Appendix A

Tests Results, by Behavioral Area



TABLE A 1

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR DRIVING/PILOTING

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Morrow et al. 1990 Flight simulator (severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.001 Yes
Morrow et al. 1993 Flight simulator (severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.002 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994a Driving simulator (left deviations, right deviations, absolute deviations, points out of range) 0.013 Yes
Morrow et al. 1990 Flight simulator (radio performance, summary score) 0.017 Yes
Louwerens et al. 1987 Driving (standard deviation of lane position, speed variability) 0.024 No
Billings et al. 1991 Flight simulator (serious errors) 0.025 Yes
West et al 1993 Driving (hazard perception) 0.025 Yes
Ross et al. 1992 Flight simulator (instrument departure procedural errors) 0.030 Yes
Willumeit et al. 1984 Driving simulator (composite score) 0.032 No
Ross et al. 1992 Flight simulator (intersection holding errors, basic IFR flight control errors, degree of error in position reports, failure to question clearance, communication errors) 0.033 Yes
Ross et al. 1992 Flight simulator (instrument departure procedural errors) 0.034 Yes
Ross et al. 1992 Flight simulator (intersection holding errors, basic IFR flight control errors, degree of error in position reports, failure to question clearance, communication errors) 0.035 Yes
Gengo et al. 1990 Driving simulator (standard deviation of reaction time) 0.040 Yes
Mongrain 1989 Driving simulator 0.040 Yes
Ross & Mundt 1988 Flight simulator (composite score) 0.040 Yes
Brookhuis & De Waard 1993 Driving (car following, standard deviation of lane position) 0.041 Yes
Morrow et al. 1990 Flight simulator 0.041 Yes
Morrow et al. 1993 Flight simulator (severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.042 Yes
Vermeeren & O'Hanlon 1998 Driving (standard deviation of lane position) 0.045 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994a Driving simulator (left deviations, right deviations, absolute deviations, points out of range) 0.049 Yes
Willumeit et al. 1984 Driving simulator (composite score) 0.049 No
Smiley et al. 1987 Driving (speed on open road curves, peripheral stimuli detected, and standard deviation of velocity on runway curves) 0.050 Yes
West et al 1993 Driving (hazard perception) 0.050 Yes
Willumeit et al. 1984 Driving simulator (composite score) 0.050 No
Gawron & Ranney 1988 Driving (curve lateral position deviation, straight lateral position deviation, right road departure, curve speed deviation, straight speed deviation, time between same-side departures) 0.053 Yes
Gawron & Ranney 1988 Driving simulator (lateral position, number of times over the speed limit) 0.053 Yes
Allen 1996 Driving simulator (mean response time, throttle activity, curve error, standard deviation of lane position) 0.055 Yes
Morrow et al. 1990 Flight simulator (course performance, radio performance, summary score) 0.056 Yes
Horne & Baumber 1991 Driving simulator (mean following distance, standard deviation of mean following distance) 0.058 Yes
Colburn et al. 1993 Motorcycle simulator (leaving the roadway, total errors) 0.059 Yes
Flanagan et al. 1983 Driving (penalty points) 0.060 Yes
Louwerens et al. 1987 Driving (standard deviation of lane position, speed variability) 0.060 Yes
Horne & Baumber 1991 Driving simulator (mean following distance, standard deviation of mean following distance) 0.064 Yes
Rimm et al. 1982 Driving simulator (braking, steering) 0.064 Yes
McMillen et al. 1989 Driving simulator (lane changes, cars passed, time at maximum speed) 0.070 No
Ranney & Gawron 1986 Driving simulator (number of times over the speed limit) 0.070 Yes
Morrow et al. 1993 Flight simulator (severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.071 Yes
Taylor et al. 1994 Flight simulator (traffic avoidance, cockpit monitoring, landing) 0.077 Yes
Smiley et al. 1987 Driving (speed on open road curves, peripheral stimuli detected, and standard deviation of velocity on runway curves) 0.080 Yes
Taylor et al. 1996 Flying simulator (summary scores) 0.080 Yes
Louwerens et al. 1987 Driving (standard deviation of lane position, speed variability) 0.085 Yes
Colburn et al. 1993 Motorcycle simulator (leaving the roadway, total errors) 0.088 Yes
Morrow et al. 1990 Flight simulator (course performance, radio performance, severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.098 Yes
Morrow et al. 1993 Flight simulator (severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.101 Yes
Yesavage et al. 1994 Flight simulator (composite score) 0.101 Yes
Gawron & Ranney 1988 Driving (curve lateral position, curve lateral position deviation, straight lateral position deviation, left road departure, right road departure, curve speed, curve speed deviation, straight speed deviation, time between same-side departures, time outside lane) 0.103 Yes
Gawron & Ranney 1988 Driving simulator (# of obstacles struck, lateral position, number of times over the speed limit, total heading error, total lateral position errors) 0.103 Yes
Mongrain 1989 Driving simulator 0.120 Yes
Ranney & Gawron 1986 Driving simulator (curve heading error, curve lateral position, fixed curve lateral position, number of obstacles struck, number of times over the speed limit) 0.120 Yes
Louwerens et al. 1987 Driving (standard deviation of lane position, speed variability) 0.122 Yes


