1998 SURVEY RESULTS

CHAPTER 3

1998 CAR SEAT USE

 

Parent/Caregiver Subgroup

The survey selected a subgroup of drivers to ask detailed questions about children's use of car seats. These drivers were considered most likely to have significant responsibility for transporting young children (“parents/caregivers”). The respondents were chosen for questioning if they fell into one of the following categories:

The interviewers asked respondents to focus on one specific child for the questions. If there was more than one child under age 6 in the household, one child was randomly selected. Priority, however, was given to selecting from the respondent's own children if other young children were also living in the household. Respondents were asked about car seat use with the selected child. This procedure yields a national sample of drivers for whom car seat usage issues would be most applicable.

 

Reported Frequency of Car Seat Use

Interviewers asked the above driver subgroup how frequently the selected child uses a car seat when riding with them. Responses to this question are to be interpreted with caution, as car seats may not be appropriate for larger children under age 6. The safety restraint system used should be the one appropriate for the child's size and development. Children should ride rear facing until at least 20 pounds and one year of age. Children who reach 20 pounds before one year of age should ride rear facing in a child safety seat approved at a higher weight. Keeping a child rear facing as long as possible helps protect the fragile baby from spinal cord injuries (i.e., the back of the car seat supports infants' head, neck and back and prevents spinal cord injuries in a frontal crash).

Past the first year of age, children weighing about 20 to 40 pounds should ride facing forward in convertible seats or harness systems. Children who have outgrown their convertible seats or harnesses should ride in booster seats until adult belts fit them properly. Older children may wear vehicle seat belts when the lap belt stays low and snug across the hips without riding up over the stomach, and the shoulder belt does not cross the face or neck.

Almost all members of the parent/caregiver subgroup reported that the selected child used a car seat either “all of the time” (71%) or “never” (22%). Only 6% said that the child was a car seat user, but not all the time. If the child never used a car seat, it usually was because the child reportedly had graduated to seat belt use (see page 68).

Figure 23  

Figure 23. Frequency Child Under 6 Rides In Car Seat 

Qx: When you are driving and (AGE) rides in the vehicle with you, how often does (he/she) ride in a child car seat? Child car seats include infant seats, toddler seats and booster seats. Would you say (he/she) rides in a child car seat all of the time, most of the time, some of the time, rarely, or never?
Base: Parents/caregivers as defined on page 28.
Unweighted N=754

 

Virtually all parents/caregivers (99%) said the selected child always used a car seat when riding with them if the identified child weighed less than 20 pounds. The finding was similar (95%) when the selected child weighed from 20 to 29 pounds. The percentage then declined to 76% for children weighing 30 to 39 pounds, and to 38% for children under age 6 who weighed 40 pounds or more.

Figure 24  

Figure 24. ?All The Time? Car Seat Use By Child's Weight (Children Under Age 6)

Qx: How much does (he/she) weigh?
Qx: When you are driving and (AGE) rides in the vehicle with you, how often does (he/she) ride in a child car seat? Child car seats include infant seats, toddler seats and booster seats. Would you say (he/she) rides in a child car seat all of the time, most of the time, some of the time, rarely, or never?
Base: Parents/caregivers as defined on page 28.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

The data summarized in Figure 25 suggests that discontinuation of car seat use by most children occurred when the child was 3 or 4 years old. More than 9-out-of-10 children age 2 or younger reportedly used car seats all of the time. The percentage then declined to 80% for 3-year-olds, and to 46% for 4-year-olds. At 5 years of age car seat use was a relative rarity as only 22% of parents/caregivers reported that the child used a car seat all of the time when riding with them.

Figure 25  

Figure 25. ?All The Time? Car Seat Use By Child's Age (Children Under Age 6)

Qx: What is the age of the (CHILD)?
Qx: When you are driving and (AGE) rides in the vehicle with you, how often does (he/she) ride in a child car seat? Child car seats include infant seats, toddler seats and booster seats. Would you say (he/she) rides in a child car seat all of the time, most of the time, some of the time, rarely, or never?
Base: Parents/caregivers as defined on page 28.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Research on adult seat belt use has found that some drivers will report wearing seat belts “all the time” but admit on a follow-up question that they did not use their seat belt recently. In 1998, 10% of drivers who said they used their seat belt “all the time” later stated that they had not worn their seat belt in the past day or week (see Volume 2 of this series: Seat Belt Report). Figure 26 examines whether this discrepancy also occurs for reported car seat use. Among drivers who said that the child always used a car seat when riding with them, 4% also said the child had not ridden in a car seat at least once in the past day or week when the respondent was driving the child.

