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Grants Management Solutions Suite (GMSS)

Highway Safety Grants Glossary of Key Terms and Definitions

154 Transfer Program: A State that does not enact and enforce an open container law that complies with the requirements of 23 U.S.C. 154 shall have 3 percent of Federal-aid highway funds transferred to the State’s Section 402 program.; Section 154 funds transferred to NHTSA may only be used for alcohol-impaired enforcement and countermeasures. Reference 23 CFR Part 1270.

164 Transfer Program: A State that does not enact and enforce a repeat intoxicated driver law that complies with the requirements of 23 U.S.C. 164, shall have 3 percent of Federal-aid highway funds transferred to the State’s Section 402 program. Transferred Section 164 funds may be used only for alcohol-impaired countermeasures and enforcement, and hazard elimination (highway safety improvement program). Reference 23 CFR Part 1275.

402 Program: 23 USC Section 402 (Highway Safety Act of 1966) authorizes, the State and Community Highway Safety Grant Program which provides Federal aid to States, Territories, and the Indian Nations for implementing traffic safety projects at the State and local levels. Section 402 funds are apportioned on a formula basis of population and roadway miles.

403 Program: Funds appropriated by Congress for the purpose of research and demonstration. The latter is usually a project awarded to a State that hopes to identify the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of a particular countermeasure or group of countermeasures.

405 SAFETEA-LU - Incentive Grant Program: Occupant Protection Grants: Encourage States to adopt primary seat belt use laws and implement effective programs to increase seat belt and child safety seat use. Grant funds can only be used for occupant protection programs. Reference 23 CFR Part 1345.

406 SAFETEA-LU - Incentive Grant Program: Primary Safety Belt Use Laws: Available, to States that enact and enforce primary safety belt use laws meeting specific requirements or achieve and maintain a high safety belt use rate without primary safety belt laws. Grant funds may be used for any safety purpose under Title 23 U.S.C., including behavioral and infrastructure safety programs. Reference 23 CFR Section 406.

408 SAFETEA-LU - Incentive Grant Program: State Traffic Safety Information System Improvements Grants: A grant program to support the development and implementation of effective programs by the States to improve the timeliness, accuracy, completeness, uniformity, integration, and accessibility of State data that is needed to identify priorities for national, State, and local highway and traffic safety programs. Reference 23 CFR Section 2006.

410 SAFETEA-LU - Incentive Grant Program: Alcohol-Impaired Driving Prevention: Grants are awarded to States that adopt laws and implement effective programs to reduce traffic safety problems resulting from individuals driving motor vehicles while under the influence of alcohol. Grant funds may only be used to prevent impaired driving programs. Reference 23 CFR Part 1313.

1906 SAFETEA-LU - Incentive Grant Program: Prohibit Racial Profiling: A grant program encouraging States to enact and enforce laws that prohibit the use of racial profiling in the enforcement of traffic laws on Federal aid highway, and to maintain and allow public inspection of statistics on motor vehicle stops. Grant funds may be used for activities related to collecting data and implementing programs to reduce racial profiling, are available to States that meet specific criteria. Reference 23 USC Section 1906.

2010 SAFETEA-LU - Incentive Grant Program: Motorcyclist Safety: A grant program available to States under SAFETEA-LU to encourage States to adopt effective motorcyclist safety programs. Grant funds may only be used for motorcyclist safety training and motorcyclist awareness (to enhance motorist awareness of the presence of motorcyclists) programs. Reference 23 CFR Part 1350.

2011 SAFETEA-LU - Child Safety and Child Booster Seat Incentive Grant Program: A grant program for child safety seats and child booster seats. Grant funds may be used to purchase and distribution of child restraints to low-income families; enforcement of child restraint laws; training concerning use of child restraints; and education programs to the public concerning proper use and installation of child restraints, are available to States that enact and enforce a booster seat law meeting specific requirements Reference 23 USC Section 2011.

Annual Reconciliation: A process for terminating a current fiscal year (FY) highway safety program and moving the unexpended funds into the subsequent FY Highway Safety Plan (HSP). Reference 23 CFR Part 1200, Subpart E.

