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82 Fed. Reg. 52052 (November 9, 2017), Evaluating Drug Effects on the Ability to Operate a Motor Vehicle: Guidance for Industry: Food and Drug Administration.

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (2014). 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index.

Alcohol Epidemiology Program. (2000). Alcohol policies in the United States: Highlights from the 50 States. Minneapolis, MI: University of Minnesota, School of Public Health.

Alvarez, J., de Gier, H., Mercier-Guyon, C., & Verstraete, A.  (2007, June 26). Categorization system for medicinal drugs affecting driving performance [Report of the ICADTS Working Group]. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety

American Geriatrics Society & A. Pomidor, Ed. (2016, January). Clinician’s guide to assessing and counseling older drivers, 3rd edition (Report No. DOT HS 812 228). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Baird, J., Nirenberg, T. D., Longabaugh, R., & Mello, M. J. (2013). The effect of group-adapted motivational interviewing on traffic convictions and driving behaviors of court-adjudicated youth. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14, 572-577.

Berning, A., & Smither, D. D. (2014, November). Understanding the limitations of drug test information, reporting, and testing practices in fatal crashes (Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. DOT HS 812 072). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Boddie, A., & O’Brien, A. (2018, March). 2016 digest of State laws: Driving under the influence of drugs. First edition (Report No. DOT HS 812 468). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Botvin, G. J., & Griffin, K. W. (2007). School-based programmes to prevent alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. International Review of Psychiatry19(6), 607-615.

Byrne, P. A., Ma, T., & Elzohairy, Y. (2016). Vehicle impoundments improve drinking and driving licence suspension outcomes: Large-scale evidence from Ontario. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 95, 125–131.

Century Council. (2008). Hardcore drunk driving: A sourcebook of promising strategies, laws & programs. The National Hardcore Drunk Driver Project.

Coleman, H., & Mizenko, K. (2018, October). Impaired-driving leadership model–Findings based on three State case studies (Report No. DOT HS 812 516). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Compton, R. (2017, July). Marijuana-impaired driving - A Report to Congress (DOT HS 812 440). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Compton, R., Vegega, M., & Smither, D. (2009). Drug-impaired driving: Understanding the problem and ways to reduce it: A Report to Congress (Report No. DOT HS 811 268). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Crew, B. K., & Johnson, S. E. (2011). Do victim impact programs reduce recidivism for operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated? Findings from an outcomes evaluation. Criminal Justice Studies, 24, 153-163.

deBaca, J. C., Lapham, S. C., Liang, H. C., & Skipper, B. J. (2001). Victim impact panels: Do they impact drunk drivers? A follow-up of female and male first-time and repeat offenders. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 615-620.

De Gier, H. (2006). Medicinal drugs: Critical review of present knowledge and statements for discussion. In Drugs and traffic: A symposium. Transportation Research Circular, Number E- C096, pp. 68-77. Transportation Research Board.

Ditter, S. M., Elder, R. W., Shults, R. A., Sleet, D. A., Compton, R., & Nichols, J. L. (2005). Effectiveness of designated driver programs for reducing drinking and driving and alcohol- involved crashes: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(5S), 280-287.

DuPont, R. L., Voas, R. B., Walsh, J. M., Shea, C., Talpins, S. K., & Neil, M. M. (2012). The need for drugged driving per se laws: A commentary. Traffic Injury Prevention, 13, 31-42.

Elder, R. W., Nichols, J. L., Shults, R.A., Sleet, D. A., Barrios, L. C., Compton, R., & the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. (2005). Effectiveness of school-based programs for reducing drinking and driving and riding with drinking drivers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(5S), 288-297.

European Traffic Safety Council. (2016). Alcohol interlocks and drink driving rehabilitation in the EU – Guidelines for Member States.

Evans-Polce, R. J., Patrick, M. E., & O'Malley, P. M. (2017). Prospective associations of 12th-grade drinking intensity and age 19/20 driving-related consequences. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 389-391.