TABLE A 2

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR DIVIDED ATTENTION

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Roehrs et al 1994b Divided attention task 0.008 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994a Tracking and visual search 0.013 Yes
Millar et al. 1992 Primary tracking and secondary visual reaction time 0.014 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking and visual search 0.020 No
Landauer & Howat 1983 Tracking and peripheral visual search 0.021 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Tracking and secondary task 0.026 Yes
Millar et al. 1992 Primary tracking and secondary visual reaction time 0.030 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983a Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.030 No
Mills & Bisgrove 1983b Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.030 Yes
Wilkinson 1995 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.030 Yes
Wilkinson et al. 1989 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.030 Yes
Himdmarch et al. 1991 Compensatory tracking and detection of visual stimuli 0.033 No
Roehrs et al. 1993 Divided attention task 0.035 No
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.036 No
Finnigan et al. 1995 Primary tracking and visual secondary RT task 0.040 No
Krueger 1986 Compensatory tracking, number monitoring and visual perception 0.040 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.041 No
Marks and MacAvoy 1989 Central and peripheral light monitoring 0.043 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.047 No
Roehrs et al 1994a Tracking and visual search 0.049 Yes
Landauer & Howat 1983 Tracking and peripheral visual search 0.050 Yes
Lex et al. 1994 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.050 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Tracking and secondary task 0.050 Yes
Wilkinson 1995 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.050 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking and visual search 0.052 No
Roehrs et al. 1989 Divided attention task 0.055 Yes
Finnigan et al. 1995 Primary tracking and visual secondary RT task 0.056 Yes
Lex et al. 1994 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.060 No
Millar et al. 1992 Primary tracking and secondary visual reaction time 0.060 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.062 Yes
Finnigan et al. 1995 Primary tracking and visual secondary RT task 0.063 Yes
Himdmarch et al. 1991 Compensatory tracking and detection of visual stimuli 0.066 No
Maylor et al. 1990 Tracking and auditory detection 0.068 Yes
Lex et al. 1994 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.070 No
Wilkinson & Moskowitz 1989 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.070 Yes
Landauer & Howat 1983 Tracking and peripheral visual search 0.073 Yes
Finnigan et al. 1995 Primary tracking and visual secondary RT task 0.075 Yes
Lex et al. 1994 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.075 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Tracking and secondary task 0.076 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking and visual search 0.078 Yes
Krueger 1986 Compensatory tracking, number monitoring and visual perception 0.080 Yes
Lex et al. 1994 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.080 Yes
Wilkinson 1995 Compensatory tracking and visual search task 0.080 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.089 Yes
Marks and MacAvoy 1989 Central and peripheral light monitoring 0.093 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.095 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking and visual search 0.100 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.100 Yes
Himdmarch et al. 1991 Compensatory tracking and detection of visual stimuli 0.104 Yes
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Central and peripheral number monitoring 0.106 Yes
Krueger 1986 Compensatory tracking, number monitoring and visual perception 0.120 Yes
Himdmarch et al. 1991 Compensatory tracking and detection of visual stimuli 0.142 Yes