Annual Report: The State report submitted each year by December 31 (90 days after end of Federal FY), which addresses: State progress in meeting highway safety performance measure targets; a general description of the projects and activities funded and implemented; the amount of Federal funds expended on projects; and how projects funded during the Federal FY contributed to meeting the State's highway safety targets. Reference 23 CFR §1200.35.

Apportionment: The distribution of funds as prescribed by a statutory formula.

Appropriation: Congressional action that makes funds available for obligation and expenditure with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration.  In most cases, it permits money previously authorized to be obligated and payments made, but for the highway program operating under contract authority, the appropriation acts specifies amounts of funds that Congress will make available for the Federal FY to liquidate obligations.

Authorization: Establishes or continues Federal programs or agencies and establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds for the program(s).  The current authorization act is: Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act” (MAP-21).

Award: An award is a grant, cost reimbursement contract, or other agreement between a State, local, and Indian Tribal government and the Federal Government.

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC): The amount of alcohol in a person’s body is measured by the weight of the alcohol in a certain volume of blood. This is called the BAC. Alcohol is absorbed directly through the walls of the stomach and the small intestine, goes into the bloodstream, and travels throughout the body and to the brain. Alcohol is quickly absorbed and can be measured within 30 to 70 minutes after a person has had a drink.

Carry-forward Funds: Funds that a State has not expended on projects in the FY in which they were apportioned or allocated, that are being brought forward and made available for expenditure in a subsequent FY.

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA): Provides a full listing of all Federal programs available to States and local governments (including the District of Columbia); federally recognized Indian tribal governments; Territories of the United States; domestic public, quasi- public, and private profit and nonprofit organizations and institutions; specialized groups; and individuals. Reference CFDA.

Certifications Statements: Statements signed by the Governor Representative (GR) and submitted annually with the highway safety plan to NHTSA, providing formal assurances regarding the State’s compliance with applicable laws and financial and programmatic requirements pertaining to the Section 402 program. Reference 23 CFR Part 1200, Appendix A.

Click It or Ticket: A national campaign to increase safety belt usage with high visibility enforcement and paid media at specific times, including a national mobilization around Memorial Day.

Closeout: The process by which the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the Federal award has been completed by the non-Federal entity. Reference 2 CFR § 200.16 and 2 CFR § 200.343.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

Cognizant Agency for Audits: The Federal agency designated for audits is the Federal awarding agency that provides the predominant amount of direct funding to a non-Federal entity unless OMB designates a specific cognizant agency for audit. Reference 2 CFR § 200.513.

Cognizant Agency for Indirect Costs: The Federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals is the Federal agency with the largest dollar value of total Federal funds with a governmental entity. Reference 2 CFR § 200.19.

Contract Authority: The statutory language that authorizes NHTSA to incur an obligation without the need for a prior appropriation or further action from Congress and which, when exercised, creates a binding obligation on the United States for which Congress must make subsequent liquidating appropriations. In the event that authorizations exist but no applicable appropriation act has been enacted by October 1 of a FY, the NHTSA Administrator shall distribute to the States a part of the funds authorized under Section 402 contract authority to ensure program continuity. Reference 23 CFR § 1200.15(b).

Continuing Resolution: If appropriation bills are not pass by Congress and signed by the President by October 1 of each year the President and Congress can agree to a Continuing Resolution that allows Government agencies to continue programs at the same funding levels as the previous fiscal year. If the Continuing Resolution is not passed by Congress or passed and not signed by the President the Federal Government has no authority to operate

Countermeasure: An activity or initiative to prevent, neutralize, or correct a specific problem.

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES): A probabilistic linkage technique that makes it possible for States to link large data files in a very short amount of time at relatively low cost. From the linked data, the States identify the expected medical and financial outcome for specific vehicle, crash, and person characteristics.

Data Element: A unit of information in its smallest meaningful form, which expresses an occurrence.

Direct Costs: Costs that can be identified specifically with a particular final cost objective. Reference 2 CFR § 200.413.

Distracted Driving: Distracted driving is any activity that could divert a person's attention away from the primary task of driving. Includes activities such as texting or talking on a cell phone.

Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over: A national campaign conducted twice a year with high-visibility enforcement and paid media to stop drunk driving on our Nation's roadways.

Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Court: A court that specializes in cases involving DWI and abides by the Ten Guiding Principles of DWI Courts in effect on the date of the grant, as established by the National Center for DWI Courts.

Equipment: Tangible, personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of more than one year and a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established the non-Federal entity for financial statement purposes or $5,000. Reference 2 CFR § 200.33.

Evaluation: An assessment of the accomplishment or worth of an activity or countermeasure. Evaluations are predominantly of two types, (1) administrative evaluation which measures the actual activities, tasks, dollars against those planned; (2) impact evaluation which measures an activity against a specific goal, e.g., a reduction of fatalities, injuries.

Evidentiary Breath Testing (EBT): Any instrument capable of analyzing a sample of breath to determine BAC with sufficient accuracy to be admissible as evidence in court.

Fatality Rate: The number of traffic fatalities per number of vehicle miles travel in a given year. The rate is usually expressed in terms of fatalities per one hundred million miles traveled. Sometimes also expressed as a rate of population or licensed drivers.

Federally Recognized Indian Tribal Government: The governing body or a governmental agency of any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community certified by the Secretary of the Interior as eligible for the special programs and services provided by him through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): An agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) responsible for the administration of the nation’s Federal-Aid highway funds.

Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration (FMCSA): An agency within the U.S. DOT responsible for the reduction of injuries, crashes and fatalities in large vehicles.

Fiscal Year: Any 12 month accounting period, but generally used to differentiate from a calendar year. The Federal Government fiscal year is October 1 through September 30.

Goal: A benchmark established to correct an identified problem, generally viewed from a long-range vantage of 2 to 5 years.

Governor’s Highway Safety Association (GHSA): An association of State highway safety representatives whose primary purpose is to represent the State’s interests on a national level and provide support for State highway safety programs.

Governor’s Representative for Highway Safety: The official appointed by the Governor to implement the State’s highway safety program or, for the application of this part to Indian Nation as provided in 23 U.S.C. 402(h), an official of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or other Department of Interior official who is duly designated by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Indian highway safety program.

Grant Agreement: A legal instrument of financial assistance between a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-Federal entity. Reference 2 CFR § 200.51.

Grant Tracking System (GTS): NHTSA’s web-based electronic system for accounting for grant funds awarded to States.

Hatch Act: Governs political activity of Federal employees as well as a number of State and local government employees. States are required to comply with the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 1501-1508 and implementing regulations of 5 CFR Part 151, concerning “Political Activity of State or Local Offices, or Employees”.

High Crash Location: Highway or road segments that are susceptible to an inordinate number of crashes, usually the result of poor road design, absence of appropriate traffic signing or signals, or lack of enforcement. Identification of high crash locations are a desirable part of the problem identification process.

High-Visibility Enforcement (HVE): Law enforcement efforts that are highly visible and well publicized through paid and earned media support. NHTSA engages additional law enforcement agencies in periodic impaired-driving crackdowns, sustained impaired-driving enforcement, and Click It or Ticket enforcement throughout the year.

Highway Safety Act of 1966: Enacted by Congress to provide grant funds to the States for the purpose of reducing highway fatalities, injuries, and crashes. The Act established 14 highway safety standards (subsequently increased to 18), 12 administered by NHTSA and three administered by FHWA and one (pedestrian safety) administered by both agencies. The Act provides that funds are apportioned to the States on the basis of population and road mileage and that a minimum of 40 percent of funds received by each State be set aside for local benefit. The Act also provides that each Governor appoint a representative to administer the State highway safety program and that a maximum of ten percent of the funds may be used to fund the Planning and Administration activities of the State.

Highway Safety Plan Approval Letter: A letter sent to a State’s Governor and GR notifying them that based on the submission of the HSP, the State’s highway safety program is in compliance with requirements of Section 402 program. Reference 23 CFR § 1200.14

Highway Safety Plan: A State document, coordinated with the State strategic highway safety plan as defined in 23 U.S.C. 148(a), that the State submits each FY as its application for highway safety grants. The HSP describes the strategies and projects that State plans to implement and the resources from all sources it plans to use to achieve its highway safety performance targets. Reference 23 CFR Part 1200, Subpart B

Highway Safety Program: The term used to include the planning, strategies, and performance measures, and general oversight and management of highway safety strategies and projects by the State either directly or through sub-recipients to address highway safety problems in the State. A State highway safety program is defined in the annual HSP and resulting amendments. Reference 23 CFR § 1200.11(c).

