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 43(6): 603-11.

Lamers, CTJ and Ramaekers, JG. (1999). Marijuana and alcohol effects on visual search and general driving proficiency. Journal of Psychopharmacology 13(3 Suppl. A): A53.

Landauer, AA. (1981). Diazepam and driving ability. Medical Journal of Australia 1(12): 624-626.

Landauer, AA. (1986). Has medication with benzodiazepines a beneficial or detrimental effect on car drivers, or is alcohol still the villain? Alcohol, Accidents, and Injuries : 39-51.

Laurell, H and Tornros, J. (1986). The carry-over effects of triazolam compared with nitrazepam and placebo in acute emergency driving situations and in monotonous simulated driving. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 58(3): 182-186.

Leigh, TJ; Link, CG; and Fell, GL. (1991). Effects of granisetron and lorazepam, alone and in combination, on psychometric performance. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31(3): 333-336.

Lesch, OM; Lentner, S; Mader, R; Musalek, M; Mimmerrichter, A; and Walter, H. (1989). Medication and drug abuse in relation to road traffic safety. Pharmatherapeutica 5(5): 338-354.

Leveille, SG; Buchner, DM; Koepsell, TD; McCloskey, LW; Woof, MW; and Wagner, EH.(1994). Psychoactive medications and injurious motor vehicle collisions involving older drivers. Epidemiology 5(6): 591-598.

Lillis, RP; Good, RG; Kwong, T; Gajary, E; and States, JD. (1999). Incidence of drug use among drivers treated in emergency departments. at: 43rd Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. September 20-21, 1999. Barcelona, Spain. Rochester University, NY.

Lillsunde, P; Korte, T; Michelson, L; Portman, M; Pikkarainen, J; and Seppala, T. (1996). Drugs usage of drivers suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. A study of one week's samples in 1979 and 1993 in Finland. Forensic Science International 77(1-2): 119-29.

Linnavuo, M; Ylilaeaekkoelae, P; Mattila, MJ; Maeki, M; and Seppaelae, T. (1987). A new device to measure drug-induced changes on reactive and coordinative skills of human performance. Pharmacology and Toxicology 16(2): 142-147.

Linnoila, M and Hakkinen, S. (1974). Effects of diazepam and codeine, alone and in combination with alcohol, on simulated driving. Clinical Pharmacology Therapy 15(4): 368-73.

Linnoila, M and Seppala, T. (1985). Antidepressants and driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention 17(4): 297-301.

Logan, BK and Schwilke, EW. (1996). Drug and alcohol use in fatally injured drivers in Washington State. Journal of Forensic Sciences 41(3): 505-510.

Longo, MC; Hunter, CE; Lokan, RJ; White, JM; and White, MA. (2000a). The Prevalence of Alcohol, Cannabinoids, Benzodiazepines and Stimulants Amongst Injured Drivers and Their Role in Driver Culpability - Part I: the Prevalence of Drug Use in Drivers, and Characteristics of the Drug-Positive Group. Accident Analysis and Prevention 32(5): 613-622.

Longo, MC; Hunter, CE; Lokan, RJ; White, JM; and White, MA. (2000). The role of alcohol, benzodiazepines and stimulants in road crashes. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Lund, AK; Preusser, DF; Blomberg, RD; and Williams, AF. (1988). Drug use by tractor-trailer drivers. Journal of Forensic Sciences 33(3): 649-661.

Lundberg, GD; White, JM; and Hoffman, KI. (1979). Drugs (other than or in addition to ethyl alcohol) and driving behavior: A collaborative study of the California Association of Toxicologists. Journal of Forensic Sciences 24: 207-215.

Marowitz, L. (1994). The relationship between drug arrests and driving risk. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Motor Vehicles.

Marquet, P; Delpla, P-A; Kerguelen, S; Bremond, J; Facy, F; Garnier, M; Guery, B; Lhermitte, M; Mathe, D; Pelissier, A-L; Renaudeau, C; Vest, P; and Seguela, J-P. (1998). Prevalence of drugs of abuse in urine of drivers involved in road accidents in France: A collaborative study. Journal of Forensic Sciences 43(4): 806-811.

