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Akhtar, S. & Ziyab, A. H. (2013) Impact of the penalty points system on severe road traffic injuries in Kuwait. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14, 743-748.

Blomberg, R. D., & Cleven, A. M. (2006, August). Pilot test of Heed the Speed, A program to reduce speeds in residential neighborhoods (Report No. DOT HS 810 648). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Blomberg, R. D., Van Houten, R., Thomas, F. D., Korbelak, K. T., & Hilton, B. W. (2015, December). Automated feedback to foster safe driving in young drivers, Phase 2 (Report No. DOT HS 812 230). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Bolderdijk, J., Knockaert, J., Steg E. M., & Verhoef, E. T. (2011). Effects of pay-as-you-drive vehicle insurance on young drivers' speed choice: Results of a Dutch field experiment. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 1181-1186.

Brewer, M. A., Pesti, G., & Schneider IV, W. (2006). Improving compliance with work zone speed limits. Transportation Research Record, 1948, 67-76.

Carsten, O. (2012). Is intelligent speed adaptation ready for deployment? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 1–3.

Chorlton, K., & Conner, M. (2012). Can enforced behavior change attitudes: Exploring the influence of Intelligent Speed Adaptation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 49-56.

Chorlton, K., Hess, S., Jamson, S., & Wardman, M. (2012). Deal or no deal: Can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 73-82.

Corbett, C., Delmonte, E., Quimby, A., & Grayson, G. (2008). Does the threat of disqualification deter drivers from speeding? (Road Safety Research Report No. 96).

Davis, J. W., Bennink, L. D., Pepper, D. R., Parks, S. N., Lemaster, D. M., & Townsend, R. N. (2006). Aggressive traffic enforcement: a simple and effective injury prevention program. Journal of Trauma, 60, 972-977.

De Leonardis, D., Huey, R., & Robinson, E. (2014, May). Investigation of the use and feasibility of speed warning systems (Report No. DOT HS 811 996). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Donnell, E. T., & Cruzado, I. (2008). Effectiveness of speed minders in reducing driving speeds on rural highways in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Transportation Institute.

Eckenrode, R. T., Sarasua, W. A., Mattox, J. H., III, Ogle, J. H., & Chowdhury, M. A. (2007). Revisiting the use of drone radar to reduce speed in work zones: South Carolina’s experience. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2015, 19-27.

Elvik, R., & Christensen, P. (2007). The deterrent effect of increasing fixed penalties: The Norwegian Experience. Journal of Safety Research, 38, 689-695.

Essex, A., Shinkle, D., Miller, A., & Pula, K. (2018). Traffic safety trends: State legislative action 2017. National Conference of State Legislatures.

European Commission. (2015). Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA).

Farmer, C. M., Kirley, B. B., & McCartt, A. T. (2010). Effects of in-vehicle monitoring on the driving behavior of teenagers. Journal of Safety Research, 41, 39-45.

Flango, V. E., & Keith, A. L. (2004). How useful is the new aggressive driving legislation? Court Review, Winter 2004, 34-41.

Fuller, R., Bates, H., Gormley, M., Hannigan, B., Stradling, S., Broughton, P., Kinnear, N., & O’Dolan, C. (2008). The conditions for inappropriate high speed: A review of the research literature from 1995 to 2006 (Road Safety Research Report 92).

Gebers, M. A. (2010). A traffic safety evaluation of California's traffic violator school citation dismissal policy. Journal of Safety Research, 41(4), 323-330.

Hajbabaie, A., Medina, J. C., Wang, M.-H., Rahim, F. B., & Chitturi, M. (2011). Sustained and halo effects of various speed reduction treatments in Highway Work Zones. Transportation Research Record, 2265, 118-128.

Harder, K. A., & Bloomfield, J. R. (2007). Evaluating the effectiveness of the Minnesota speed management program.

Ipsos MORI, Barrett, G., & Institute for Transport Studies. (2018, May). Impact evaluation of the National Speed Awareness Course. Ipsos MORI Social Research Institute.

Kostyniuk, L. P., Blower, D., Molnar, L. J., Eby, D. W., St Louis, R. M., & Zanier, N. (2014, September). Evaluation of the Michigan TACT program. (UMTRI Report 2014-24). University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Lai, F., & Carsten, O. (2012). What benefit does Intelligent Speed Adaptation deliver: A close examination of its effect on vehicle speeds. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 4-9.

Lawpoolsri, S., Li, J., & Braver, E. R. (2007). Do speeding tickets reduce the likelihood of receiving subsequent speeding tickets? A longitudinal study of speeding violators in Maryland. Traffic Injury Prevention, 8, 26-34.

Lee, C., Lee, S., Choi, B., & Oh, Y. (2006). Effectiveness of speed-monitoring displays in speed reduction in school zones. Transportation Research Record, 1973, 27-35.

Li, J., Amr, S., Braver, E. R., Langenberg, P., Zhan, M., Smith, G. S., & Dischinger, P. C. (2011). Are current law enforcement strategies associated with a lower risk of repeat speeding citations and crash involvement? A longitudinal study of speeding Maryland drivers. Annals of Epidemiology, 21, 641-647.

Masten, S. V., & Peck, R. C. (2004). Problem driver remediation: A meta-analysis of the driver improvement literature. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 403-425.

