Resources Guide

Glossary of Highway Safety Terms and Definitions

24-7 sobriety program - a State law or program that authorizes a State court or an agency with jurisdiction, as a condition of bond, sentence, probation, parole, or work permit, to require an individual who was arrested for, pleads guilty to or was convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs to (1) Abstain totally from alcohol or drugs for a period of time; and (2) Be subject to testing for alcohol or drugs at least twice per day at a testing location, by continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring via an electronic monitoring device or by an alternative method approved by NHTSA. 23 CFR § 1300.23(b)


A

Alcohol - wine, beer and distilled spirits. 23 CFR § 1300.23(b)

Annual Report - The report each State submits electronically to NHTSA within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year, containing:  (a) An assessment of the State’s progress in achieving performance targets identified in the prior year HSP; (b) A description of the projects and activities funded and implemented along with the amount of Federal funds obligated and expended under the prior year HSP; (c) A description of the State’s evidence-based enforcement program activities; (d) An explanation of reasons for projects that were not implemented; and (e) A description of how the projects funded under the prior year HSP contributed to meeting the State’s highway safety performance targets. 23 CFR § 1300.35

Annual Report File (ARF) - Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data that are published annually, but prior to final FARS data. 23 CFR 1300.3

Apportionment - The division of Federal funds awarded to States, Territories and Indian Nations by NHTSA based upon the current authorization and related laws. The division of Section 402 funds to each State are apportioned based upon statutory formula of roadway mileage population.  

Appropriation - Annual congressional action that makes Federal funds available for obligation and expenditure with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration.  In most cases, it permits funds previously authorized to be obligated and payments made, but for the highway program operating under contract authority, the appropriation act specifies amounts of funds that will be made available for the Federal fiscal year (FY) to liquidate obligations.

Assessment - A NHTSA-facilitated process that employs a team of subject matter experts to conduct a comprehensive review of a specific highway safety program (such as occupant protection and impaired driving) in a State. 23 CFR § 1300.20(b)

Authorization - Congressional action that establishes or continues Federal programs or agencies and establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds for the program(s).  The current authorization, Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST Act) became effective in Fiscal Year 2017. 

Average impaired driving fatality rate - The number of fatalities in motor vehicle crashes involving a driver with a blood alcohol concentration of at least 0.08 percent for every 100,000,000 vehicle miles traveled, based on the most recently reported three calendar years of final data from the FARS. 23 CFR § 1300.20(b)

Award or Federal award - The Federal financial assistance or a cost-reimbursement contract that a non-Federal entity receives directly from a Federal awarding agency or indirectly from a pass-through entity. 2 CFR § 200.38


B

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) - The amount of alcohol in a person’s body measured by grams of alcohol per deciliter or 100 milliliters blood, or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. 23 CFR § 1300.20(b)


C

Carry-forward funds - Funds that a State has not expended on projects in the fiscal year in which they were apportioned or allocated, that are within the period of availability, and that are being brought forward and made available for expenditure in a subsequent fiscal year. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) number - The number assigned to each Federal program by the CFDA.  The pass-through entity must identify the dollar amount made available under each Federal award and the CFDA number at time of disbursement. CFDA and 2 CFR § 200.331

Certifications and Assurances - Statements signed by the Governor’s Representative for Highway Safety (GR) and submitted with the Highway Safety Plan (HSP) to NHTSA, certifying to the HSP application contents and performance conditions and providing assurances that the State will comply with applicable laws, and financial and programmatic requirements pertaining to Sections 402, 405 and 1906 grant programs. (Also referred to as “certifications and representations” in 2 CFR § 200.208.) 23 CFR § 1300.11(g) and 23 CFR Part 1300, Appendix A

Child restraint - Any device (including a child safety seat, booster seat used in conjunction with 3-point belts, or harness, but excluding seat belts) that is designed for use in a motor vehicle to restrain, seat, or position a child who weighs 65 pounds (30 kilograms) or less and that meets the Federal motor vehicle safety standard prescribed by NHTSA for child restraints. 23 CFR § 1300.21(b)

Click It or Ticket - An annual national campaign to increase safety belt usage that includes high visibility enforcement and paid media at specific times, with a national mobilization around Memorial Day.

