Eventos

Transportation Research Board 97th Annual Meeting

01/07/2018 - 01/11/2018

Location

Walter E. Washington Convention Center
Washington, DC

The meeting program will cover all transportation modes, with more than 5,000 presentations in nearly 800 sessions and workshops, addressing topics of interest to policymakers, administrators, practitioners, researchers, and representatives of government, industry, and academic institutions. A number of sessions and workshops will focus on the spotlight theme for the 2018 meeting: Transportation: Moving the Economy of the Future.

Featured Resources

Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 8th Edition

Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 8th Edition cover image

(PDF, 13.75 MB) DOT HS 812 202; November 2015

This 8th edition of Countermeasures That Work is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.

 

NHTSA Compendium of Traffic Safety Research Projects: 1985 – 2013

NHTSA Compendium of Traffic Safety Research Projects: 1985 – 2013 cover image

(PDF, 2.5 MB) DOT HS 811 847; January 2014

This compendium contains summaries of over 500 studies and projects published by NHTSA from 1985 to 2013. The studies include research on alcohol-involved driving, drug-involved driving, occupant protection (e.g., seat belts and child safety seats), speed and other unsafe driving behaviors, motorcyclist safety, pedestrian and bicyclist safety, older driver safety, novice and young driver safety, fatigue and distraction, and emergency medical services.

 

Behavioral Safety Research Library

This library is a searchable database solely devoted to NHTSA's Office of Behavioral Safety Research and contains publications dating from the 1980s to present on topics such as pedestrian and bicyclist safety, motorcyclist safety, novice and young driver safety, older driver safety, aggressive driving, drowsy and distracted driving, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired driving, speeding, emergency medical services, law enforcement, vehicle safety (e.g., air bags), and occupant protection (e.g., seat belts and child safety seats).

 

The Community Guide

The Community Guide home page screen shot

This website houses the official collection of all Community Preventative Services Task Force findings and the systematic reviews on which they are based. The Community Guide is based on a scientific systematic review process and includes publications related to motor vehicle-related injury prevention. Three areas included in the guide are child safety seats, seat belts, and alcohol-impaired driving.

 