Figure 26  

Figure 26. Last Time Child Didn't Use Car Seat: Drivers Who Said Child Uses Seat ?All The Time?

Qx: When you are driving and (AGE) rides in the vehicle with you, how often does (he/she) ride in a child car seat? Child car seats include infant seats, toddler seats and booster seats. Would you say (he/she) rides in a child car seat . . .
Qx: When was the last time (he/she) did not ride in a child car seat when you were driving?
Qx: [If “don't know] Has there been any occasion in the past 12 months when (he/she) did not ride in a car seat when you were driving?
Base: Drivers who said the child uses a car seat “all the time” when they drive.
Unweighted N=544

 

Type and Location of Car Seat

Parents/caregivers who reported car seat use for the designated child were asked to identify the type of seat and how it was being used. From the information provided, the survey determined that 25% were using booster seats (based on responses to questions asking strap locations on the child; readers are cautioned that some respondents may have made errors in reporting this). Of the remainder, 60% were operating in a front-facing (toddler) position, 14% in a rear-facing (infant) position, and 1% did not provide information from which the car seat could be determined.

Figure 27  

Figure 27. Type Of Child Car Seat

Qx: When (he/she) is fastened in the child car seat, are there straps over both shoulders, a strap across only one shoulder, or are there no straps over either shoulder?
Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) is riding in the child car seat, is it usually front facing or rear facing?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585

 

Infants who have not reached their first birthday should always ride in a rear facing position in a car seat regardless of the child's size. Most infants who used car seats (58%) did indeed ride in a rear facing position. But about one-third (32%) rode in a front facing position in a toddler seat, with another 10% in booster seats. Front facing toddler seats predominated among one-year-olds (87%) and two-year-olds (78%). Booster seats accounted for 18% of car seat users among two-year-olds, then more than doubled to 39% at age 3. Booster seats increased as a percentage of car seat users at ages 4 and 5, though far fewer children rode in car seats at those ages.

Figure 28  

Figure 28. Type Of Child Car Seat By Child's Age

Qx: When (he/she) is fastened in the child car seat, are there straps over both shoulders, a strap across only one shoulder, or are there no straps over either shoulder?
Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) is riding in the child car seat, is it usually front facing or rear facing?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted Ns listed above.

 

Slightly more than two-thirds (69%) of children weighing less than 20 pounds rode in a rear facing position. A portion (14%) appeared to be using booster seats although, as mentioned earlier, at least some respondents may have made mistakes in describing the seat. Others (17%) provided information suggesting that the child usually rode front facing in a toddler seat. Front facing toddler seats predominated at 20 to 39 pounds. Past 40 pounds, there was a relatively close split between children in booster seats (the majority) and those in front facing toddler seats. Readers are cautioned that some respondents may have been guessing at children's weights.

Figure 29  

Figure 29. Type Of Child Car Seat By Child's Weight

Qx: When (he/she) is fastened in the child car seat, are there straps over both shoulders, a strap across only one shoulder, or are there no straps over either shoulder?
Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) is riding in the child car seat, is it usually front facing or rear facing?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted Ns listed above.

 

Children should ride rear facing until at least 20 pounds and one year of age. Children who reach 20 pounds before one year of age should ride rear facing in a child safety seat approved at a higher weight. Keeping a child rear facing as long as possible helps protect the fragile baby from spinal cord injuries. Figure 30 uses the above criteria to identify what percentage of children who should be riding rear facing (those not yet one year old; those not yet 20 pounds) actually were doing so. While most (57%) were riding in the correct rear facing position, many (43%) were not.