Closeout - The process by which the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the Federal award has been completed by the non-Federal entity. 2 CFR § 200.16 and 2 CFR § 200.343  

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

Cognizant agency for audits - The Federal agency designated for audits and is the Federal awarding agency that provides the predominant amount of direct funding to a non-Federal entity unless the Office of Management and Budget designates a specific cognizant agency for audit. 2 CFR § 200.513

Cognizant agency for indirect costs - The Federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals on behalf of all Federal agencies.  The cognizant agency for indirect cost is not necessarily the same as the cognizant agency for audit.  2 CFR § 200.19

Computing devices - Machines used to acquire, store, analyze, process, and publish data and other information electronically, including accessories (or “peripherals”) for printing, transmitting and receiving, or storing electronic information. 2 CFR § 200.20

Contract - A legal instrument by which a non-Federal entity purchases property or services needed to carry out the project or program under a Federal award. The term as used in this part does not include a legal instrument, even if the non-Federal entity considers it a contract, when the substance of the transaction meets the definition of a Federal award or subaward.  A contract is for the purpose of obtaining goods and services for the non-Federal entity’s own use and creates a procurement relationship with a contractor. 2 CFR §200.22 and 2 CFR §200.330(b)

Contractor - An entity that receives a contract as defined in 2 CFR §200.22 Contract. 2 CFR § 200.23

Contract authority - The statutory language that authorizes an agency to incur an obligation without the need for a prior appropriation or further action from Congress and which, when exercised, creates a binding obligation on the United States for which Congress must make subsequent liquidating appropriations.  In the event that authorizations exist but no applicable appropriation act has been enacted by October 1 of a fiscal year, the NHTSA Administrator may, in writing, distribute a part of the funds authorized under 23 U.S.C. Chapter 4 and Section 1906 contract authority to the States to ensure program continuity. 23 CFR § 1300.3 and 23 CFR § 1300.15(b)

Continuing Resolution - Federal legislation that extends funding for federal agencies, typically at the same funding levels that they had been previously funded, into a new fiscal year until new appropriations bills become law.

Cost effective - A measure of project input in terms of dollars against output in terms of degree of accomplishment.

Countermeasure - An activity or initiative to prevent, neutralize, or correct a specific problem.

Countermeasure strategy - A proven effective countermeasure proposed or implemented with grant funds under 23 U.S.C. Chapter 4 and Section 1906 to address identified problems and meet performance targets.  Examples include high visibility occupant protection enforcement, DWI courts and alcohol screening and brief intervention programs. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) - A probabilistic linkage technique that make it possible for states to link large data files in a very short amount of time at relatively low cost.  From the linked data, the states identify the expected medical and financial outcome for specific vehicle, crash, and person characteristics.


D

Data-driven - Informed by a systematic review and analysis of quality data sources when making decisions related to planning, target establishment, resource allocation and implementation. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Data element - A unit of information in its smallest meaningful form, which expresses an occurrence.

De minimis rate - An indirect cost rate of ten percent that is only applied to the Modified Total Direct Cost (MTDC).  To be eligible for the de minimis rate, the agency must never have received a negotiated indirect cost rate and receives less than $35 million in total Federal funds. 2 CFR § 200.68 and 2 CFR § 200.414(f)  

Direct costs - Costs that can be identified specifically with a particular final cost objective. 2 CFR § 200.413

Distracted Driving - Any activity that could divert a person's attention away from the primary task of driving.  Includes activities such as texting or talking on a cell phone while driving.  

Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over - A national campaign conducted twice each year that includes high visibility enforcement and paid media to deter impaired driving on the nation’s roadways.