Mattox, J. H. III, Sarasua, W. A., Ogle, J. H., Eckenrode, R. T., & Dunning, A. E. (2007, January 21-25). Development and evaluation of a speed-activated sign to reduce speeds in work zones. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2007, 3-11. Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Mazureck, U., & van Hattem, J. (2006). Rewards for safe driving behavior: Influence on following distance and speed. Transportation Research Record, 1980, 31-38.

McCartt, A. T., Leaf, W. A., Witkowski, T. L., & Solomon, M. G. (2001, May). Evaluation of the aggression suppression program, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Report No. DOT HS 809 395). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Moon, J-P. & Hummer, J. E. (2010). Speed enforcement cameras in Charlotte, North Carolina: Estimation of longer-term safety effects. Transportation Research Record, 2182, 31-39.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2000). Aggressive driving enforcement: Strategies for implementing best practices (Report No. DOT HS 809 031).

NHTSA. (2001a). National aggressive driving action guide: A criminal justice approach (Report No. DOT HS 809 351). [Copy available only by purchase from]

NHTSA. (2001b). Aggressive driving programs (Report No. DOT HS 808 730). [Not available.]

NHTSA (2006, August). Pilot test of Heed the Speed, A program to reduce speeds in residential neighborhoods (Traffic Safety Facts. Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series. Report No. 316).­20Consumer%20Information/Traffic%20Tech%20Publications/Associated%20Files/Traffic_Tech_316.pdf

National Transportation Safety Board. (2017). Reducing speeding-related crashes involving passenger vehicles (Safety Study NTSB/SS-17/01).

Nerup, P., Salzberg, P., VanDyk, J., Porter, L., Blomberg, R., Thomas, F. D., & Cosgrove, L. (2006, May). Ticketing aggressive cars and trucks in Washington state: High visibility enforcement applied to share the road safety (Report No. DOT HS 810 603). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Neuman, T. R., Pfefer, R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., Raub, R., Lucke, R., & Wark, R. (2003). NCHRP Report 500. Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, volume 1: A guide for addressing aggressive-driving collisions. Transportation Research Board.

Neuman, T. R., Pfefer, R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., & Waller, P. (2003). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 2: A guide for addressing collisions involving unlicensed drivers and drivers with suspended or revoked licenses. Transportation Research Board.

Newstead, S. V., Cameron, M. H., & Leggett, L. M. W. (2001). The crash reduction effectiveness of a network-wide traffic police deployment system. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33, 393-406.

Preusser, D. F., Williams, A. F., Nichols, J. L., Tison, J., & Chaudhary, N. K. (2008). Effectiveness of behavioral highway safety countermeasures (NCHRP Report No. 622). Transportation Research Board.

Shinar, D. (2007). Traffic safety and human behavior. Emerald Publishing Group, Ltd.

Sivak, M., Luoma, J., Flannagan, M. J., Bingham, C. R., Eby, D. W., & Shope, J. T. (2007). Traffic safety in the U.S.: Re-examining major opportunities. Journal of Safety Research, 38, 337-355.

Sprattler, K. (2012). Survey of the states: Speeding and aggressive driving. Governors Highway Safety Association.

Stigson, H., Hagborg, J., Kullgren, A., & Krafft, M. (2014). A one year pay-as-you-speed trial with economic incentives for not speeding. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15, 612-618.

Stuster, J. (2001, June). Albuguerque Police Department’s Safe Streets program (Report No. DOT HS 809 278). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Stuster, J. (2004, March). Aggressive driving enforcement: Evaluation of two demonstration programs (Report No. DOT HS 809 707). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Thomas, F. D., Blomberg. R. D., Masten, S. V., Cicchino, J., Tippets, A. S., Korbelak, K. T., Fell, J. C., & Lacey, J. H. (2015, January). Evaluation of the Washington State Target Zero teams project (Report No. DOT HS 812 097). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Thomas, F. D., Blomberg, R. D., Peck, R. C., Cosgrove, L. A., & Salzberg, P. M. (2008). Evaluation of a high visibility enforcement project focused on passenger vehicles interacting with commercial vehicles. Journal of Safety Research, 39(5), 459-468.

Ullman, G. L., Brewer, M. A., Bryden, J. E., Corkran, M. O., Hubbs, C. W., Chandra, A. K., & Jeannotte, K. L. (2013). Traffic enforcement strategies for work zones (Report No. 746). Transportation Research Board.

van der Pas, J. W. G. M., Kessels, J., Veroude, B. D. G., & van Wee, B. (2014). Intelligent speed assistance for serious speeders: The results of the Dutch Speedlock trial. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 72, 78-94.

van der Pas, J. W. G. M., Marchau, V. A. W. J., Walker, W. E., van Wee, G. P., & Vlassenroot, S. H. (2012). ISA implementation and uncertainty: A literature review and expert elicitation study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 83-96.

Walter, L., & Broughton, J. (2011). Effectiveness of speed indicator devices: An observational study in South London. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 1355-1358.

Walter, L., Broughton, J., & Knowles, J. (2011). The effects of increased police enforcement along a route in London. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 1219–1227.

Wrapson, W., Harre, N., & Murrell, P. (2006). Reductions in driver speed using posted feedback of speeding information: Social comparison or implied surveillance? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38, 1119-1126.

Young, K. L., & Regan, M. A. (2007). Use of manual speed alerting and cruise control devices by car drivers. Safety Science, 45, 473-485.