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Behaviors and Attitudes

Resources

NHTSA studies behaviors and attitudes in highway safety, focusing on drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and motorcyclists. We identify and measure behaviors involved in crashes or associated with injuries, and develop and refine countermeasures to deter unsafe behaviors and promote safe alternatives.

Our recently published reports are listed chronologically below. To the right are additional resources including Behavioral Research Notes and Traffic Techs.



138 Results
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State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes – Traffic Tech

This Traffic Tech briefly summarizes a larger report, State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes, which gathered information and insight into law enforcement implementation and use of automatic license plate readers (ALPRs) for traffic safety purposes, with emphasis detecting drivers with revoked, suspended, or restricted licenses. Evidence gleaned from the case studies provides additional indicators to support the effectiveness of ALPR for traffic safety purposes—when viewed in terms of efficiency and productivity gains as well as improvements in traffic safety by culling vehicles that are more prone to crash risk.

Indirect Effects of School Bus Seat Belt Installation - Traffic Tech

This Traffic Tech briefly summarizes a full NHTSA report on the indirect effects of seat belt installation on school buses, based on a study of school districts in 12 States, as well as a literature review and program scan.

Examination of Three Districts Implementing Stop Arm Camera Programs to Enforce Laws Against Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses - Traffic Tech

This Traffic Tech briefly describes a literature review and a detailed examination of stop arm camera program implementation in three school districts. The districts offered their experiences with legislation, reactions and experiences of their bus drivers, efforts to educate and inform the public, cooperation with law enforcement, successes and challenges in issuing citations and penalties, and lessons learned. This study also analyzed camera vendor supplied citation data previously gathered from an additional 34 school districts.

Evaluation of On-Site Oral Fluid Drug Screening Technology

Oral fluid (saliva) has become popular for drug detection in criminal justice, workplace, and impaired-driving populations. The advantages compared to blood and urine include a noninvasive procedure with minimal potential for adulteration. They can be collected at the time of driving and/or arrest, allowing for better correlation between signs and symptoms of impairment compared to drugs detected in a biological sample collected later. Several point-of-contact oral fluid collection devices have been developed and marketed for use in the field without any controlled assessment to evaluate their applicability and quality. This report evaluates the latest generation to assess their accuracy, reliability and performance. Five devices, the Dräger DrugTest® 5000 (DDT5000), Dräger DrugCheck 3000 (DDC3000), Securetec DrugWipe S 5-Panel (DrugWipe), the Alere DDS 2 Mobile System (DDS2), and the AquilaScan Oral Fluids Testing Detection System were chosen. Testing and cutoff concentrations were based on two important previous studies, the Roadside Testing Assessment, which recommended greater than greater than 90% sensitivity and specificity and greater than 95 percent% accuracy, and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines method, which recommended greater than 80% percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Indirect Effects of School Bus Seat Belt Installation

The project is a synthesis of the research findings, a literature review, and program scan summarizing data on the indirect effects of seat belts on school buses. Findings also include anecdotal observations from bus drivers and school district officials obtained from a concurrent NHTSA report, Education on Proper Use of Seat Belts on School Buses (Report No. DOT HS 812 999). Overall, findings indicate seat belt use is associated with improved student behavior and reduced bus driver distraction. Seat belt use is higher when required-use policies are in place, and that seat belt use is heavily reliant on the efforts of the bus drivers. A more-detailed study focusing on the indirect benefits experienced by a sample of school jurisdictions would better quantify the potential outcomes of school bus seat belts.

Examination of Three Districts Implementing Stop Arm Camera Programs to Enforce Laws Against Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses

This study included a literature review of stop-arm camera implementations in the United States; a detailed examination of stop-arm camera implementation in three school districts; and an analysis of previously collected camera-enforcement data from an additional 33 districts obtained from a camera vendor. The three districts in the study provided information about their experiences in implementing photo enforcement, including their experiences with legislation; reactions and experiences of their bus drivers; efforts to educate and inform the public; cooperation with law enforcement; successes and challenges in issuing citations and penalties; and lessons learned.

A Guide to Implementing Child Passenger Safety Inspection Stations

Brief Description:  Child passenger safety (CPS) inspection stations (also known as “car seat check locations” or “fitting stations”) and child passenger safety technicians (CPSTs) have been conducting child safety seat inspections for over 20 years. In 1997 NHTSA’s national training program to certify CPSTs and instructors was implemented. This guide is intended to define a CPS inspection station, examine the need for permanent CPS inspection stations, address the importance of building community support for CPS inspection stations, discuss the key elements of a successful CPS inspection station, and identify resources for implementing and maintaining CPS inspection stations.

High Visibility Enforcement and Seat Belt Use

High-visibility enforcement (HVE) is a traffic safety approach designed to deter unlawful behaviors and promote voluntary behavior change in accordance with traffic laws. HVE deters risky behavior by reminding motorists through communications and additional enforcement that they may be pulled over for illegal behaviors. Over the past two decades, traffic safety programs have used and evaluated HVE efforts to change many risky behaviors. This Traffic Tech summarizes evaluations of HVE effectiveness for seat belt use.

Update to Special Report on Traffic Safety During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: Third Quarter Data, Research Note, Traffic Safety Facts

This is an update to NHTSA's recent Special Reports examining traffic safety trends during the COVID public health emergency.

Education on Proper Use of Seat Belts on School Buses

NHTSA sponsored this project to understand how school districts that purchase large school buses with seat belts can maximize their effectiveness and benefit by improving proper usage. The project obtained observational data on the impact of seat belts on student behavior on buses and on bus driver distraction. It examined how policies were carried out by school bus drivers, and consequences for non-compliance. In general, the most important factors were training, education, and enforcement. Most survey respondents said seat belts on school buses contributed to calmer and less distracted environments for school bus drivers.

For Access to older content please go to our archived Research page.