Figure 30  

Figure 30. Car Seat Position Of Children Who Should Be Riding Rear Facin

Qx: When (he/she) is fastened in the child car seat, are there straps over both shoulders, a strap across only one shoulder, or are there no straps over either shoulder?
Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) is riding in the child car seat, is it usually front facing or rear facing?
Base: Child under 1 year of age, and children under 20 pounds.
Unweighted N=125.

 

Some car seats are reversible, where they can be used in both a front facing and a rear facing position. Thus the same seat could be used for a child who has grown from infant (rear facing) to toddler (front facing), or could revert back to a rear facing position for an infant when an older child has outgrown the seat, or could be used for both infants and toddlers if the driver interacts with children of multiple ages. In cases where the car seat was not a booster seat, almost half of parents/caregivers (46%) reported that the seat was reversible. Among infants riding in a rear facing position, 44% were known to be using a reversible seat.

Figure 31  

Figure 31. Whether Car Seat Is Reversible

Qx: Can the seat be used in a front facing position only, a rear facing position only, or can it be used in either position?
Base: Child uses a car seat that is not a booster seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

As noted in Chapter 1, the safest seating position for a child in a motor vehicle is the back seat. The vast majority of parents/caregivers (90%) stated that the child usually sat in the back when riding in a car seat in a vehicle they were driving, typically behind the front passenger (39%) or in the middle of the back seat (36%). Nine percent reported that the car seat was usually placed in the front.

Figure 32  

Figure 32. Placement Of Child's Car Seat

Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) rides in the child car seat, is it usually in the front seat or the back seat?
Qx: Is the child car seat usually behind the driver, behind the passenger, or in the middle of the back seat?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

The dominant location for placement of the child car seat was the back seat of the vehicle regardless of whether the child was riding in a rear-facing infant seat (89%), a front-facing toddler seat (92%), or a booster seat (86%).

Figure 33  

Figure 33. Placement Of Child's Car Seat By Type Of Car Seat

Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) rides in the child car seat, is it usually in the front seat or the back seat?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Proportionally fewer parents/caregivers permitted the child car seat to be placed in the front if there was an air bag installed for the front passenger side. If there was no air bag in the respondent's primary vehicle, then 14% of the parents/caregivers said that the child seat was usually in the front. If the primary vehicle had an air bag for the front passenger side, then 4% said the car seat was usually in the front. If the primary vehicle had an air bag for the driver side but not the front passenger, then the percentage fell between the two figures at 9%.

Figure 34  

Figure 34. Placement Of Child's Car Seat By Presence Of Air Bag In Primary Vehicle

Qx: Does the (car/truck/van) you normally drive have an air bag?
Qx: Is the air bag for the driver only, or is there also a passenger side air bag?
Qx: When you are driving and (he/she) rides in the child car seat, is it usually in the front seat or the back seat?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Where Parents/Caregivers Believe It Is Safest To Place A Child Car Seat

Almost all parents/caregivers (98%) considered the back seat the safest location to place a child car seat in a vehicle. One percent incorrectly believed that the front seat was safest, while somewhat fewer answered that it depended on the type of child car seat or else that they did not know (less than 0.5% each). The 1% who thought the front seat was safest contrasts with the 9% who said that the child car seat was usually in the front seat when they drove (see page 38).

Figure 35  

Figure 35. Where It Is Safest To Place A Child Car Seat In The Vehicle

Qx: Where would you say it is safest to place a child car seat in the vehicle . . . in the front seat or in the back seat?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585

 

Child Car Seats That Face Forward In Vehicles With Air Bags

Parents/caregivers were asked if they thought it was safe to place a rear-facing car seat in the front seat of a vehicle having a front passenger air bag. The correct answer is no, because it could place the child in the air bag's path, with the force of impact being too great for the child. Most parents/caregivers (92%) said it was unsafe while 4% considered it safe. Another 4% responded either that they did not know how air bags worked (0.6%) or that they did not know the answer to the question (3.8%).