Fell, J. C., Fisher, D. A., & McKnight, A. S. (2011, October). A guide for local impaired-driving task forces - Volume I (Report No. DOT HS 811 460A). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Fell, J. C., Fisher, D. A., Yao, J., & McKnight, A. S. (2017). Evaluation of a responsible beverage service and enforcement program: Effects on bar patron intoxication and potential impaired driving by young adults. Traffic Injury Prevention, 18(6), 557-565.

Fell, J. C., Fisher, D. A., Yao, J., McKnight, A. S., Blackman, K. O., & Coleman, H. L. (2017, April). Evaluation of responsible beverage service to reduce impaired driving by 21- to 34-year-old drivers (Report No. DOT HS 812 398). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Fell, J. C., & Langston, E. A. (2009). A guide for statewide impaired-driving task forces (Report No. DOT HS 811 103). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Fell, J., Voas, R. B., & Lange, J. E. (1997). Designated driver concept: Extent of use in the USA. Journal of Traffic Medicine, 25(3–4), 109-114.

Fischer, P. (2019, March). Peer-to-peer teen traffic safety program guide (Report No. DOT HS 812 631). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Governors Highway Safety Association. (2018). Drug impaired driving laws.

Goodwin, A. H. (2004). A social norms approach to reduce drinking-driving among university students. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Glasgow, Scotland.

Grube, J., & Stewart, K. (2004). Preventing impaired driving using alcohol policy. Traffic Injury Prevention, 5, 199-207.

Hedlund, J. (2018). Drug-impaired driving: Marijuana and opioids raise critical issues for States. Governors Highway Safety Association.

Hedlund, H., & McCartt, A. T. (2002). Drunk driving in the United States. A roadmap for progress. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety.

Hedlund, J. H., Ulmer, R. G., & Preusser, D. F. (2001, September). Determine why there are fewer young alcohol-impaired drivers (Report No. DOT HS 809 348). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Holder, H. D., & Wagenaar, A. C. (1994). Mandated server training and reduced alcohol- involved traffic crashes: A time series analysis of the Oregon experience. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 26, 89-97.

Hover, A. R., Hover, B. A., & Young, J. C. (2000). Measuring the effectiveness of a community- sponsored DWI intervention for teens. American Journal of Health Studies, 16, 171-176.

Jewell, J., & Hupp, S. D. A. (2005). Examining the effects of fatal vision goggles on changing attitudes and behaviors related to drinking and driving. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 553-565.

Kay, G. G., & Logan, B. K. (2011, March). Drugged driving expert panel report: A consensus protocol for assessing the potential of drugs to impair driving (Report No. DOT HS 808 493). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Kelley-Baker, T., Berning, A., Ramirez, A., Lacey, J. H., Carr, K., Waehrer, G., & Compton, R. (2017, May). 2013-2014 National Roadside Study of alcohol and drug use by drivers: Drug results (Report No. DOT HS 812 411). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Kelly-Weeder, S., Phillips, K., & Rounseville, S. (2011). Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption. Patient Intelligence2011(3), 29.

Klitzner, M., Gruenewald, P.H., Bamberger, E. & Rossiter, C. (1994). A quasi-experimental evaluation of Students Against Driving Drunk. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 20, 57-74.

Lacey, J., Brainard, K., & Snitow, S. (2010, July). Drug per se laws: A review of their use in states (Report No. DOT HS 811 317). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lacey, J. H., Kelley-Baker, T., Furr-Holden, D., Voas, R.B., Romano, E., Torres, P., Tippetts, A. S., Ramirez, A., Brainard, K., & Berning, A. (2009, December). 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers: Alcohol results (Report No. DOT HS 811 248). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.­Control/Articles/­Associated%20Files/811248.pdf

Leaf, W. A., & Preusser, D. F. (1995, August). Evaluation of youth peer-to-peer impaired driving programs (Report No. DOT HS 808 309). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Legrand, S-A., Boets, S., Meesman, U., & Verstraete, A. G. (2012). Medicines and driving: Evaluation of training and software support for patient counseling by pharmacists. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 34, 633-643.

LeRoy, A. A., & Morse, M. L. (2008, May). Multiple medications and vehicle crashes: Analysis of databases (Report No. DOT HS 810 858). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Li, K., Simons-Morton, B., Gee, B., & Hingson, R. (2016). Marijuana-, alcohol-, and drug-impaired driving among emerging adults: Changes from high school to one-year post-high school. Journal of Safety Research58, 15-20.