Martin, F; Siddle, DAT; Gourley, M; Taylor, J; and Dick. R. (1992). P300 and traffic scenes: the effect of temazepam. Biological Psychology 33(2-3): 225-240.

Marzuk, P; Tardiff, K; Leon, A; Stajic, M; Morgan, E; and Mann, J. (1990). Prevalence of recent cocaine use among motor vehicle fatalities in New York City. The Journal of the American Medical Association 263(2): 250-256.

Mascord, DJ; Dean, A; Gibson, J; Spingall, J; Starmer, GA; and Christie, MJ. (1997). Comparison of five commonly abused stimulants which are used to reduce fatigue. In: 14th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety . September 21-26, 1997. Annecy, France. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Mercer, GW and Jeffery, WK. (1995). Alcohol, drugs, and impairment in fatal traffic accidents in British Columbia. Accident Analysis and Prevention 27(3): 335-343.

Mintzer, MZ; Guarino, J; Kirk, T; Roache, JD; and Griffiths, RR. (1997). Ethanol and pentobarbital: comparison of behavioral and subjective effects in sedative drug abusers. Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 5(3): 203-215.

Moeller, MR and Kraemer, T. (2002). Drugs of Abuse Monitoring in Blood for Control of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 24(2): 210-221.

Morland. J. (2000). Driving under the influence of non-alcoholic drugs. Forensic Science Review 12: 79-105.

Morland, J; Beylich, K; Bjorneboe, A; and Christophersen, A. (1995). Driving under the influence of drugs: An increasing problem. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Moser, L; Macciocchi, A; Plum, H; and Buckmann. (1990). Effect of flutoprazepam on skills essential for driving motor vehicles. Arzneimittelforschung 40(5): 533-5.

Moskowitz, H. (1984). Attention tasks as skills performance measures of drug effects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18 Suppl 1: 51S-61S.

Moskowitz, H and Burns, M. (1981). The effects of alcohol and caffeine, alone and in combination, on skills performance. in: Alcohol drugs and traffic safety, Vol. III. California: Southern California Research Institute. 969-983.

Moskowitz, H and Smiley, Al. (1982). Effects of chronically administered buspirone and diazepam on driving-related skills performance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 43(12): 45-55.

Moskowitz, H and Wilkinson, CJ. (2003). Antihistamines and driving-related behavior: a review of the evidence for impairment by first- versus second-generation H1-antagonists. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration . (1979). Marijuana, other drugs and their relation to highway safety: a report to the Congress. DOT HS 805 229. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration .

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2002). Digest of state alcohol-highway safety related legislation - Twentieth edition. DOT HS 809 435. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Transportation Safety Board. (1990a). Safety study: Fatigue, alcohol, other drugs and medical factors in fatal-to-the-driver heavy truck crashes. Volume I. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board.

National Transportation Safety Board. (1990b). Safety study: fatigue, alcohol, other drugs, and medical factors in fatal-to-the-driver heavy truck crashes. Volume 2. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board.

Neuteboom, W and Zweipfenning, PG. (1984). Driving and the combined use of drugs and alcohol in The Netherlands. Forensic Science International 25(2): 93-104.

Neutel, C. (1995). Risk of traffic accident injury after a prescription for benzodiazepine. Annals of Epidemiology 5(3): 239-244.

O'Hanlon, JF. (1984). Driving performance under the influence of drugs: rationale for, and application of, a new test. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18 Suppl 1: 121S-129S.

O'Hanlon, JF. (1988). Antihistamines and driving safety. Cutis 42(4): 10-13.

O'Hanlon, JF; Haak, TW; Blaauw, GJ; and Riemersma, JB. (1982). Diazepam impairs lateral position control in highway driving. Science 217(4554): 79-81.

O'Hanlon, JF and Ramaekers, JG. (1995). Antihistamine effects on actual driving performance in a standard test: a summary of Dutch experience, 1989-94. Allergy 50(3): 234-242.