Figure 36  

Figure 36. Safety Of Child In Front Seat With Passenger Side Air Bag When Car Seat Is Rear Facing

Qx: Some child car seats are designed so that the child faces backward to the rear of the motor vehicle. Suppose a child is riding in a child car seat facing backward. If the vehicle has a passenger side air bag, is it safe or unsafe to have the child car seat in the front seat?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585

 

Acquisition of Car Seat

Most car seats (85%) were obtained new. About one-in-seven (14%) were acquired used. The remainder of the sample could not say whether the seat was acquired new or used, or else refused to respond (1%).

Figure 37  

Figure 37. Whether Car Seat Was New Or Used When Acquired

Qx: Now thinking again about the child car seat the (AGE) usually rides in, did you get the child car seat new or used?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585

 

More than two-thirds of car seats (68%) were purchased, while 27% were acquired as a gift or loaner from a relative or friend. Another 1% obtained the car seat from a loaner program. If purchased, the car seat most often was bought from a retail store (92%).

Figure 38  

Figure 38. Where And How Obtained Child's Car Seat

Qx: Did you purchase the child car seat, did you get it as a gift or loaner from a relative or friend, or did you get it from a loaner program?
Qx: Where did you purchase it from?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Almost one-third (31%) of parents/caregivers who said that they received the seat as a gift or loaner from a relative or friend also answered that the seat was obtained used. This is a safety issue as used car seats may contain hidden damage that weaken them; for example, damage sustained from having previously been involved in a crash.

Figure 39  

Figure 39. Whether Car Seat Obtained New Or Used: Seat Received As Gift Or Loaner From Relative/Friend

Qx: Now thinking again about the child car seat the (AGE) usually rides in, did you get the child car seat new or used?
Qx: Did you purchase the child car seat, did you get it as a gift or loaner from a relative or friend, or did you get it from a loaner program?
Base: Obtained the car seat as a gift or loaner from a relative or friend.
Unweighted N=154

 

Sources For Information On Car Seats

The interviewers asked the parents/caregivers of children using car seats where they had gotten their information on car seats. Six potential information sources were read, one at a time, to respondents. The respondents were asked whether they had ever read or heard of any information, or received any advice, about the need to use child car seats from that source. The respondents were then given the opportunity to volunteer additional sources where they had received car seat information. Most often, the parents/caregivers said that they had obtained information on child car seats from tv or radio (65%), or from books or articles on child care (61%).

Figure 40  

Figure 40. Sources For Information On Child Car Seats

Qx: Did you ever read or hear of any information or receive any advice about the need to use child car seats from any of the following sources? Did you get any information from . .?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585

 

Ease Of Use

Parents and caregivers reported that they had relatively little difficulty installing their children's car seats regardless of the type of seat. Overall, seven out of ten respondents (71%) said it was very easy to attach the car seat to the vehicle they usually drove. An additional 23% considered it somewhat easy.

Figure 41  

Figure 41. Ease Of Attaching Car Seat To Vehicle

Qx: How easy is it for you to attach the child car seat to the vehicle you usually drive . . . very easy, somewhat easy, or not easy at all?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat, and the car seat did not come attached to the vehicle.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Those respondents who said that it was only somewhat easy to attach the seat to the vehicle, or not easy at all, were asked what was difficult about attaching the seat. Most often (38%) they answered that the problem was fitting the seat belt through the car seat hole or loop. 

TABLE 3
What Is Difficult About Attaching Car Seat To Vehicle

Qx: What is difficult about attaching the child car seat to the vehicle?
Base: Said it was somewhat easy, or not easy at all, to attach the car seat to the vehicle.
Unweighted N=172

Obstacle
Percent
Fitting the seat belt through the car seat hole/loop
38%
Hooking it/attaching to the seat belt (or buckle)
25%
Adjusting seat belt/making sure it's tight enough
22%
Any other adjustment mention
1%
Any other attachment mention
3%
Any other miscellaneous mention
9%
Don't know/Refused/No Answer
10%

*Total exceeds 100% due to multiple responses.

 

Besides asking how easy it was to attach the car seat to the vehicle, the interviewers also asked the respondents how confident they were that the seat was securely attached. Most (78%) said they were very confident, with the type of seat making little difference in the response.

