NHTSA Search Results
Ford Petition for Inconsequentiality re Calcium-Sulfate Desiccated PSDI-5 Driver-side Inflators Submissionhttps://www.nhtsa.gov/document/ford-petition-incon...
Full text of the petition.
Mazda Petition for Inconsequentiality re Calcium-Sulfate Desiccated PSDI-5 Driver-side Inflators Submissionhttps://www.nhtsa.gov/document/mazda-petition-inco...
Full text of the petition.
https://www.nhtsa.gov/document/pilot-tests-seat-be... December 1, 2009
This study evaluated a device that prevented drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 seconds unless the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts
https://www.nhtsa.gov/document/2013-2014-national-... May 1, 2017
This was a nationally representative study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among drivers. Drugs studied included 98 over-the-counter, prescription, and illegal substances. Drivers were randomly selected at 60 sites (300 locations) across the continental United States. Data were collected during one 2-hour Friday daytime session (either 9:30 to 11:30 a.m. or 1:30 to 3:30 p.m.) and four 2-hour nighttime periods (10 p.m. to midnight and 1 to 3 a.m. on both Friday and Saturday nights). Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Data included observational, self-report, and breath alcohol tests from 9,455 drivers, oral fluid samples from 7,881 drivers, and blood samples from 4,686 drivers. This report focuses on drug test results and provides results of combined alcohol and drug use. Results are compared to the 2007 National Roadside Study, for the first time presenting trend data on drug-positive driving. Using data from both oral fluid and blood samples, overall, 22.3 percent of daytime drivers and 22.5 percent of nighttime drivers were drug-positive. Delta-9-tetrahyrdacannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana, was the most frequent drug, with 8.7 percent of daytime drivers and 12.7 percent of nighttime drivers testing positive. When comparing the 2013-2014 results to the same drugs tested for in 2007, an increase in nighttime drug prevalence was found between the 2007 and 2013-2014 NRS, from 16.3 percent to 20.1 percent, a statistically significant finding. This study estimated drug prevalence. A positive result for any drug does not necessarily mean the driver was impaired at the time of testing, only that the drug was present in the body. Data from this study cannot be used to draw conclusions about drug-impaired driving.
Evaluation of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement Demonstration Program And Identification of Characteristics of Unbelted High-Risk Drivershttps://www.nhtsa.gov/document/evaluation-nighttim... April 20, 2018
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a high-visibility nighttime seat belt enforcement programconducted in Maryland by measuring changes in day and night self-reported and observed seat belt use and crashoutcomes. To better understand the characteristics of unbelted drivers, the study compared the driving records ofmotorists who received seat belt citations during the enforcement crackdown with drivers who were not cited forfailing to use seat belts. Statistically significant pre-post increases in nighttime seat belt use in the program area were observed for three of the five activity waves. Analysis of driver records found clear evidence that drivers cited for seat belt violations had poorer driving records than those who were not cited for seat belt violations. Some of the differences were substantial. For example, drivers cited for seat belt infractions were nearly eight times more likely than those not cited to have prior seat belt violations on their driver records. Analysis of crash data for the program area found significant declines in the proportion of occupants involved in injury crashes that were unbelted, both at night and during the day. For fatal crashes, nonsignificant declines were observed in the proportion of occupants that were unbelted at night, as well as the proportion of occupants that were unbelted during the day and night combined.
https://www.nhtsa.gov/document/age-versus-experien... July 6, 2018
Event-triggered, video-based interventions can improve driving safety among young drivers. Nine states including Iowa allow drivers under 16 to operate motor vehicles but little is known about how younger drivers compare to16-year-old drivers in terms of risky driving behaviors. This project examined the effects of age, experience, and video-based feedback on the rate of unsafe driving events captured on video event recorders for 90 newly licensed teen drivers. Results show that young drivers who received feedback had lower rates of unsafe driving events relative to the control group. The results indicate that video-based feedback could have safety benefits for young drivers.
State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes: Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009https://www.nhtsa.gov/document/state-blood-alcohol... August 1, 2012
This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and surviving drivers. It provides an overview of State practices using information obtained from telephone discussions with all States and all NHTSA Regions. It documents case studies of 9 States (Alaska, Hawaii, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and South Dakota), each of which has improved or maintained high rates of BAC testing and reporting. Successful BAC testing and reporting involves three components: high testing rates, accurate and complete reporting, and careful management. This can be accomplished through laws, policies, or practices. The process involves testing, reporting, tracking, and follow-up. The context involves education, training, and management. A summary presents good practices and strategies for States that wish to improve their BAC testing and reporting.
Medical Review Practices For Driver Licensing Volume 1: A Case Study of Guidelines and Processes in Seven U.S. States (DOT HS 812 331)https://www.nhtsa.gov/document/medical-review-prac...
Medical Review Practices For Driver Licensing Volume 1: A Case Study of Guidelines and Processes in Seven U.S. States (DOT HS 812 331)
Traffic Tech: The Effect of High-Visibility Enforcement on Driver Compliance With Pedestrian Right-of-Way Laws: 4-Year Follow-Uphttps://www.nhtsa.gov/document/traffic-tech-effect... January 23, 2017
In large cities, pedestrians can account for 40% to 50% of traffic fatalities. In 2014 there were 4,884 pedestrian fatalities and about 65,000 injuries in the United States (NHTSA, 2015). Many of these incidents occur at crosswalks where drivers fail to comply with pedestrian crossing laws. Driver compliance increased in Gainesville, Florida, after applying NHTSA’s high-visibility enforcement (HVE) model to pedestrian right-of-way laws. This current study was a follow-up to the original Gainesville pedestrian HVE project.
NHTSA Light Vehicle Antilock Brake System Research Program Task 5.2/5.3: Test Track Examination of Drivers' Collision Avoidance Behavior Using Conventional and Antilock Brakeshttps://www.nhtsa.gov/document/nhtsa-light-vehicle...
From 2003. Numerous crash data statistical analyses conducted over the past few years suggest that, for automobiles, the introduction of four-wheel antilock brake systems (ABS) has produced net safety benefits much lower than originally expected. The studies indicate the apparent increase in single-vehicle crashes involving passenger cars equipped with four-wheel ABS almost completely offsets the safety advantage such vehicles have over their conventionally-braked counterparts. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed its Light Vehicle Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) Research Program in an effort to determine the cause(s) of the apparent increase in fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes as vehicles undergo a transition from conventional brakes to ABS. As part of this program, NHTSA conducted research examining driver crash avoidance behavior and the effects of ABS on drivers' ability to avoid a collision in a crash-imminent situation. The study described here was conducted on a test track under dry and wet pavement conditions to examine the effects of ABS versus conventional brakes, ABS brake pedal feedback level, and ABS instruction on driver behavior and crash avoidance performance. This study found that drivers do tend to brake and steer in realistic crash avoidance situations and that excessive steering can occur. However, a significant number of road departures did not result from this behavior for either pavement condition. ABS was found to reduce crashes significantly on wet pavement as compared to conventional brakes.