O'Hanlon, JF; Robbe, HWJ; Vermeeren, A; van Leeuwen, C; and Danjou, PE. (1998). Venlafaxine's effects on healthy volunteers' driving, psychomotor, and vigilance performance durinG 15-day fixed and incremental dosing regimens. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 18(3): 212-221.

O'Hanlon, JF; Vermeeren, A; Uiterwijk, MMC; van Veggel, LMA; and Swijgman, HF. (1995). Anxiolytics' effects on the actual driving performance of patients and health volunteers in a standardized test. An integration of three studies. Neuropsychobiology 31(2): 81-88.

O'Hanlon, JF and Volkerts, ER. (1986). Hypnotics and actual driving performance. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 74(Supplement 332): 95-104.

Ornstein, TJ; Iddon, JL; Baldacchino, AM; Sahakian, BJ; London, M; Everitt, BJ; and Robbins, TW. (2000). Profiles of cognitive dysfunction in chronic amphetamine and heroin abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology 23(2): 113-126.

Parrott, AC; Hindmarch, I; and Stonier, PD. (1982). Nomifensine, clobazam and HOE 8476: effects on aspects of psychomotor performance and cognitive ability. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23(4): 309-13.

Perez-Reyes, M; Hicks, RE; Bumberry, J; Jeffcoat, AR; and Cook, CE. (1988). Interaction between marihuana and ethanol: effects on psychomotor performance. Alcohol Clinical Experimental Research 12(2): 268-76.

Perl, J; Hodder, A; Havi, B; Starmer, G; Tattam, B; Vine, J; and Watson, T. (1990). Drug usage by drivers in New South Wales - A new look at the drug-impaired driver. In: Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. October 24-27, 1989. Chicago, IL. Chicago: National Safety Council.

Perl, J; Mascord, D; Moynham, A; and Starmer, G. (1995). Drug usage by persons suspected of driving under the influence of a drug. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Pickworth, WB; Rohrer, MS; and Fant, RV. (1997). Effects of abused drugs on psychomotor performance. Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 5(3): 235-41.

Polkis, A; Maginn, D; and Barr, JL. (1987). Drug findings in 'driving under the influence of drugs' cases: a problem of illicit drug use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 20(1): 57-62.

Preston, KL; Wolf, B; Guarino, JJ; and Griffiths, RR. (1992). Subjective and behavioral effects of diphenhydramine, lorazepam and methocarbamol: evaluation of abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacological Experimental Therapy 262(2): 707-720.

Preusser, DF; Ulmer, RG; and Preusser, CW. (1992). Evaluation of the impact of the drug evaluation and classification program on enforcement and adjudication. Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Ramaekers, JG; Annseau, M; Muntjewerff, ND; Sweens, JP; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1997). Considering the P450 cytochrome system as determining combined effects of antidepressants and benzodiazepines on actual driving performance fo depressed outpatients. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 12(3): 159-169.

Ramaekers, JG; Muntjewerff, ND; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1995). A comparative study of acute and subchronic effects of dothiepin, fluoxetine and placebo on psychomotor and actual driving performance. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 39(4): 397-404.

Ramaekers, JG and O'Hanlon, JF. (1994). Acrivastine, terfenadine and diphenhydramine effects on driving performance as a function of dose and time after dosing. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 47(3): 261-266.

Ramaekers. J.G.; Swijgman, HF; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1992). Effects of moclobemide and mianserin on highway driving, psychometric performance and subjective parameters, relative to placebo. Psychopharmacology 106: S62-S67.

Ramaekers, JG; Uiterwijk, MMC; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1992). Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on actual driving and psychometric test performance, and EEG during driving. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 42(4): 363-369.

Ramaekers, JG; van Veggel, LMA; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1994). A cross-study comparison of the effects of moclobemide and brofaromine on actual driving performance and estimated sleep. Clinical Neuropharmacology 17(Suppl. 1): 9-18.