Figure 42  

Figure 42. Level Of Confidence That Car Seat Is Securely Attached To The Vehicle

Qx: How confident are you that the car seat is securely attached to the vehicle that you usually drive? Are you usually very confident, fairly confident, or not too confident?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat, and the car seat did not come attached to the vehicle.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

The results presented on the previous pages suggest that parents and other caregivers generally believe that they are installing child car seats correctly. However, observations in the field have shown some form of car seat misuse for the vast majority of children in car seats, in the form of installation and/or buckling errors. To assess the misuse issue more fully, the interviewers asked the respondents if they had ever driven with the child in the car seat and later found that the car seat was not securely attached. One-quarter (25%) said “yes” while 75% said “no.”

Figure 43  

Figure 43. Driven With Child In Car Seat And Found Car Seat Was Not Securely Attached

Qx: Have you ever driven with the child in the car seat and later found that the car seat was not securely attached?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585

 

Those respondents who acknowledged driving with the child and later discovering that the car seat was not securely attached were asked why this happened. The responses tended to revolve around rushed behavior or carelessness, unexplained attachment difficulties, children's behavior, or movement of the seat within the vehicle or to another vehicle. 

TABLE 4
Reasons Why Car Seat Was Not Securely Attached

Qx: Why did this happen?
Base: Drove with child and later found that car seat was not securely attached.
Unweighted N=159

Reason
Percentage
Child Seat Attachment

Came undone/got unfastened/came loose 

Difficult to attach tightly enough/car's seat belt can't be tightened adequately 

Didn't understand how to attach/install it properly 

All other child seat attachment mentions

35%

16% 

10% 

9% 

1%

Child's Movement/Behavior

Older child loosened baby's car seat accidentally 

Child unbuckled seat belt 

Child knows how to unbuckle/undo seat belt him/herself

22%

8% 

8% 

6%

Miscellaneous

Forgot/wasn't paying attention/carelessness 

In a hurry/pressed for time/got busy 

Moved car seat between cars/within same car 

I made a mistake/I screwed up 

Car seat was defective 

Vehicle movement unfastened seat belt 

All other miscellaneous mentions

42%

19% 

8% 

8% 

5% 

3% 

2% 

4%

Don't know/Refused/No answer
9%

*Total exceeds 100% due to multiple responses.

 

Most often, the respondents said that they learned how to attach the child car seat to the vehicle by reading the instructions (75%). About one-in-six (16%) figured it out themselves and 8% had a friend or relative show them.

Figure 44  

Figure 44. How Learned To Attach Car Seat To Vehicle

Qx: How did you learn to attach the child car seat to the vehicle?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N=585
*Total exceeds 100% due to multiple responses.

 

Since the instructions were the predominant source for learning how to attach the car seat to the vehicle, it is useful to assess whether the public finds them understandable. Those respondents who did not state that they had learned to install the seat from reading the instructions, and also did not have a car seat that came attached to the vehicle, were asked if they had read the instructions. More than half (53%) said they had. Thus a segment of respondents read the car seat instructions but did not consider them to be their source for learning to attach the seat.

In total, 88% of parents/caregivers had read the car seat instructions. Of these, 70% said the instructions were very easy to understand; 24% said they were somewhat easy. Among those who said they did not read the instructions, 51% conceded that the instructions were available.

Figure 45  

Figure 45. How Easy Or Difficult The Car Seat Instructions Were To Understand

Qx: How easy or difficult were the instructions to understand? Would you say that the instructions were very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult to understand?
Base: Read the child car seat instructions.
Unweighted N=521

 

As with installing the car seat in the vehicle, most caregivers considered it easy to properly buckle the child into the car seat. Almost all parents/caregivers answered either that it was very easy (74%) or somewhat easy (23%). The percentage who considered it very easy was about the same across type of seat.

Figure 46  

Figure 46. Ease Of Buckling Child In Car Seat

Qx: How easy is it for you to properly buckle your child into the child car seat?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Those respondents who said that it was only somewhat easy to buckle the child in, or not easy at all, were asked what was difficult about it. Most often they said it was difficult to buckle the belt (23%), adjust the straps (23%), or deal with an overly active child (19%). 