TABLE A 3

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR DROWSINESS

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Roehrs et al 1994b Multiple sleep latency test 0.010 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994a Multiple sleep latency test 0.013 Yes
Roehrs et al. 1989 Multiple sleep latency test 0.020 Yes
Papineau et al. 1998 Multiple sleep latency test 0.021 No
Walsh et al. 1991 Multiple sleep latency test 0.034 Yes
Walsh et al. 1991 Repeated test of sustained Wakefulness 0.034 No
Roehrs et al. 1993 Multiple sleep latency test 0.035 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994b Multiple sleep latency test 0.040 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994a Multiple sleep latency test 0.049 Yes
Roehrs et al. 1989 Multiple sleep latency test 0.050 Yes
Papineau et al. 1998 Multiple sleep latency test 0.055 Yes
Roehrs et al 1994b Multiple sleep latency test 0.060 Yes
Roehrs et al. 1989 Multiple sleep latency test 0.060 Yes


TABLE A 4

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR VIGILANCE

Author Year Experimental Task Domain BAC Impairment
Gustafson 1986 Auditory RT in a Sustained attention setting Vigilance 0.021 No
Gustafson 1986 Visual RT in a Sustained attention setting Vigilance 0.028 No
Rohrbaugh et al. 1987 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.030 Yes
Rohrbaugh et al. 1988 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.030 Yes
Wilkinson 1995 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.030 Yes
Wilkinson & Moskowitz 1989 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.030 Yes
Horne & Gibbons 1991 Auditory Sustained attention Vigilance 0.034 Yes
Vermeeren & O'Hanlon 1998 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.045 Yes
Jansen et al. 1985 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.054 Yes
Gustafson 1986 Visual RT in a Sustained attention setting Vigilance 0.059 Yes
Rohrbaugh et al. 1988 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.063 Yes
Rohrbaugh et al. 1987 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.065 Yes
Horne & Gibbons 1991 Auditory Sustained attention Vigilance 0.066 Yes
Wilkinson & Moskowitz 1989 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.070 Yes
Wilkinson 1995 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.080 Yes
Rohrbaugh et al. 1988 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.086 Yes
Gustafson 1986 Auditory RT in a Sustained attention setting Vigilance 0.088 Yes
Rohrbaugh et al. 1987 Sustained attention Vigilance 0.090 Yes


TABLE A 5

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR TRACKING

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Mangold at al. 1996 Pursuit tracking 0.011 No
Mangold at al. 1996 Pursuit tracking 0.014 No
Cohen at al. 1987 Adaptive tracking 0.018 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking 0.020 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Tracking error severity index 0.021 No
Wilkinson & Moskowitz 1989 Critical tracking 0.030 Yes
Mangold at al. 1996 Pursuit tracking 0.036 No
van Steveninck et al. 1993 Adaptive tracking 0.038 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Tracking error severity index 0.040 No
Cohen at al. 1987 Adaptive tracking 0.043 No
Mangold at al. 1996 Pursuit tracking 0.043 No
Cohen at al. 1987 Adaptive tracking 0.044 Yes
Vermeeren & O'Hanlon 1998 Critical tracking 0.045 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking 0.052 No
Fillmore & Vogel-Sprott 1994 Pursuit Rotor Task 0.054 Yes
Fillmore & Vogel-Sprott 1995 Pursuit Rotor Task 0.058 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Tracking error severity index 0.060 Yes
Maylor et al. 1990 Pursuit tracking 0.068 No
Wilkinson & Moskowitz 1989 Critical tracking 0.070 Yes
Collins et al 1987 Compensatory tracking 0.077 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking 0.078 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Tracking error severity index 0.079 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Tracking 0.100 Yes