New Reports

TRB New Reports Section banner

Alcohol-Impaired Driving and Drugged Driving

  • Interlock Data Utilization
    (PDF, 1.78 MB) DOT HS 812 445; August 2017
    This report summarizes findings on ignition interlock data used for DWI offender monitoring and offender-related programs such as screening, assessments, and treatment for alcohol abuse problems. It describes the uses of interlock data, procedures for using interlock data, and challenges and issues related to using interlock data.
  • Marijuana-Impaired Driving - A Report to Congress
    (PDF, 1.06 MB) DOT HS 812 440; July 2017
    The report is to educate the public that drugs other than alcohol, including marijuana, are absorbed, distributed and eliminated from the body differently than alcohol. While BAC correlates closely with impairment, there is no such measure (e.g., THC) for marijuana that correlates with impairment. Thus, a BAC-equivalent impairment measure is not possible.
  • Examination of the Feasibility of Alcohol Interlocks for Motorcycles
    (PDF, 1.21 MB) DOT HS 812 423; June 2017
    In 2011, some 30 percent of the 4,612 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashes had blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of .08 g/dL or higher. Although alcohol ignition interlocks are a common sanction to deter impaired driving, they are not typically used on motorcycles. This report reviews information on alcohol ignition interlocks to help determine whether they can be an appropriate DUI countermeasure when installed on motorcycles operated by convicted DUI offenders. The report summarizes issues of perceived liability, technical barriers, statutory or legislative barriers, and other factors related to this issue.
  • Examination of the Legalization and Decriminalization of Marijuana on the DWI System: Highlights from the Expert Panel Meeting
    (PDF, 9.7 MB) DOT HS 812 430; June 2017
    In accordance with the MAP-21 Act, NHTSA and GHSA convened an expert panel to study recreational and/or medical marijuana laws and their effect on driving, including law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation, toxicologists, and highway safety officials. The panel identified changes to the DWI system following enactment of laws legalizing and/or decriminalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational purposes; identified lessons learned; and found measures that should be used to evaluate these laws and their impact on traffic safety and the DWI system.
  • The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers
    (PDF, 1.14 MB) DOT HS 812 425; June 2017
    Young drivers are at greater risk for alcohol-related crash deaths than any other age group, and there has been only limited progress. One innovative possibility that has not yet been tried for most young drivers is the implementation of a voluntary alcohol ignition interlock program as a preventative approach. This study examined its feasibility by discussions conducted in 2010 with ignition interlock manufacturers and service providers, insurance companies, community groups, parents, teens and young adults. Finally, ignition interlock recorder data on users 16 to 26 years old were examined, and a web survey with parents of voluntary users and voluntary users themselves was analyzed.
  • 2013-2014 National Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Drug Results
    (PDF, 2.42 MB) DOT HS 812 411; May 2017
    This report is one of three that summarizes the results of the 2013–2014 National Roadside Study (NRS) of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contracted with the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) to conduct this study. This report (Volume 3) presents national prevalence estimates of drug-positive driving and alcohol-plus-drug-positive driving derived from the study, and compares them with the 2007 NRS, which was the first roadside study to estimate the prevalence of drug-positive driving in the Unites States. Another report (Volume 1) describes the sampling plan and data-collection methodology (Kelley-Baker et al., 2016). A third report (Volume 2; Ramirez et al., 2016) presents the results for alcohol-positive driving.
  • Determining the Effectiveness of Flexible Checkpoints
    (PDF, 1.54 MB) DOT HS 812 420; May 2017
    The objectives for this project were to (a) determine how flexible checkpoints are being used in the United States; (b) identify agencies that use flexible checkpoints to document problems or concerns they’ve found, and to determine and document solutions that could be used by other agencies that implement flexible checkpoints; and (c) determine the effectiveness of flexible checkpoints in one site.
  • Evaluation of Responsible Beverage Service to Reduce Impaired Driving by 21- to 34-Year-Old Drivers
    (PDF, 822.74 KB) DOT HS 812 398; April 2017
    A number of studies have revealed that approximately half of intoxicated drivers had their last drink at a licensed bar or restaurant. This study evaluated an intervention that integrated outreach, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, targeted enforcement and, as necessary, corrective actions by law enforcement agencies. The immediate goal of the intervention was to reduce the practice of over-serving alcohol and serving alcohol to obviously intoxicated individuals in bars and restaurants. The long-term goal was to reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) arrests and impaired-driving crashes.

Occupant Protection

  • Identifying Opportunities to Decrease Vehicle Occupant Fatalities
    (PDF, 539 KB) DOT HS 812 435; July 2017
    This study focused on identifying opportunities to decrease vehicle occupant fatalities by comparing selected States with observed seat-belt-use rates above and below the 2013 national average of 87 percent as well as low and high percentages of statewide fatalities where the fatally injured occupant was unbuckled. The goal was to determine if the higher seat-belt-use States implemented policies, procedures, enforcement types or intensities, management practices, or any other approach that could be suggested for use in the States with lower seat belt use to improve their performance.
  • Evaluation of the Washington Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement Program
    (PDF, 2.95 MB) DOT HS 812 395; April 2017
    The Washington Traffic Safety Commission and NHTSA conducted a high-visibility Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement (NTSBE) program in Washington. The two-year program followed the basic “Click It or Ticket” model by using highly visible enforcement combined with increased paid and earned media about the enforcement but applied its efforts during the nighttime rather than the daytime hours. The NTSBE program positively affected driver awareness, increased observed nighttime seat belt use, and did not decrease the daytime use rate.