Ray, WA; Fought, RL; and Decker, MD. (1992). Psychoactive drugs and the risk of injurious motor vehicle crashes in elderly drivers. American Journal of Epidemiology 136(7): 873-883.

Risser, D; Stichenwirth, M; Klupp, N; Schneider, B; Stimpfl, T; Bycudilik, W; and Bauer, G. (1998). Drugs and driving in Vienna, Austria. Journal of Forensic Sciences 43(4): 827-820.

Rivara, F; Mueller, B; Fligner, C; Luna, G; Raisys, V; Copass, M; and Reay, D. (1989). Drug use in trauma victims. Journal of Trauma 29(4): 462-470.

Roache, JD and Griffiths, RR. (1985). Comparison of triazolam and pentobarbital: performance impairment, subjective effects and abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacological Experimental Therapy 234(1): 120-33.

Robbe, H and O'Hanlon, J. (1993). Marijuana and actual driving performance. DOT HS 808 078. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Rodrigo, G and Lusiardo, M. (1988). Effects on memory following a single oral dose of diazepam. Psychopharmacology 95(2): 263-267.

Root, I. (1989). Drugs of abuse and fatal automobile accidents. Legal Medicine : 25-38.

Roth, T and Roehrs, T. (1985). Determinants of residual effects of hypnotics. Accident Analysis and Prevention 17(4): 291-296.

Rothenberg, SJ and Selkoe, D. (1981). Specific oculomotor deficit after diazepam. I. Saccadic eye movements. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 74(3): 232-236.

Schepens, PJ; Pauwels, A; Van Damme, P; Musuku, A; Beaucourt, L; and Selala, MI. (1998). Drugs of abuse and alcohol in weekend drivers involved in car crashes in Belgium. Annals of Emergency Medicine 31(5): 633-637.

Shinar, D; Schechtman, E; and Compton, RP. (2000). Signs and symptoms predictive of drug impairment. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Simons, FE. (1994). H1-receptor antagonists. Comparative tolerability and safety. Drug Safety 10(5): 350-80.

Sjoegren, H; Bjoernstig, U; Eriksson, A; Oehman, U; and Solarz, A. (1997). Drug and alcohol use among injured motor vehicle drivers in Sweden: prevalence, driver, crash, and injury characteristics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 21(6): 968-973.

Skurtveit, S; Christophersen, AS; and Morland, J. (1999). Increase in driving under the influence of amphetamine. Journal of Traffic Medicine 27(1-2): 17-24.

Smiley, A. (1998). Marijuana: on road and driving simulator studies. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Soames, JF. (1982). Does diazepam affect driving ability? Medical Journal of Australia 1(2): 89-91.

Soderstrom, CA; Triffilis, AL; Shankar, BS; Clark, WE; and Cowley, RA. (1988). Marijuana and alcohol use among 1023 trauma patients. Archives of Surgery 123: 733-737.

Spinweber, CL and Johnson, LC. (1982). Effects of triazolam (0.5 mg) on sleep, performance, memory, and arousal threshold. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 76(1): 5-12.

Starmer, GA. (1985). Antihistamines and highway safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention 17(4): 311-317.

Steentoft, A and Worm, K. (1996). Drugs in Danish traffic cases where no alcohol was found present. Journal of Traffic Medicine 24(3-4): 73-76.

Stein, AC; Allen, RG; Cook, ML; and Karl, RL. (1983). A simulator study of the combined effects of alcohol and marijuana on driving behavior. DOT HS 806 405. Washington, DC: National Highway Safety Traffic Administration.

Stevenson, GW; Pathria, MN; Lamping, DL; Buck, L; and Rosen bloom, D. (1986). Driving ability after intravenous fentanyl or diazepam: a controlled double-blind study. Investigative Radiology 26(9): 717-719.

Stoduto, G; Vingilis, E; Kapur, BM; Sheu, WJ; McLellan, BA; and Liban, CB. (1993). Alcohol and drug use among motor vehicle collision victims admitted to a regional trauma unit: demographic, injury, and crash characteristics. Accident Analysis and Prevention 25(4): 411-420.