Highway Trust Fund: An account established by Congress into which user fees and motor fuel taxes are deposited to fund highway and highway safety initiatives.

House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure: The United States House of Representatives Committee that establishes program parameters and that greatly influence the extent to which the highway safety program is funded.

House Report 1700: Statement of Congress that accompanied the Highway Safety Act of 1966 to show the intent of Congress in carrying out the Act. Of prime concern to Congress was the funds apportioned to States are used to initiate State and local programs that would ultimately become self-sustaining.

Impaired Driving: The driving of a vehicle by a person whose reflexes have suffered from alcohol or other drugs to a point that is generally considered unsafe to operate a vehicle. Impairment is usually viewed less severely than intoxication.

Improper Payment: An improper payment is any payment that should not have been made or that was made in an incorrect amount under statutory, contractual, administrative, or other legally applicable requirements.

Indirect Costs: Costs incurred for a common or joint purpose benefiting more than one cost objective, and not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefited, without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. Reference 2 CFR § 200.414.

Internal Controls: A process, effected by an entity's management and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the following categories: effectiveness and efficiency of operations and the reliability of financial reporting.

Local Governments: A county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments, any other regional or interstate government entity, or any agency or instrumentality of local government.

Management Review: A review of a State Highway Safety Office’s systems, programs, program performance, and operational processes for the purpose of improving and strengthening highway safety practices to ensure efficient administration and effective planning, implementation and evaluation of programs that have potential for saving lives.

Match: Federal share payable for the various highway safety grant programs (MAP-21 and SAFETEA-LU) that shall not exceed the percentage as required in the applicable regulations. States are required to provide match for the remaining percentage. Match can be direct or indirect costs, but must be traceable and auditable.

Match Requirements (80-20): 23 U.S.C. Section 120(b) provides that the Federal share payable for the State and Community Highway Safety Program (Section 402) and Section 405 shall not exceed 80 percent (except States that elect to participate in a sliding scale). States are required to provide match for the remaining 20 percent. Match can be direct or indirect costs, but must be traceable and auditable. Reference NHTSA Order 462-6C.

Milestone: A major event to be accomplished by a given point in time.

Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC): Minimum set of crash data elements with standardized definitions that are relevant to injury control, highway, and traffic safety.

Monitoring: Management and oversight of the day-to-day operations of grant and sub-grant supported activities to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State requirements and that performance goals are being achieved. Monitoring covers each program, function or activity. Reference 2 CFR § 200.328.

Motorcycle: A motor vehicle with motive power having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground.

National Priority Program Areas MAP-21 Section 405 Grants: Identified program areas that encompass a major highway safety problem of national concern and for which effective counter-measures are identified. Reference 23 CFR Part 1200, Subpart C.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: An agency of the U.S. DOT whose mission is to promote safer vehicles and safer driving practices to reduce deaths, injuries, medical costs and other economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes.

NHTSA Regional Offices: NHTSA is geographically divided into ten regions, each having technical assistance and oversight responsibility for specific States, Territories and Indian Highway Safety Program.

Non-Major Equipment: All tangible property, which does not meet the definition of major equipment, including supplies. States may have their own definition.

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM): Published in the Federal Register to allow for comments on draft rulemaking by the Federal Government.

Objective: A shorter-term benchmark than a goal that is quantifiable and measurable. Ideally a goal is established after which a series of objectives are identified to reach that goal.

Obligation Limitation: A restriction, or “ceiling” on the amount of Federal assistance that may be promised (obligated) during a specified time period. This is a statutory budgetary control that does not affect the apportionment or allocation of funds. Rather, it controls the rate at which these funds may be used.