Distracted, Drowsy, or Aggressive Driving

  • Evaluating the Enforceability of Texting Laws: Strategies Tested in Connecticut and Massachusetts
    (PDF, 1.88 MB) DOT HS 812 367; March 2017
    This evaluation sought to determine the enforceability of texting laws and to test methods for enforcing these laws. Participating law enforcement agencies in Connecticut and Massachusetts demonstrated that a variety of enforcement strategies could be used to enforce texting laws, including spotter, stationary, and roving patrol strategies. Strategy variations involved using one- and two-officer patrols, uniformed and plain clothed officers, marked and unmarked patrol vehicles, and a variety of vehicle types, including SUVs, vans, pickup trucks, motorcycles, and cruisers. This evaluation gathered first-hand insights from the participating officers regarding their experiences enforcing texting laws. Key insights highlighted the importance of conducting officer training, holding roll calls focused on texting enforcement, engaging in pre-planning to ensure smooth operation of the strategies, creating partnerships with local and State enforcement agencies to multiply forces and maximize resources, and establishing leadership priority for conducting texting enforcement.

Motorcyclists

  • Examination of the Feasibility of Alcohol Interlocks for Motorcycles
    (PDF, 1.21 MB) DOT HS 812 423; June 2017
    In 2011, some 30 percent of the 4,612 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashes had blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of .08 g/dL or higher. Although alcohol ignition interlocks are a common sanction to deter impaired driving, they are not typically used on motorcycles. This report reviews information on alcohol ignition interlocks to help determine whether they can be an appropriate DUI countermeasure when installed on motorcycles operated by convicted DUI offenders. The report summarizes issues of perceived liability, technical barriers, statutory or legislative barriers, and other factors related to this issue.
  • Changes to Puerto Rico’s Motorcycle Rider Law
    (PDF, 1.04 MB) DOT HS 812 397; April 2017
    This report describes effects of a 2007 motorcycle safety law enacted in Puerto Rico in terms of rider reaction to the law, safety effects, and the degree to which the law was enforced. The law introduced or expanded safety-related statutes including reducing the blood alcohol concentration per se illegal level for motorcycle riders from .08 g/dL to .02 g/dL; requirements for reflective vests at night and other protective gear at all times of day; daytime running headlights, and other safety-related measures.

Pedestrians and Bicyclists

Younger Drivers

  • Evaluation of an Updated Version of the Risk Awareness and Perception Training Program for Young Drivers
    (PDF, 1.62 MB) DOT HS 812 379; March 2017
    Previous research suggested that newly licensed teen drivers often failed to anticipate where unexpected hazards might materialize. One training program designed to address these apparent deficiencies in knowledge and skills that has shown promise in previous tests is the Risk Awareness and Perception Training (RAPT) program. This project updated RAPT using high-definition video and computer simulations to create a more interactive and realistic program. Researchers evaluated the modified program’s impact on the behaviors of novice and experienced drivers through the use of a computer-based test and during on-road drives in live traffic on a pre-defined route. Both the novice and experienced driver RAPT-trained groups showed substantial improvement in performance from pre- to post-test with the RAPT trainees hitting almost all of the targets during the computer post-test. The performance differences extended to the eye-tracker data arising from the on-road drives. The RAPT-trained groups hit significantly higher numbers of total primary targets and percentages of targets compared to the control groups. The study also employed a “Think Aloud,” or commentary driving, data collection effort. This data collection approach did not reveal any performance differences among the training groups. This study also included a persistence measure using the computer assessment one month after training. Results showed the RAPT-trained groups’ target hit rates decreased from the initial post-test to the persistence measure but remained above their baseline hit rates and above the control groups’ persistence measure hit rates. Taken together, the results suggest the RAPT revision represented a significant improvement over the previous versions in terms of realism with a similar impact on driver behaviors as measured by a computer assessment and through the use of eye-tracking in a live traffic environment.