TABLE A 6

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR PERCEPTION

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Heishman et al. 1997 Time estimation 0.005 No
MacArthur et al/ 1982 Direction judgement 0.020 No
Heishman et al. 1997 Time estimation 0.025 No
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.025 No
Gustafson 1986 Visual search task 0.027 No
Maylor et all. 1987 Visual search task 0.028 No
Post et al. 1996 Visual spatial attention 0.028 No
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.030 No
Willumeit et al 1984 Audio-visual perception 0.032 No
Lapp et al. 1994 Time estimation 0.037 Yes
Mongrain 1989 Signal detection 0.040 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.047 Yes
Willumeit et al 1984 Audio-visual perception 0.049 No
Deery & Love 1996 Traffic hazard perception 0.050 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.050 No
Willumeit et al 1984 Audio-visual perception 0.050 No
Baker 1985 Pattern reproduction following short visual presentation 0.055 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.055 No
Gustafson 1986 Visual search task 0.058 Yes
MacArthur et al. 1982 Direction judgement 0.060 No
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.060 No
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.065 No
Maylor et al. 1990 Auditory detection task 0.068 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.070 No
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.075 No
Lapp et al. 1994 Time estimation 0.078 Yes
Post et al. 1996 Visual spatial attention 0.078 Yes
Heishman et al. 1997 Time estimation 0.080 No
Mongrain 1989 Signal detection 0.080 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.090 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.095 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Anticipation time 0.100 Yes
Mongrain 1989 Signal detection 0.120 Yes
Maylor et all. 1987 Visual search task 0.130 Yes
Mongrain 1989 Signal detection 0.160 Yes


TABLE A 7

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR VISUAL FUNCTIONS

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Nicholson et al. 1994 Contrast sensitivity 0.011 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Eye movements 0.018 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.021 No
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity, depth perception 0.025 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.026 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Nystagmus 0.026 No
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity, depth perception 0.030 No
Ross & Mughni 1995 Flight simulator (detection of angular acceleration) 0.037 Yes
van Steveninck et al. 1993 Smooth pursuit, saccadic peak velocity, saccadic latency, saccadic inaccuracy 0.038 Yes
Katoh 1988 Eye saccadic velocity 0.040 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.040 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Eye movements 0.043 Yes
Nicholson et al. 1994 Contrast sensitivity 0.043 Yes
Hogan & Gilmartin 1985 Amplitude of accomodation, tonic accomodation 0.045 No
Hogan & Gilmartin 1985 Heterophoria (6m), heterophoria (33cm), Accomodative-convergence/accomodation ratio, lateral fusional ability, near point of convergence 0.045 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.047 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.047 No
Katoh 1988 Eye saccadic velocity 0.048 Yes
Barnes et al. 1985 Eye velocity 0.049 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.050 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Nystagmus 0.050 Yes
Pearson & Timney 1998 Contrast sensitivity 0.050 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.050 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.050 No
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity, depth perception 0.050 No
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity, depth perception 0.055 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.060 No
Pearson & Timney 1998 Contrast sensitivity 0.060 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.060 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.060 No
Hill & Toffolon 1990 Visual acuity, color vision, stereo vision 0.061 No
Hill & Toffolon 1990 Horizontal visual field, vertical visual field, accomodation, convergence 0.061 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.065 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.065 No
Katoh 1988 Eye saccadic velocity 0.066 Yes
Reker 1988 Latency of isolated eye 0.066 No
Reker 1988 Velocity of isolated eye, coordinated head-eye movement 0.066 Yes
Hogan & Linfield 1983 Accomodative-convergence/accomodation ratio, near heterophoria, positive fusional ability, accomodation 0.067 No
Hogan & Linfield 1983 Negative fusional ability, distance heterophoria, near point of convergence 0.067 Yes
Pearson & Timney 1998 Contrast sensitivity 0.070 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.070 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.070 No
Andre 1996 Contrast sensitivity 0.073 Yes
Barnes et al. 1985 Eye displacement gain, eye velocity, vestibulo-ocular response 0.073 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.075 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.075 No
Leibowitz, et al. 1992 Contrast sensitivity 0.076 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.076 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Nystagmus 0.076 Yes
Barnes 1984 Visual pursuit, vestibular-ocular reflex suppression 0.077 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.079 No
Zulauf et al. 1988 Contrast sensitivity 0.080 Yes
Katoh 1988 Eye saccadic velocity 0.085 Yes
Andre 1994 Contrast sensitivity 0.088 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.090 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.090 No
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.095 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.095 No
Pearson & Timney 1998 Contrast sensitivity 0.100 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Depth perception 0.100 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Visual sensitivity 0.100 No
Reker 1988 Latency of isolated eye, velocity of isolated eye, coordinated head-eye movement 0.107 Yes
Hill & Toffolon 1990 Visual acuity, horizontal visual field, vertical visual field, color vision, stereo vision, accomodation, convergence 0.134 Yes