Sutton, LR and Paegle, I. (1992). The drug impaired driver. Detection and forensic specimen analysis. Blutalkohol 29(2): 134-138.

Suzuki, M; Uchiumi, M; and Murasaki, M. (1995). A comparative study of the psychological effects of DN-2327, a partial benzodiazepine agonist, and alprazolam. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 121(4): 442-50.

Swann, P. (2000). The real risk of being killed when driving whilst impaired by cannabis. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Tedeschi, G; Bittencourt, PR; Smith, AT; and Richens, A. (1983a). Effect of amphetamine on saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 79(2-3): 190-2.

Tedeschi, G; Bittencourt, PR; Smith, AT; and Richens, A. (1983b). Specific oculomotor deficits after amylobarbitone. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 79(2-3): 187-9.

Terhune, K; Ippolito, C; Hendricks, D; Michalovic, J; Bogema, S; Santinga, P; Blomberg, R; and Preusser, D. (1992). The incidence and role of drugs in fatally injured drivers. DOT HS 808 065. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Tomaszewski, C; Kirk, M; Bingham, E; Saltzman, B; Cook, R; and Kulig, K. (1996). Urine toxicology screens in drivers suspected of driving while impaired from drugs. Clinical Toxicology 34(1): 37-44.

Tornros, J. (1990). Drogforekomst i trafiken. Linkoping Sweden: Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute.

Tornros, J and Laurell, H. (1990). Acute and carry-over effects of brotizolam compared to nitrazepam and placebo in monotonous simulated driving. Pharmacology and Toxicology 67(1): 77-80.

Townsend, TN; Lane, J; Dewa, CS; and Brittingham, AM. (1998). Driving after drug or alcohol use; findings from the 1996 national household survey on drug abuse. (SMA) 99-3273. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Turk, RF; McBay, TJ; and Hudson. (1974). Drug involvement in automobile driver and pedestrian fatalities. Journal of Forensic Sciences 19(1)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Results from the 2001 national household survey on drug abuse: Volume I. summary of national findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

van der Meyden, CH; Bartel, PR; Sommers, DK; Blob, M; and Praetorium, LC. (1989). Effects of clobazam and clonazepam on saccadic eye movements and other parameters of psychomotor performance. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 37(4): 365-9.

van Laar, M; van Willigenburg, APP; and Volkerts, ER. (1995). Acute and subchronic effects of nefazodone and imipramine on highway driving, cognitive functions and daytime sleepiness in healthy adult and elderly subjects. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 15(1): 30-40.

Vera, F; Navarro, JF; Blanca, MJ; Luna, G; and Fernandez-Guardiola, A. (2001). Residual effects of benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics on diurnal attention in a reaction time task. Psicothema 13(2): 290-293.

Vermeeren, A and O'Hanlon, JF. (1998). Fexofenadine's effects, alone and with alcohol, on actual driving and psychomotor performance. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 101(3): 306-311.

Verstraete, A and Puddu, M. (2000). Evaluation of different roadside drug testing equipment. EU Contract DG VII RO-98-SC 3032, Available on website www.rosita.org.

Vis, A. (1988). Uses of alcohol and drugs among road accident victims. In: 11th World Congress of International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine. London.

Vuurman, EEPM; Muntjewerff, ND; Uiterwijk, MMC; van Veggel, LMA; Crevoisier, C; Haglund, L; Kinzig, M; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1996). Effects of mefloquine alone and with alcohol on psychomotor and driving performance. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 50(6): 475-482.

Vuurman, EFPM; Uiterwijk, MMC; Rosenzweig, P; and O'Hanlon, JF. (1994). Effects of mizolastine and clemastine on actual driving and psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 47(3): 253-259.