Older Drivers

  • Older-Driver Foot Movements
    (PDF, 10.07 MB) DOT HS 812 431; July 2017
    This study explored how drivers 60 and older control the accelerator and brake while driving and parking, advancing an earlier study about pedal misapplication crashes. An instrumented vehicle on a test route in actual traffic measured foot movement and position affecting possible pedal error. Participants included 6 drivers with peripheral neuropathy of the feet, 2 with hip replacements, and 18 older but healthy drivers. Researchers also documented participants’ functional abilities such as leg functional reach and anthropometries such as height and femur length to determine whether these factors related to pedal control. Drivers with medical conditions scored significantly poorer than the normally aging drivers while parking. Poor vehicle fit was significantly related to functional ability.
  • Medical Review Practices for Driver Licensing: Volume 3: Guidelines and Processes in the United States
    (PDF, 4.78 MB) DOT HS 812 402; April 2017
    This is the third of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically or functionally at-risk drivers. This volume updates the information presented in 2003 (Summary of Medical Advisory Board Practices in the United States). Medical Review/Driver Reexamination Department staff in 49 of the 51 State driver licensing agencies plus the District of Columbia responded to a survey designed to gather information about the driver medical review structure and processes in their jurisdictions. The first section of this report presents a 5- to 10-page narrative for each jurisdiction describing the organization of the medical review program; mechanisms used to identify drivers with medical conditions and functional impairments; procedures and medical guidelines used to evaluate drivers for fitness to drive; medical review and reexamination outcomes; appeals processes; availability of counseling and public information and education; outreach to law enforcement, medical professionals and others who may have concerns about a medically or functionally impaired driver; and administrative issues such as training of employees, and costs associated with medical review/reexamination. Following the State-by-State summaries, tables compare and contrast States’ responses to each survey question. This updated information may serve as a reference to State driver licensing agencies when updating their own guidelines, practices, and outreach to those who may refer drivers for medical review, by showing what works in other jurisdictions; and may promote practices that maintain public safety while allowing for personal mobility.
  • Medical Review Practices for Driver Licensing Volume 2: Case Studies of Medical Referrals and Licensing Outcomes in Six States
    (PDF, 5.75 MB) DOT HS 812 380; March 2017
    Second of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically at-risk drivers. This volume presents findings of case studies describing the referral sources, medical review requirements, and licensing outcomes in six States in 2012: Maine, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Conclusions support recommendations that may increase appropriate referrals for medical review; improve the medical review process while maintaining individual and public safety and preserving mobility among those with declining functional abilities; and ensure licensing agency resources applied to medical review focus on drivers most needing to be medically reviewed and tested.

Speeding and Speed Management

  • Matching Countermeasures to Driver Types and Speeding Behavior
    (PDF, 4.54 MB) DOT HS 812 455; December 2017
    An address-based mail survey of licensed drivers in Idaho was conducted to learn more about why drivers speed and what new countermeasures can be developed by examining some of the underlying behavioral and attitudinal aspects of speeding. Three primary questions were examined with the data, including: 1) how well do existing typologies of speeding behavior predict speeding convictions; 2) what speeding countermeasures are most appropriate for the various driver types and roadway situations; and 3) how strong is the relationship between driver records and self-reported speeding in the survey?

Other

 

Traffic Techs

Traffic Techs

Identifying Opportunities to Decrease Vehicle Occupant Fatalities (PDF, 125 KB) DOT HS 812 434; September 2017

Older-Driver Foot Movements (PDF, 142.27 KB) DOT HS 812 389; June 2017

Matching Countermeasures to Driver Types and Speeding Behavior (PDF, 167.79 KB) HS DOT 812 424; June 2017

The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers (PDF, 534.78 KB) DOT HS 812 427; June 2017

Interlock Data Utilization (532.58 KB) DOT HS 812 428; June 2017

Examining the Feasibility of Alcohol Ignition Interlocks for Motorcycles (PDF, 193.06 KB) DOT HS 812 406; May 2017

Evaluation of Responsible Beverage Service to Reduce Impaired Driving by 21- to 34-Year-Old Drivers (PDF, 512.21 KB) DOT HS 812 416; May 2017

Determining the Effectiveness of Flexible Checkpoints (505.89 KB) DOT HS 812 421; May 2017

Examination of Changes to the Motorcycle Law in Puerto Rico (510.88 KB) DOT HS 812 399; April 2017

Driver Medical Review Practices Across the United States (PDF, 140.4 KB) DOT HS 812 403; April 2017

Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement in Washington State (PDF, 507.95 KB) DOT HS 812 396; April 2017