TABLE A 8

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR COGNITIVE TASKS

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Heisman 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.005 No
Heisman 1997 Number recognition 0.005 No
Heisman 1997 Word recall 0.005 No
Mangold et al. 1996 Digit-symbol substitution 0.011 No
Mangold et al. 1996 Digit-symbol substitution 0.014 No
Millar et al. 1992 Auditory short-term memory 0.014 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.014 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.014 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.014 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.014 No
Millar et al. 1995 Recognition and memory task 0.016 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Color test 0.020 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.020 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Letter recognition 0.020 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Mental arithmetic 0.020 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Spatial orientation 0.020 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.020 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.020 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Digit-symbol substitution 0.021 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Symbol copying 0.021 No
Heisman 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.025 No
Heisman 1997 Number recognition 0.025 Yes
Heisman 1997 Word recall 0.025 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.026 No
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Sternberg 0.027 No
Millar et al. 1992 Auditory short-term memory 0.030 No
Wilkinson 1995 Sternberg 0.030 No
Wilkinson 1995 Visual backward masking 0.030 Yes
Roehrs et al. 1993 Digit-symbol substitution 0.035 Yes
Mangold et al. 1996 Digit-symbol substitution 0.036 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.036 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.036 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.036 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.036 No
Lamb & Robertson 1987 Pattern recognition 0.037 No
Doms et al. 1988 Cross-out groups of four dots 0.038 Yes
Doms et al. 1988 Cross-out letter configuration 0.038 No
Doms et al. 1988 Memory 0.038 Yes
Doms et al. 1988 Symbol marking 0.038 Yes
van Steveninck 1993 Digit-symbol substitution 0.038 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Digit-symbol substitution 0.040 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Symbol copying 0.040 No
Hasenfratz et al. 1993 Digit patterns recognition 0.042 Yes
Mangold et al. 1996 Digit-symbol substitution 0.043 No
Millar et al. 1995 Recognition and memory task 0.043 Yes
de Wit et al. 1987 Digit-symbol substitution 0.046 Yes
Ryan et al. 1996 Item recognition 0.048 Yes
Hartley & Coxon 1984 Reading comprehension 0.049 Yes
Lyvers & Maltzman 1991 Card sorting 0.049 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Digit-symbol substitution 0.050 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.050 Yes
Wilkinson 1995 Sternberg 0.050 No
Wilkinson 1995 Visual backward masking 0.050 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Color test 0.052 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.052 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Letter recognition 0.052 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Mental arithmetic 0.052 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Spatial orientation 0.052 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.052 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.052 No
Baker 1985 Digit recall 0.055 No
Baker 1985 Velocity estimation 0.055 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Digit-symbol substitution 0.058 No
Gengo et al. 1990 Digit-symbol substitution 0.060 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Code substitution 0.060 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Grammatical reasoning 0.060 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Mathematical processing 0.060 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Pattern discrimination 0.060 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Spatial orientation 0.060 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Sternberg 0.060 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Digit-symbol substitution 0.060 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Symbol copying 0.060 No
Lex et al. 1988 Card rotation 0.060 No
Lex et al. 1988 Sentence completion 0.060 No