Lococo, K., & Tyree, R. (2007). Medication related impaired driving. MedScape Education.

Logan, B. K., Lowrie, K. J., Turri, J. L., Yeakel, J. K., Limoges, J. F., Miles, A. K., Scarneo, C. E., Kerrigan, S., & Farrell, L. J. (2013). Recommendations for toxicological investigation of drug-impaired driving and motor vehicle fatalities. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 37, 552-558.

MacLennan, P. A., Owsley, C., Rue, L. W., & McGwin, G. (2009). Older adults’ knowledge about medications that can impact driving. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.­AndDrivingReport.pdf

Mai, C., & Subramanian, R. (2017). The price of prisons: Examining State spending trends, 2010-2015. Vera Institute of Justice.

McKnight, A. J., & Streff, F. M. (1994). The effect of enforcement upon service of alcohol to intoxicated patrons of bars and restaurants. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 26, 79-88.

Molof, M. J., & Kimball, C. (1994). A study of the implementation and effects of Oregon’s mandatory alcohol server training program. Eugene, OR: Oregon Research Services Inc.

Monteiro, S. P., Huiskes, R., Van Dijk, L., Van Weert, J., & De Gier, J. J. (2013). How effective are pictograms in communicating risk about driving-impairing medicines? Traffic Injury Prevention, 14, 299-308.

Mosher, J., Hauck, A., Carmona, M., Treffers, R., Reitz, D., Curtis, C., Ramirez, R., Moore, A., & Saetta, S. (2009, June). Legal research report: Laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated persons (Report No. DOT HS 811 142). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Moulton, B. E., Peterson, A., Haddix, D., & Drew, L. (2010, August). National survey of drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors: 2008. Volume II: Findings report (Report No. DOT HS 811 343). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances. (2000). Uniform vehicle code.

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2017). Drugged driving per se laws.­/Portals/1/Documents/transportation/DD_per_se_chart_Feb_2017_27135.pdf

NCSL. (2019). State medical marijuana laws.

National Cooperative Highway Research Program. (2005). A guide for reducing alcohol-related collisions. Transportation Research Board.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2006, January). A guide to sentencing DWI offenders. Second edition, 2005 (Report No. DOT HS 810 555).­injury/alcohol/dwioffenders/A%20Guide2.pdf

NHTSA. (2007, January). Traffic safety resource prosecutor’s manual (Report No. DOT HS 810 706).

NHTSA. (2017a, June). Digest of impaired driving and selected beverage control laws, 30th edition (Report No. DOT HS 812 394).­documents­/812394-digest-of-impaired-driving-and-selected-beverage-control-laws.pdf

NHTSA. (2017b, May). Evaluation of responsible beverage service to reduce impaired driving by 21- to 34-year-old drivers (Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series. Report No. DOT HS 812 416).

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2018). Beverage service training and related practices.

National Transportation Safety Board. (2000). Actions to reduce fatalities, injuries, and crashes involving the hard core drinking driver (NTSB/SR-00/01).

Nielson, A. L., & Watson, B. (2009). The effectiveness of designated driver programs. Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety, 20(2), 32-37.

Perkins, H. W. (2002). Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 14(S), 164-172.

Perkins, H. W. (Ed.). (2003). The emergence and evolution of the social norms approach to substance abuse prevention. Jossey-Bass.

Pollini, R. A., Waehrer, G., & Kelley-Baker, T. (2017). Receipt of warnings regarding potentially impairing prescription medications and associated risk perceptions in a national sample of US drivers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs78(6), 805-813.

Ramirez, R., Nguyen, D., Cannon, C., Carmona, M, & Freisthler, B. (2008, April). A campaign to reduce impaired driving through retail-oriented enforcement in Washington state (Report No. DOT HS 810 913). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Reisfeld, G. M., Goldberger, B. A., Gold, M. S., & DuPont, R. L. (2012). The mirage of impairing drug concentration thresholds: A rationale for zero tolerance per se driving under the influence of drugs laws. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 36, 353-356.