Driving - Operating a motor vehicle on a public road, and does not include operating a motor vehicle when the vehicle has pulled over to the side of, or off, an active roadway and has stopped in a location where it can safely remain stationary. 23 CFR  § 1300.24(b)

Driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or a combination of alcohol and drugs - Operating a vehicle while the alcohol and/or drug concentration in the blood or breath, as determined by chemical or other tests, equals or exceeds the level established by the State, or is equivalent to the standard offense, for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs in the State. 23 CFR  § 1300.23(b)

Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Court - A court that specializes in cases involving DWI and abides by the Ten Guiding Principles of DWI Courts, as established by the National Center for DWI Courts. 23 CFR  § 1300.23(b)

Drugs - Controlled substances, as that term is defined under section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 802(6). 23 CFR  § 1300.23(b)


E

Educational materials - Purpose is to convey substantive information about highway safety.   NHTSA Memo - Use of NHTSA Highway Safety Grant Funds for Certain Purposes, 5/18/2016

Equipment - Tangible, personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of more than one year and a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established the non-Federal entity for financial statement purposes or $5,000. 2 CFR § 200.33

Evaluation - An assessment of the accomplishment or worth of an activity or countermeasure.  Evaluations are predominantly of two types:  (1) administrative evaluation which measures the actual activities, tasks, dollars against those planned and; (2) impact evaluation which measures an activity against a specific goal, e.g., a reduction of fatalities, injuries.

Evidence-based - Based on approaches that are proven effective with consistent results when making decisions related to countermeasure strategies and projects. 23 CFR § 1300.4

Evidentiary breath testing - Any instrument capable of analyzing a sample of breath to determine blood alcohol concentration with sufficient accuracy to be admissible as evidence in court.

FAST (Fixing America’s Surface Transportation) Act - On December 4, 2015, the President signed into law the Pub. L. 114-94 that provides long-term funding for surface transportation. The FAST Act amended NHTSA’s highway safety grant programs Sections 402 and 405, and it restored a small grant (1906) from a previous authorization. 23 CFR Part 1300

Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) - The nationwide census providing public yearly data regarding fatal injuries suffered in motor vehicle traffic crashes, as published by NHTSA. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Fatality rate - The ratio of the number of fatalities to the number of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (expressed in 100 million VMT) in a calendar year, based on the data reported by the FARS database. 23 CFR § 1300.3

FAIN - An acronym that stands for Federal Award Identification Number.  Each Federal Agency must assign a unique FAIN to every financial assistance award.  A FAIN is comprised of numbers and letters.  The State Highway Safety Office must ensure that every subaward is clearly identified to the subrecipient as a subaward and that the project agreement includes the FAIN. 2 CFR § 200.331(a)(1)(iii)

Federal Fiscal Year (FY) - The Federal fiscal year, consisting of the 12 months beginning each October 1 and ending the following September 30. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) - An agency within the U.S. Department  of Transportation (U.S. DOT) responsible for the administration of the nation’s Federal-Aid highway funds.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) - An agency within the U.S. DOT responsible for the reduction of injuries, crashes and fatalities in large vehicles.

Federal share - The portion of the total projects costs that are paid by Federal funds. 2 CFR § 200.43 

Federally recognized Indian tribal government - The governing body or a governmental agency of any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community certified by the Secretary of the Interior as eligible for the special programs and services provided by him through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Final FARS - The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data that replace the annual report file and contain additional cases or updates that became available after the annual report file was released. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Final financial reconciliation or final voucher - The requirement that each State submit a final voucher which satisfies the requirements of 23 CFR § 1300.33 within 90 days after the expiration of the State’s HSP.  The final voucher constitutes the final financial reconciliation for each fiscal year. 23 CFR § 1300.40(b)

Five-year (5-year) rolling average - The average of five individual points of data from five consecutive calendar years (e.g., the 5-year rolling average of the annual fatality rate). 23 CFR § 1300.3

Fraud - Deliberate deception to secure an unfair gain.

G

General costs of government - Routine and/or existing state or local expenditures with federal highway safety funds.  General costs of government are unallowable. 2 CFR § 200.444 and Grant Funding Guidance IV.D.1

Governor - The Governor of any of the fifty States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Mayor of the District of Columbia, or, for the application of this part to Indian Country as provided in 23 U.S.C. 402(h), the Secretary of the Interior. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Governor’s Highway Safety Association (GHSA) - An association of State highway safety representatives whose primary purpose is to represent the State’s interests on a national level and provide support for State highway safety programs.