Lex et al. 1988 Identification of repetitions of sample digits 0.060 Yes
Millar et al. 1992 Auditory short-term memory 0.060 No
Lamb & Robertson 1987 Pattern recognition 0.061 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Digit-symbol substitution 0.062 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.062 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.062 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.062 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.062 No
Maylor et al. 1990 Recall 0.064 Yes
Maylor et al. 1990 Reading 0.064 Yes
Fillmore et al. 1998 Digit patterns recognition 0.066 Yes
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Sternberg 0.066 No
Maylor et al. 1989 Letter recognition 0.069 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Digit-symbol substitution 0.070 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Digit-symbol substitution 0.075 Yes
Mattila et al. 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.076 Yes
Ryan et al. 1996 Item recognition 0.076 Yes
Collins et al 1987 Mental arithmetic 0.077 No
Collins et al 1987 Pattern recognition 0.077 Yes
Collins et al 1987 Problem solving 0.077 No
Fillmore & Vogel-Sprott 1997 Number patterns recognition 0.077 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Color test 0.078 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.078 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Letter recognition 0.078 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Mental arithmetic 0.078 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Spatial orientation 0.078 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.078 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.078 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Digit-symbol substitution 0.079 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Symbol copying 0.079 Yes
Nelson et al. 1986 Recall, judgement, and recognition 0.079 Yes
Oborne & Rogers 1983 Sternberg 0.079 Yes
Heisman 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.080 Yes
Heisman 1997 Number recognition 0.080 Yes
Heisman 1997 Word recall 0.080 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Digit-symbol substitution 0.080 No
Wilkinson 1995 Sternberg 0.080 No
Wilkinson 1995 Visual backward masking 0.080 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.096 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.096 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.096 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.096 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Color test 0.100 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Digit-symbol substitution 0.100 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Letter recognition 0.100 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Mental arithmetic 0.100 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Spatial orientation 0.100 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.100 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Sternberg 0.100 No
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Sternberg 0.104 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Code substitution 0.110 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Grammatical reasoning 0.110 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Mathematical processing 0.110 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Pattern discrimination 0.110 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Spatial orientation 0.110 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Sternberg 0.110 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.117 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.117 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.117 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.117 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.139 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.139 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.139 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.139 Yes
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Sternberg 0.142 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Code substitution 0.160 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Grammatical reasoning 0.160 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Mathematical processing 0.160 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Pattern discrimination 0.160 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Spatial orientation 0.160 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Sternberg 0.160 Yes


