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Laws & Regulations

Corporate Average Fuel Economy

 

NHTSA's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards regulate how far our vehicles must travel on a gallon of fuel. NHTSA sets CAFE standards for passenger cars and for light trucks (collectively, light-duty vehicles), and separately sets fuel consumption standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks and engines. NHTSA also regulates the fuel-economy window stickers on new vehicles. This site contains information about many aspects of these programs, and we encourage you to check back as new information is posted.


June 7, 2024: NHTSA Announces Final Rule for CAFE and HDPUV Standards

Model Years 2027-2031 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards and Model Years 2030-2035 Heavy-Duty Pickup Trucks and Vans Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards

After reviewing the tens of thousands of public comments submitted on NHTSA’s August 2023 proposal for MYs 2027-2031 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards and MYs 2030-2035 Heavy-Duty Pickup Trucks and Vans (HDPUV) Fuel Efficiency Standards and the accompanying Draft Environmental Impact Statement, NHTSA announced the final CAFE and HDPUV standards. The final rule establishes standards that would require an industry-wide fleet average of approximately 50.4 miles per gallon (mpg) in MY 2031 for passenger cars and light trucks, and an industry fleet-wide average for HDPUVs of roughly 2.851 gallons per 100 miles in MY 2035.  The final CAFE standards increase at a rate of 2 percent per year for passenger cars in MYs 2027-31 and 2 percent per year for light trucks in model years 2029-31.  The final HDPUV fuel efficiency standards increase at a rate of 10 percent per year in MYs 2030-2032 and 8 percent per year in MYs 2033-2035.

The agency projects the final standards will save consumers nearly $23 billion in fuel costs and avoid the consumption of about 70 billion gallons of gasoline (equivalent) through 2050. The agency also projects the standards will prevent more than 710 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, reduce air pollution, and reduce the country’s dependence on oil.  The final standards provide critical savings at the gas pump for American consumers and set goals that are consistent with Congress' direction to conserve energy and provide flexibility to industry on how best to meet those goals from proven, available fuel-saving technologies.


Light-Duty Vehicles

Standards

Final Rule: CAFE Standards for MYs 2027-2031 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks and Fuel Efficiency Standards for MYs 2030-2035 Heavy-Duty Pickup Trucks and Vans 

NPRM: Proposed CAFE Standards for MYs 2027-2032 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks and Fuel Efficiency Standards for MYs 2030-2035 Heavy-Duty Pickup Trucks and Vans

Documents Associated with Earlier Rulemakings

Compliance and Enforcement

CAFE self-service reporting data portal

NHTSA’s Public Information Center (PIC) is a resource tool for the public and for automobile manufacturers to obtain information on the CAFE and Heavy-Duty Vehicle and Engine Fuel Consumption programs. PIC allows researchers, analysts, media, and the public to easily access dynamic data about how manufacturers are complying with NHTSA’s fuel efficiency programs and provides self-service portals for easy access to the data. For manufacturers, PIC provides the most up-to-date resource tools for compliance. Public information is routinely updated on PIC to provide timely, reliable compliance data, which can be viewed in reports, and interactive table and graph formats. The interactive data can be easily sorted and filtered based on specific areas of interest to produce custom reports, which can also be downloaded as Excel or PDF files. NHTSA will add reports and additional resources for manufacturers to PIC sites as regulations and needs arise.

CAFE and fuel efficiency update

December 13, 2022: A new compliance report for NHTSA’s heavy-duty (HD) fuel consumption program covering MY 2013-2020 vehicles is available in CAFE's public information center.

Rulemaking on civil penalty rate

March 25, 2022: NHTSA final rule withdrawing the January 2021 interim final rule and reverting to the December 2016 final rule, restoring the application of the increased CAFE civil penalty rate as mandated by Congress beginning with Model Year 2019, instead of Model Year 2022.

Previous rulemaking

August 17, 2021: NHTSA supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking requesting comment on whether NHTSA should proceed to a final rule that withdraws the January 2021 interim final rule and reverts to the December 2016 final rule, restoring the application of the increased CAFE civil penalty rate beginning with model year 2019, instead of model year 2022.

January 14, 2021: NHTSA interim final rule adjusts the CAFE civil penalty rate to $14 beginning in model year 2022; if the August 31, 2020, decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Case No. 19-2395 is vacated, however, the rate will remain at $5.50 instead.

July 12, 2019: NHTSA final rule retains the $5.50 penalty rate applicable to automobile manufacturers that fail to meet CAFE standards.

Heavy-Duty Vehicles

NHTSA Announces Final Rule for HDPUV Standards

June 7, 2024: NHTSA finalizes new fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans (commonly referred to as class 2b and class 3 vehicles) built in model years 2030-2035. 

Phase 2

The compliance dates for NHTSA’s fuel efficiency regulations, to the extent they apply to truck trailers, are currently stayed, pursuant to an order of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued on September 29, 2020 in case No. 16-1430.

Final Rule for Phase 2 fuel efficiency and GHG emissions standards for medium- & heavy-duty vehicles, MY2018-2027

Documents relating to the Phase 2 proposal for medium- & heavy-duty vehicles, MY 2018-2027

Phase 1

Phase 1 of Fuel Efficiency and GHG Emission Program for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks, MYs 2014-2018  

Technical Amendments

Final Rule

NEPA Process

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking


Fuel Economy and Environment Label

NHTSA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a joint final rule establishing new requirements for a fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S.