Occupant Protection: Any device installed in a vehicle designed to prevent an occupant from crashing into the vehicle’s interior or to reduce the severity of injuries for that occupant. Seat belts, child safety seats, air bags, padded interiors, and side door beams are all occupant protection devices.

Office of Inspector General (OIG): The office of the U.S. DOT responsible for performing audit functions, evaluating the effectiveness of programs, ensuring policies and procedures are followed, and maintaining a system to review and resolve audit findings.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB): The OMB evaluates, formulates, and coordinates management procedures and program objectives within and among Federal departments and agencies. OMB also controls the administration of the Federal budget, while routinely providing the President with recommendations regarding budget proposals and relevant legislative enactments.

Paid Media: The purchase of advertising in a variety of mediums including television and radio, cinema, digital/internet, social, prints, outdoors and sports marketing for highway safety messages.

Pass-Through Entity: A non-Federal entity that provides a subaward to a subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal program.

Primary Belt Law: A seat belt use law that allows primary enforcement (i.e., a driver can be pulled over for the seat belt offense).

Performance Measures: Performance measures assess progress. Performance measures are used to set goals, connect goals to actions, allocate resources, monitor and evaluate progress, communicate the priorities, results, and the value to society of traffic safety. Reference: “Traffic Safety Performance Measures for States and Federal Agencies” August 2008 (DOT HS 811025).

Performance Plan: The document, accompanied by the HSP that States submit to NHTSA annually for approval. The performance plan contains: (1) A list of annual quantifiable and measurable highway safety performance targets that is data-driven, consistent with the Uniform Guidelines for Highway Safety Program and based on highway safety problems identified by the State during the planning process conducted. (2) Performance measures developed by DOT in collaboration with the Governor’s Highway Safety Association and others, beginning with the MAP-21 directed “Traffic Safety Performance Measures for States and Federal Agencies” (DOT HS 811025), which are used as a minimum in developing the performance targets. Reference: 23 CFR § 1200.11(2)(b).

Planning and Administration: As outlined in 23 CFR Part 1200, Appendix F, these costs are direct and indirect costs that are attributable to the overall development and management of the HSP. Costs include salaries and related personnel benefits for the GR and other technical, administrative, and clerical staff in the States’ Highway Safety Offices. Costs also include other office expenses, such as travel, equipment, supplies, rent and utilities necessary to carry out the functions of the highway safety office.

Problem Identification: A process of analyzing general data to isolate specific causes or locations of traffic crashes.

Program: A project or group of projects designed to deter or counter specific traffic safety problems.

Program Area: A National Priority Program area identified in 23 CFR Part 1200, Subpart C or a program area identified by the State in the highway safety plan that encompasses a major highway safety problem in the State and for which effective countermeasures have been identified. Reference 23 CFR Part 1200, Subpart B.

Program Cost Summary HS-217: A financial document that accompanies the HSP showing the total cost programmed for each program area or each program activity within that HSP. The electronic cost summary generated through the Grant Tracking System is the preferred method of submission by States to NHTSA. Reference 23 CFR Part 1200, Appendix B.

Program Income: Gross income earned by the non-Federal entity that is directly generated by a supported activity or earned as a result of the Federal award during the period of performance. Program income includes but is not limited to income from fees for services performed, use or rental or real or personal property acquired under Federal awards, sale of commodities or items fabricated under a Federal award, license fees and royalties on patents and copyrights, and principal and interest on loans made with Federal award funds. Interest earned on advances of Federal funds is not program income. Except as otherwise provided in Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal award, program income does not include rebates, credits, discounts, and interest earned on any of them. Reference 2 CFR § 200.307 and 23 CFR § 1200.34.

Project: Any of the activities proposed or implemented under a States’ HSP to address discrete or localized highway safety problems falling within one or more program areas.

Project Agreement: A contractual written agreement between the SHSO and a sub-grantee or contractor under which the State agrees to provide 23 U.S.C. Chapter 4 funds in exchange for the sub-grantee’s or contractor’s performance of one or more undertakings or activities supporting the highway safety program.