TABLE A 9

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Mangold et al. 1996 Body balance 0.011 No
Mangold et al. 1996 Body balance 0.014 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Circular lights 0.014 Yes
Perrine 1994 Diving 0.017 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Body balance 0.018 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Body balance 0.021 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Body balance 0.026 No
Price & Flax 1982 Drill press operation 0.028 No
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Body sway 0.030 Yes
Mangold et al. 1996 Body balance 0.036 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Circular lights 0.036 Yes
van Steveninck et al. 1993 Body balance 0.038 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Body balance 0.040 No
Mongrain 1989 Simulated raquetball 0.040 No
Perrine 1994 Diving 0.040 Yes
Schuckit 1985 Body sway 0.040 Yes
Cohen et al. 1987 Body balance 0.043 No
Mangold et al. 1996 Body balance 0.043 Yes
Cohen et al. 1987 Body balance 0.044 Yes
Price et al. 1986 Electronics assembly task 0.049 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Body sway 0.050 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Finger tapping, hand steadiness 0.050 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Body balance 0.050 No
Tianwo et al. 1995 Body balance 0.053 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Finger tapping, hand steadiness, body sway 0.058 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Finger tapping 0.060 Yes
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Body balance 0.060 No
Maylor & Rabbitt 1987 Video game 0.061 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Body sway 0.062 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Finger tapping, hand steadiness 0.062 No
Mills & Bisgrove 1983 Body sway 0.062 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Circular lights 0.062 Yes
Price & Flax 1982 Drill press operation 0.062 Yes
Price et al. 1986 Electronics assembly task 0.069 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Body sway 0.070 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Finger tapping, hand steadiness 0.070 No
Perrine 1994 Diving 0.071 Yes
Laberg & Löberg 1989 Hand steadiness and coordination 0.073 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Body sway 0.075 No
Lukas et al. 1989 Finger tapping, hand steadiness 0.075 No
Mattila et al. 1992 Body balance 0.076 Yes
Azcona et al. 1995 Finger tapping 0.078 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Body balance 0.079 No
Lukas et al. 1989 Body sway 0.080 Yes
Lukas et al. 1989 Finger tapping, hand steadiness 0.080 No
Schuckit 1985 Body sway 0.081 Yes
Price & Flax 1982 Drill press operation 0.092 Yes
Price et al. 1986 Electronics assembly task 0.093 Yes
Pickworth et al. 1997 Circular lights 0.096 Yes
Perrine 1994 Diving 0.097 No
Perrine 1994 Diving 0.100 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Finger tapping 0.110 Yes
Pickworth et al 1997 Circular lights 0.117 Yes
Mongrain 1989 Simulated raquetball 0.120 No
Perrine 1994 Diving 0.123 Yes
Pickworth et al 1997 Circular lights 0.139 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Finger tapping 0.160 Yes


TABLE A 10

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR CHOICE RT

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Millar et al. 1992 RT to 1 of 5 circles 0.014 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Report wich of 6 lights turned on and off 0.020 No
MacArthur & Sekuler 1982 Choice RT 0.020 No
MacArthur & Sekuler 1982 Choice RT 0.020 Yes
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Estinguish 1 of 6 lights 0.027 No
Maylor et all. 1987 Choice RT to video characters 0.029 No
Jääskeläinen et al. 1995 RT to auditory stimuli 0.030 No
Millar et al. 1992 RT to 1 or 5 circles 0.030 No
Colrain at al. 1993 RT to presence of vertical check pattern 0.032 Yes
Finnigan et al. 1995 Report changes in 1 of 5 circles 0.040 No
Gengo et al. 1990 Report wich of 6 lights turned on and off 0.040 Yes
Colrain at al. 1993 RT to presence of vertical check pattern 0.043 Yes
Antebi 1982 Choice RT 0.045 Yes
Vermeeren & O'Hanlon 1998 Choice RT with distracting cues 0.045 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Report wich of 6 lights turned on and off 0.052 No
Finnigan et al. 1995 Report changes in 1 of 5 circles 0.056 No
Jääskeläinen et al. 1995 RT to auditory stimuli 0.060 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Four-choice RT 0.060 Yes
MacArthur & Sekuler 1982 Choice RT 0.060 No
MacArthur & Sekuler 1982 Choice RT 0.060 Yes
Millar et al. 1992 RT to 1 or 5 circles 0.060 No
Jääskeläinen et al. 1996 Choice RT with auditory distraction 0.062 Yes
Finnigan et al. 1995 Report changes in 1 of 5 circles 0.063 No
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Estinguish 1 of 6 lights 0.066 Yes
Maylor et al. 1992 2-, 4-, or 8-choice RT 0.067 Yes
Colrain at al. 1993 RT to presence of vertical check pattern 0.068 Yes
Mulvihill et al. 1996 Choice RT with inhibitory control 0.073 Yes
Finnigan et al. 1995 Report changes in 1 of 5 circles 0.075 Yes
Collins et al 1987 RT to onset of one of 5 lights 0.077 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Report wich of 6 lights turned on and off 0.078 Yes
Colrain at al. 1993 RT to presence of vertical check pattern 0.096 Yes
Hindmarch et al 1992 Report wich of 6 lights turned on and off 0.100 Yes
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Estinguish 1 of 6 lights 0.104 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Four-choice RT 0.110 Yes
Maylor et all. 1987 RT to video characters 0.130 Yes
Hindmarch et al. 1991 Estinguish 1 of 6 lights 0.142 Yes
Kennedy et al 1993 Four-choice RT 0.160 Yes


