Behaviors and Attitudes
NHTSA studies behaviors and attitudes in highway safety, focusing on drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and motorcyclists. We identify and measure behaviors involved in crashes or associated with injuries, and develop and refine countermeasures to deter unsafe behaviors and promote safe alternatives.
NHTSA’s recently published reports are listed chronologically below. To the right are additional resources including Behavioral Research Notes and Traffic Techs. The most recent Behavioral Research Note is dated October 2017. The most recent Traffic Tech is dated September 2017.
Additional Analysis of National Child Restraint Use Special Study: Characteristics Of Those Not Restrained (Research Note)
The National Child Restraint Use Special Study recorded the use of car seats and belt-positioning booster seats in children up to 8 years old in 4,167 vehicles. This report describes the examination of unrestrained drivers, drivers who report having ever driven with unrestrained children, and drivers transporting unrestrained children. Of drivers in the study, 129 were unrestrained; 725 had driven with unrestrained children; 51 percent said that a “short trip” was the reason.
Evaluation of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement Demonstration Program And Identification of Characteristics of Unbelted High-Risk Drivers
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a high-visibility nighttime seat belt enforcement programconducted in Maryland by measuring changes in day and night self-reported and observed seat belt use and crashoutcomes. To better understand the characteristics of unbelted drivers, the study compared the driving records ofmotorists who received seat belt citations during the enforcement crackdown with drivers who were not cited forfailing to use seat belts.
Statistically significant pre-post increases in nighttime seat belt use in the program area were observed for three of the five activity waves.
Analysis of driver records found clear evidence that drivers cited for seat belt violations had poorer driving records than those who were not cited for seat belt violations. Some of the differences were substantial. For example, drivers cited for seat belt infractions were nearly eight times more likely than those not cited to have prior seat belt violations on their driver records.
Analysis of crash data for the program area found significant declines in the proportion of occupants involved in injury crashes that were unbelted, both at night and during the day. For fatal crashes, nonsignificant declines were observed in the proportion of occupants that were unbelted at night, as well as the proportion of occupants that were unbelted during the day and night combined.
National Traffic Speeds Survey III: 2015
A field survey was conducted during the summer of 2015 as a longitudinal repetition to similar efforts undertaken in 2007 and 2009. The goal was to measure travel speeds and prepare nationally representative speed estimates for all types of motor vehicles on freeways, arterial highways, and collector roads across the United States. Over 12 million vehicle speeds were measured at 677 sites included in the geographic cluster sample of 24 primary sampling units (PSUs). Each PSU was a county, or group of two or three counties representing combinations of regions of the United States, level of urbanization, and type of topography (flat, hilly, mountainous). Speeds were acquired on randomly drawn road segments on limited access highways, major and minor arterial roads, and collector roads. Speed measurement sites were selected in road segments with low, medium, or high degrees of horizontal and vertical curvature or gradient.
National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors – 2015
The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the development of countermeasures and interventions to reduce distracted driving on the nation’s roadways. Specifically, the 2015 NSDDAB assessed the extent to which drivers are distracted by various activities; demographic and typological descriptions of drivers prone to distractions; the extent and frequency of cell phone use, texting, and use of mobile device “apps” while driving; attitudes and perceptions about distracted driving; knowledge of and attitudes toward measures to deter distracted driving; perceptions about the danger of distracted driving; exposure to the consequences of distracted driving; willingness to intervene when someone is distracted while driving; and changes and trends in distracted driving behaviors and attitudes since 2010. Like the previous studies conducted in 2010 and 2012, this survey yields national estimates of behaviors and attitudes toward distracted driving in the United States. The present study used a driver typology based on the pattern of responses across multiple distracted driving behavior questions. The cluster analysis identified two distinct groups of drivers with similar overall behavioral tendencies and, among those categorized, 42% are distraction-prone and 58% are distraction-averse. Driver type is a powerful predictor of norms and attitudes towards distracted driving behavior and sanctions for distracted driving.
National Telephone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors – 2015
National telephone survey of distracted driving to monitor the public’s attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior about cell phone use and texting while driving, and driver choices.
The Effects of Medical Conditions on Driving Performance
This report investigated the effect of selected medical conditions on the exposure and performance of older drivers. Conditions include COPD, age-related macular degeneration, Parkinson’s disease, and peripheral neuropathy. Performance between groups with and without medical conditions was equivalent in virtually all respects based on vehicle kinematic data and crash and near-crash events. A panel discussion sought input from continuing care retirement communities on identifying residents at-risk for driving and overcoming the organizational and personal barriers when residents experience diminished driving performance.
Matching Countermeasures to Driver Types and Speeding Behaviors
This report summarizes a survey of Idaho drivers to learn more about why drivers speed and the countermeasures that might work. The study provides new insights on speeding countermeasures for various driver types and roadway situations and compared survey self-reported speeding citations with actual driver records, providing information on driver recall and self-reporting of driving behavior.
Interlock Data Utilization
This report summarizes findings on ignition interlock data is used for DWI offender monitoring and offender-related programs such as screening, assessments, and treatment for alcohol abuse problems. It describes the uses of interlock data, procedures for using interlock data, and challenges and issues related to using interlock data.
Marijuana-Impaired Driving – A Report to Congress
The report is to educate the public that drugs other than alcohol, including marijuana, are absorbed, distributed and eliminated from the body differently than alcohol. While BAC correlates closely with impairment, there is no such measure (e.g., THC) for marijuana that correlates with impairment. Thus, a BAC-equivalent impairment measure is not possible.
Older-Driver Foot Movements
This study explored how drivers 60 and older control the accelerator and brake while driving and parking, advancing an earlier study about pedal misapplication crashes. An instrumented vehicle on a test route in actual traffic measured foot movement and position affecting possible pedal error. Participants included 6 drivers with peripheral neuropathy of the feet, 2 with hip replacements, and 18 older but healthy drivers. Researchers also documented participants’ functional abilities such as leg functional reach and anthropometries such as height and femur length to determine whether these factors related to pedal control. Drivers with medical conditions scored significantly poorer than the normally aging drivers while parking. Poor vehicle fit was significantly related to functional ability.
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