TABLE 5
What Is Difficult About Buckling Child Into Car Seat

Qx: What is difficult about buckling your child into the child car seat?
Base: Said it was somewhat easy, or not easy at all, to properly buckle child into the child car seat.
Unweighted N=148

Obstacle
Percent
Child Seat Attachment

Adjusting shoulder straps to fit properly/tightness of seat belt. 

Hard to snap buckle/seat belt. 

Buckle hits the child in the head/can't get it over the head. 

Any other adjustment mention 

Any other child seat attachment mention

56%

23% 

23% 

5% 

4% 

5%

Child Movement/Behavior

Child doesn't sit still/down. 

Child doesn't like car seat. 

Any other child movement/behavior mentions

26%

19% 

5% 

4%

Any other miscellaneous mentions.
13%
Don't know/refused/no answer.
10%

*Total exceeds 100% due to multiple responses.

 

Nearly all parents/caregivers felt either very confident (88%) or fairly confident (11%) that their child was properly buckled into the car seat. Once again there was little difference across type of seat.

Figure 47  

Figure 47. Level Of Confidence That Child Is Properly Buckled In Car Sea

Qx: How confident are you that the child is properly buckled into the seat. Are you usually very confident, fairly confident, or not too confident?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Children Getting Out Of Car Seats

Almost one-in-five parents/caregivers (19%) reported that the child had gotten out of the car seat while riding with them. As expected, this occurred most often among older children who were riding in booster seats (34%).

Figure 48  

Figure 48. Child Has Gotten Out Of Car Seat While Riding With Respondent

Qx: Has the (AGE) ever gotten himself/herself out of that child car seat when riding with you?
Base: Child at least on occasion rides in a child car seat.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

Frequency That Persons Outside Household Drive Child Who Uses Car Seat

Parents/caregivers of children who at least on occasion used car seats were asked if the child had ridden in a vehicle in the past 30 days where someone outside of the household was driving. Figure 49 restricts the analysis only to those parents/caregivers who lived with the child. More than two-out-of-five (44%) answered that this had occurred.

Figure 49  

Figure 49. Child Had Ridden In Vehicle Driven By Someone Outside Household In Past Month

Qx: During the past thirty days, has your (AGE) ridden in a vehicle where someone outside of your household was driving (includes school buses, taxis, and other private vehicles)?
Base: Child at least on occasion uses a car seat, and parent/caregiver lives with the child.
Unweighted N=564.

 

Figure 50 compares the frequency that the selected children were driven by persons outside the household to the frequency that the same children were driven by the responding parents/ caregivers (this analysis again was restricted to parents/caregivers who lived in the same household as the child). As expected, the children were transported on a far less regular basis by the non-household members, which is consistent with the findings in Chapter 2 (see page 23). For example, 59% of parents/caregivers said they drove the child 20 or more days in the past 30, whereas only 7% said the child was driven by a non-household member that number of days.

Figure 50  

Figure 50. Frequency Child Was Driven By Respondent Vs. Person Outside Household In Past 30 Days

Qx: How many days out of the past thirty days did your (AGE) ride in a vehicle that you drove?
Qx: How many days out of the past thirty days did this child ride in a vehicle driven by someone outside of your household?
Base: Child at least on occasion uses a car seat, and parent/caregiver lives with the child.
Unweighted N's listed above.

 

When asked the identity of the driver outside the household who transported the child in the past 30 days, the parents/caregivers most often answered that it was a grandparent (37%) or a parent/step-parent (37%). Fewer than half as many reported that it was a brother/sister (2%) or some “other relative”(16%). The relatively high percentage for parents/step-parents when looking from the vantage point of the child contrasts with the low percentage obtained from the vantage point of the outside driver (see page 24). At least part of the difference may reflect aspects of custody arrangements and related perceptions. The differing time frames specified in the two questions (past month versus past year) may also be playing a role.

Figure 51  

Figure 51. Identity Of Driver Outside Household Who Drove Child In Past Month

Qx: Who were those drivers? (What is their relationship to the child?)
Base: Child at least on occasion uses a car seat, parent/caregiver lives with the child, and someone outside the household drove the child in the past 30 days.
Unweighted N=262

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