Waller, P; Blow, F; Maio, R; Hill, E; Singer, K; and Schaefer. (1995). Crash characteristics and injuries of drivers impaired by alcohol/drugs. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Walsh, JM; Buchan, BJ; and Leaverton, PE. (1997). Detection of illicit drugs in drivers. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Volume 2, pp. 485-491. Annecy, France. CERMT, Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches en Medecine du Trafic.

Walsh, JM; Cangianelli, LA; Buchan, BJ; and Leaverton, PE. (2000). DUI officer detection of illegal drugs in drivers using rapid immunoassay devices. In: 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety. May 22-26, 2000. Stockholm, Sweden. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety.

Walsh, JM; Danziger, G; Cangianelli, LA; and Koehler, DB. (2002). Driving Under the influence of drugs (DUID) legislation in the United States. Bethesda, Maryland: The Walsh Group.

Ward, AS; Kelly, TH; Foltin, RG; and Fischman, MW. (1997). Effects of d-amphetamine on task performance and social behavior of humans in a residential laboratory. Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 5(2): 130-136.

Ward, NJ and Dye, L. (1999). Cannabis and Driving: a literature review and commentary. U.K. DETR Road Safety Research Report, No. 12.

Wechsler, H; Rohman, M; Kotch, JB; and Idelson, RK. (1984). Alcohol and other drug use and automobile safety: A survey of Boston-area teen-agers. Journal of School Health 54(5): 201-203.

Weiler, JM; Bloomfield, JR; Woodworth, GG; Grant, AR; Layton, TA; Brown, TL; McKenzie, DR; Baker, TW; and Watson, GS. (2000). Effects of fexofenadine, diphenhydramine, and alcohol on driving performance. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in the Iowa driving simulator. Annals of Internal Medicine 132(5): 354-63.

White, JZ; Clardy, DO; Graves, MH; Kuo, M; MacDonald, BJ; Wiersema, SJ; Fitzpatrick, G; and Pearce, DC. (1981). Testing for sedative-hypnotic drugs in the impaired driver: A survey of 72,000 arrests. Clinical Toxicology 18(8): 945-957.

Williams, AF; Peat, MA; Crouch, DJ; Wells, JK; and Finkle, BS. (1985). Drugs in fatally injured young male drivers. Public Health Reports 100(1): 19-25.

Willumeit, HP; Neubert, W; Ott, H; and Hemmerling, KG. (1983). Driving ability following the subchronic application of lormetazepam, flurazepam and placebo. Ergonomics 26(11): 1055-1061.

Willumeit, HP; Ott, H; and Neubert, W. (1984). Simulated car driving as a useful technique for the determination of residual effects and alcohol interaction after short- and long-acting benzodiazepines. Psychopharmacology Suppl 1: 182-92.

Willumeit, HP; Ott, H; Neubert, W; and Hemmerling, KG. (1984). Alcohol interaction of lormetazepam, mepindolol sulphate and diazepam measured by performance on the driving simulator . Pharmacopsychiatria 17(2): 36-43.

Wylie, KR; Thompson, DJ; and Wildgust, HJ. (1993). Effects of depot neuroleptics on driving performance in chronic schizophrenic patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 56(8): 910-913.

Zancaner, S; Georgetti, R; Fenato, F; Rossi, A; Tedeschi, L; Snenghi, R; Frison, G; Montisci, F; Tagliaro, F; Meroni, M; Giron, G; Marigo, M; and Ferrara, S. (1995). Psychoactive substances and driving disability: Epidemiological roadside surveys in north-east Italy. In: TS-'95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. August 13-August 18, 1995. Adelaide, Australia. Adelaide: NHMRC, Road Accident Unit, University of Adelaide.

Zancaner, S; Giorgetti, R; Dal Pozzo, C; Molinari, G; Snenghi, R; and Ferrara, S. (1997). Driving under the influence of drugs. Correlation between clinical signs and type of intoxication. In: Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety T’97. Volume II. Annecy France. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety.

Zorec-Karlovsek, M and Lokar, J. (1988). Epidemiological study of the incidence of psychotropic substance use among road users in Slovenia. In: 11th World Congress of International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine. London.