Proportionate Funding: A level of funding for activities and equipment where components are both related and unrelated to a highway safety grant. Federal Government share is based proportionately on the projected utilization for the Federal grant purposes. For example, the NHTSA participation in the cost of a Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for quantitative testing of drug evidential samples shall be on a pro rata basis. If a State laboratory department plans to use this equipment 20 percent of the time to identify drug-impaired-driving evidence and 80 percent of the time to identify non-traffic-related evidence, the NHTSA participation must not exceed 20 percent of the cost of the equipment.

Public Service Announcement (PSA): A television, newspaper, or radio message that is broadcast free of charge by the network or station as a public service.

Public/Private Partnership: Government’s encouragement of partnerships between the government and private sector to work jointly toward and end in an effort to maximize progress and minimize the effects of the decline in Federal funds available to fund highway safety programs.

Questioned Costs: Costs that are questioned by the auditor because of an audit finding. Reference 2 CFR § 200.84.

Rate: A ratio of the number per year normalized by the number of vehicles, drivers, population, or vehicle miles traveled.

Real Property: Includes land, including land improvements, structures and appurtenances thereto, but excludes moveable machinery and equipment. Reference 2 CFR § 200.85.

Recipient: A non-Federal entity that receives a Federal award directly from a Federal-awarding agency to carry out an activity under a Federal program. The term recipient does not include subrecipients.

Regional Program Manager (RPM): A Highway Safety Specialist in a NHTSA Regional Office who works with the SHSO and other partners.

Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient, Transportation Equity Act A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU): An authorization for highway, highway safety, transit, and other surface transportation modes that covers transportation funding from FY06-FY09 and extended through FY12.

Seed Money: Grant funds awarded to a State or local agency for the purpose of initiating a traffic safety program or expanding one already in place with the intent that it will be able to sustain itself beyond the planned period of funding.

Self-Sustaining/Self-Sufficient: A program that is able to financially support its existence with funds generated through or as a result of the program. (e.g., fines, services performed, contributions.)

Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee: The Senate Congressional Committee that oversees and influences highway safety program funding.

Severity: A measurement of the degree of seriousness concerning both vehicle impact (damage) and bodily injuries sustained by vehicle occupant.

Single Audit: An audit required for a non-Federal entity that expends $750,000 or more during the non-Federal entity’s FY in Federal awards. Reference 2 CFR § 200.514.

State Highway Safety Office: The State agency that administers and manages the State and Community Highway Safety Grant Program at the State level. Also known as State highway safety agency. Reference 23 CFR § 1200.4.

Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP): A statewide-coordinated safety plan that provides a comprehensive framework for reducing highway fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads. The SHSP strategically establishes statewide goals, objectives, and key emphasis areas developed in consultation with Federal, State, local, and private sector safety stakeholders. The SHSP is a Federal requirement of SAFETEA-LU, 23 USC 148, and is a major part of the core Highway Safety Improvement Program.

Subaward: An award provided by a pass-through entity to a subrecipient for the subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal award received by the pass-through entity. It does not include payments to a contractor or payments to an individual that is a beneficiary of a Federal program. A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the pass-through entity considers a contract.

Subrecipient: Is a non-Federal entity that receives a subaward from a pass-through entity to carry out part of a Federal program; but does not include an individual that is a beneficiary of such program. A subrecipient may also be a recipient of other Federal awards directly from a Federal awarding agency. Reference 2 CFR § 200.93.

Supplies: Are all tangible personal property other than those described in § 200.33 Equipment. Reference 2 CFR § 200.94 and 2 CFR § 200.314.Texting: The reading from or manually entering data into a personal wireless communications device, including doing so for the purpose of texting, e-mailing, instant messaging, or engaging in any other form of electronic data retrieval or electronic data communication.

Traffic Safety Institute: An institute established in 1971 to assist DOT modal administrations to accomplish mission essential training requirements. The Institute offers premier transit, aviation, motor carrier, highway safety, hazardous materials, risk management, and other required training.

United States Code (U.S.C.): The United States Code is the codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. It is divided by broad subjects into 51 titles and published by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives. The U.S.C. was first published in 1926. The next main edition was published in 1934, and subsequent main editions have been published every six years since 1934. In between editions, annual cumulative supplements are published in order to present the most current information.

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT): Used as a means of determining exposure in calculating fatality rates.