The Effect of High-Visibility Enforcement on Driver Compliance with Pedestrian Right-of-Way Laws: 4-Year Follow-Up (PDF, 576.91 KB) DOT HS 812 365; January 2017

Expanding the Seat Belt Program Strategies Toolbox: A Starter Kit for Trying New Program Ideas (545.49 KB) DOT HS 812 342; January 2017

 

Behavioral Research Databases

National Telephone Surveys

2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior (2013)
A study on bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behaviors. Datasets are available in SPSS and comma delimited formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2011 National Survey on Speeding Attitudes and Behaviors (NSSAB) (2013)
National survey on speeding attitudes and behaviors. Datasets are available in SPSS and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2008 National Surveys of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behavior (2010)
National survey on drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors. Datasets are available in SAS and SPSS formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Surveys (MVOSS) (2008-2009)
National motor vehicle occupant safety survey. Datasets are available in SAS and SPSS formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

 

Roadside and Crash Risk Studies

2014-2015 Marijuana, Other Drugs, and Alcohol Use by Drivers in Washington State (2016)
A 2014-2015 study on the use of marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol by drivers in Washington State. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2013-2014 National Roadside Survey/Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers (2016-2017)
A 2013-2014 national roadside study on alcohol and drug use by drivers. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2007 National Roadside Survey/Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers (2009)
A 2007 national roadside study on alcohol and drug use by drivers. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2013-2014 Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk: A Case-Control Study (2016)
A 2013-2014 case-control study on drug and alcohol crash risk for drivers. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

 

NCSA

Manuals

Reports

Coming Soon

Younger Drivers and Occupant Protection

  • Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in LA, MS, NM, and TX
    This study evaluated seat belt demonstrations for teenagers in four States: Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico and Texas. These States conducted four waves of paid media and law enforcement activities over the following year. Two of these waves were conducted immediately prior to statewide Click It or Ticket (CIOT) seat belt mobilizations, and two were conducted independent of CIOT mobilizations. The evaluation examined enforcement and media indices in the program sites. The researchers conducted awareness surveys in the program and control areas in three of the States and seat belt observations in the program and control areas of all four States. The results of this evaluation are compared to previous NHTSA teen-focused demonstrations in Colorado and Nevada (Nichols, Haire, Solomon, Ellison-Potter, & Cosgrove, 2011).

Older Drivers

  • The Effects of Medical Conditions on Driving Performance
    Older adults are projected to drive more and to continue driving longer than previous cohorts. Most older adults are capable and conscientious drivers, but some develop medical conditions that may interfere with their functional abilities, including those that support safe driving. This study explores the effects of a variety of medical conditions common among older adults on their driving performance and exposure. Participants with conditions selected for the study, as well as a control group of similar age, completed a professional driving evaluation, and the research team installed instruments in their vehicles to collect driving exposure data. These data documented whether and to what extent drivers with various medical conditions restricted their driving exposure. The researchers supplemented the collected data with data from drivers with self-reported medical conditions in the 2nd Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) naturalistic study. The findings provide guidance to medical professionals who advise their older patients in decisions related to driving.

Distracted Driving

  • National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015
    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of surveys on distracted driving that have provided data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the development of countermeasures and interventions to reduce distracted driving on the Nation’s roadways. Specifically, the 2015 NSDDAB assessed the extent to which drivers are distracted by various activities; demographic and typological descriptions of drivers prone to distractions; the extent and frequency of cell phone use, texting, and use of apps while driving; attitudes and perceptions about distracted driving; knowledge of and attitudes toward measures to deter distracted driving; perceptions about the danger of distracted driving; exposure to the consequences of distracted driving; willingness to intervene when someone is distracted while driving; and changes and trends in distracted driving behavior and attitudes since 2010. Like the previous studies conducted in 2010 and 2012, this survey yields national estimates of behavior and attitudes toward distracted driving in the United States.

Other

  • Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 9th Edition
    This guide (its 9th edition) is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. The areas include: Alcohol and Drug Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies. The document has been restructured, in the 9th edition, to emphasize the countermeasures that have been demonstrated to be effective (i.e., received 3-, 4- or 5-star ratings).