TABLE A 11

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR SIMPLE RT

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Heishman et al. 1997 Simple RT 0.005 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Respond to onset of visual clock 0.018 No
Heishman et al. 1997 Simple RT 0.025 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.025 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.030 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Respond to onset of visual clock 0.043 Yes
Cohen et al. 1987 Respond to onset of visual clock 0.044 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.047 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.050 No
Baker 1985 RT to auditory or visual stimulus 0.055 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.055 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.060 Yes
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.065 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.070 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.075 Yes
Azcona et al 1995 Respond to single stimulus onset 0.078 Yes
Heishman et al. 1997 Simple RT 0.080 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.090 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.095 No
Wang et al. 1992 Respond to light onset 0.100 Yes


TABLE A 12

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR CFF

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Millar et al. 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.014 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.020 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Critical flicker fusion 0.021 No
Hindmarch 1991 Critical flicker fusion 0.027 No
Millar et al. 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.030 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Critical flicker fusion 0.040 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.052 No
Jansen et al. 1985 Critical flicker fusion 0.054 No
Baker 1985 Critical flicker fusion 0.055 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Critical flicker fusion 0.060 No
Millar et al. 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.060 No
Hindmarch 1991 Critical flicker fusion 0.066 No
Azcona et al. 1995 Critical flicker fusion 0.078 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.078 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Critical flicker fusion 0.079 No
Hindmarch et al 1992 Critical flicker fusion 0.100 Yes
Hindmarch 1991 Critical flicker fusion 0.104 Yes
Hindmarch 1991 Critical flicker fusion 0.142 Yes


TABLE A 13

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR AFTEREFFECTS

Author Year Experimental Task BAC Impairment
Cohen at al. 1987 Adaptive tracking 0.000 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Body balance 0.000 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Eye movements 0.000 No
Cohen et al. 1987 Simple visual RT 0.000 No
Kennedy et al 1993 Delta 0.000 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Body balance 0.000 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Coordination of extraocular muscles 0.000 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Critical flicker fusion 0.000 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Digit-symbol substitution 0.000 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Symbol copying 0.000 No
Kuitunen et al. 1990 Tracking error severity index 0.000 No
Morrow et al. 1990 Flight simulator (severe altitude errors, summary score) 0.000 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Card sorting 0.000 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Circular lights 0.000 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Digit-symbol substitution 0.000 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Letter search 0.000 No
Pickworth et al. 1997 Serial addition/subtraction 0.000 No
Roehrs et al 1994b Divided attention task 0.000 No
Roehrs et al 1994b MSLT 0.000 Yes
Roehrs et al. 1989 MSLT 0.000 Yes
Ross & Mughni 1995 Detection of angular motion 0.000 Yes
Taylor et al. 1994 Flight simulator 0.000 Yes
Taylor et al. 1996 Flight simulator 0.000 No
Yesavage et al. 1986 Flight simulator 0.000 Yes
Yesavage et al. 1994 Flight simulator 0.000 Yes


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