Robertson, R. D., & Simpson, H. M. (2002). DWI system improvements for dealing with hard core drinking drivers: Prosecution. Traffic Injury Research Foundation.

Robertson, R., Vanlaar, W., & Simpson, H. (2007). A criminal justice perspective on ignition interlocks: Proceedings of the 3rd annual meeting of the working group on DWI system improvements.

Scherer, M., Fell, J. C., Thomas, S., & Voas, R. B. (2015). Effects of dram shop, responsible beverage service training, and state alcohol control laws on underage drinking driver fatal crash ratios. Traffic Injury Prevention16(sup2), S59-S65.

Shinar, D., & Compton, R. P. (1995). Victim impact panels: Their impact on DWI recidivism. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 11, 73-87.

Shults, R. A., Elder, R. W., Sleet, D. A., Nichols, J. L., Alao, M. O., Carande-Kulis, V. G., . . . Thompson, R. S. (2001). Review of evidence regarding interventions to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21(4S), 66-84.

Schulze, H., Schumacher, M., Urmeew, R., Auerbach, K., Alvarez, J., Bernhoft, I. M., de Gier, H., Hagenzieker, M., Houwing, S., Knoche, A., Pilgerstorfer, M., & Zlender, B. (2012). Driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicines in Europe — Findings from the DRUID project.  Publications Office of the European Union.

Smith, R. C., Turturici, M., & Camden, M. C. (2018). Countermeasures against prescription and over-the-counter drug-impaired driving. AAA Foundation.

Smyth, T., Sheehan, M., & Siskind, V. (2013). Hospital outpatients’ responses to taking medications with driving warnings. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14, 18-25.

Vandrevala, T., Helman, S., Turner, C., & Stone, B. (2010). Medication and road safety: A scoping study (Road Safety Research Report No. 116).

Vanlaar, W. G. M., Hing, M. M., Powell, T. C., & Robertson, R. D. (2017b). Alternatives to alcohol-impaired driving: Results from the 2016 TIRF USA road safety monitor.

Voas, R. B., DuPont, R. L., Shea, C. L., & Talpins, S. K. (2013). Prescription drugs, drugged driving and per se laws. Injury Prevention, 19(3), 218-221.

Voas, R. B., & Lacey, J. H. (2011, March). Alcohol and highway safety 2006: A review of the state of knowledge (Report No. DOT HS 811 374). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Wagenaar, A. C., & Maldonado-Molina, M. M. (2007). Effects of drivers’ license suspension policies on alcohol-related crash involvement: Long-term follow-up in forty-six states. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 1399-1406.

Wagenaar, A. C., Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Erickson, D. J. Ma, L., Tobler, A. L., & Komro, K. A. (2008). General deterrence effects of U.S. statutory DUI fine and jail penalties: Long-term follow-up in 32 states. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39, 982-994.

Wagenaar, A. C., & Tobler, A. L. (2007). Alcohol sales and service to underage youth and intoxicated patrons. Effects of responsible beverage service training and enforcement interventions. In Traffic Safety and Alcohol Regulation: A Symposium, June 5-6, 2006, Irvine, CA. (Transportation Research Circular, No. E-C123, pp. 141-163). Transportation Research Board.

Wagenaar, A. C., Zobek, T. S., Williams, G. D., & Hingson, R. (2000). Effects of DWI control efforts: A systematic review of the literature from 1960-1991. University of Minnesota School of Public Health.

Walsh, J. M. (2009, December). A state-by-state analysis of laws dealing with driving under the influence of drugs (Report No. DOT HS 811 236). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Watson, A., & Watson, B. (2014). An outcome evaluation of the ‘Skipper’ designated driver program. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 66, 27-35.

Weatherburn, D., & Moffatt, S. (2011). The specific deterrent effect of higher fines on drink- driving offenders. British Journal of Criminology, 51, 789-803.

Wheeler, D. R., Rogers, E. M., Tonigan, J. S., & Woodall, W. G. (2004). Effectiveness of customized victim impact panels on first-time DWI offender inmates. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36, 29-35.