Governor’s Representative for Highway Safety (GR) - The official appointed by the Governor to implement the State's highway safety program or, for the application of this part to Indian Country as provided in 23 U.S.C. 402(h), an official of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or other Department of Interior official who is duly designated by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Indian highway safety program. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Grant agreement - A legal instrument of financial assistance between a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-Federal entity.  2 CFR § 200.51 (Also referred to as “Project Agreement” in 23 CFR § 1300.3.) 

Grants Management Solution Suite (GMSS) - A single online solution for all NHTSA grant activities including:  Highway Safety Plan (HSP) annual  grant application creation and submission; HSP application review; grant awarding; invoicing/reimbursement process; and year-end closeout. GMSS replaces the current Grants Tracking System (GTS).


H

Hatch Act - Limits the political activities of employees whose principal employment activities are funded in whole or in part with Federal funds.  This applies to States and subrecipients. 5 U.S.C. 1501-1508 and 23 Part 1300, Appendix A

High crash location - Highway or road segments that are susceptible to an inordinate number of crashes, usually the result of poor road design, absence of appropriate traffic signing or signals, or lack of enforcement.  Identification of high crash locations are a desirable part of the problem identification process.
High seat belt use rate State - A State that has an observed seat belt use rate of 90.0 percent or higher (not rounded) based on validated data from the State survey of seat belt use conducted during the previous calendar year, in accordance with the Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340. 23 CFR § 1300.21(b).

High-range State - A State that has an average impaired driving fatality rate of 0.60 or higher. 23 CFR § 1300.23(b)
 
High Visibility Enforcement (HVE) - a universal traffic safety approach designed to create deterrence and change unlawful traffic behaviors.  HVE combines highly visible and proactive law enforcement targeting a specific traffic safety issue.  Law enforcement efforts are combined with visibility elements and a publicity strategy to educate the public and promote voluntary compliance with the law.  

Highway Safety Act of 1966 - Enacted by Congress to provide grant funds to the States for the purpose of reducing highway fatalities, injuries, and crashes.  The Act established 14 highway safety standards (subsequently increased to 18), 12 administered by NHTSA and three administered by FHWA and one (pedestrian safety) administered by both agencies.  The Act provides that funds are apportioned to the States on the basis of population and road mileage and that a minimum of 40 percent of funds received by each State be set aside for local benefit.  The Act also provides that each Governor appoint a representative to administer the State highway safety program and that a maximum of ten percent of the funds may be used to fund the Planning and Administration activities of the State.

Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) - A core Federal-aid program administrated by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) with the purpose to achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads, including non-State-owned roads and roads on tribal land. The HSIP requires a data-driven, strategic approach to improving highway safety on all public roads with a focus on performance.  The HSIP consists of three main components, the Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP), State HSIP or program of highway safety improvement projects and the Railway-Highway Crossing Program (RHCP). 23 CFR Part 924

Highway Safety Plan (HSP) - The document that the State submits each fiscal year as its application for highway safety grants, which describes the State’s performance targets, the strategies and projects the State plans to implement, and the resources from all sources the State plans to use to achieve its highway safety performance targets. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Highway safety planning process - A component of the HSP that includes:  (1) Description of the data sources and processes used by the State to identify its highway safety problems, describe its highway safety performance measures, establish its performance targets, and develop and select evidence-based countermeasure strategies and projects to address its problems and achieve its performance targets; (2) Identification of the participants in the processes (e.g., highway safety committees, program stakeholders, community and constituent groups); (3) Description and analysis of the State’s overall highway safety problems as identified through an analysis of data, including but not limited to fatality, injury, enforcement, and judicial data, to be used as a basis for setting performance targets and developing countermeasure strategies; (4) Discussion of the methods for project selection (e.g., constituent outreach, public meetings, solicitation of proposals); (5) List of information and data sources consulted; and (6) Description of the outcomes from the coordination of the HSP, data collection, and information systems with the State Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP). 23 CFR § 1300.11(a)

Highway safety program - The planning, strategies and performance measures, and general oversight and management of highway safety strategies and projects by the State either directly or through sub-recipients to address highway safety problems in the State, as defined in the annual Highway Safety Plan and any amendments. 23 CFR § 1300.3 

Highway Trust Fund - An account established by Congress into which user fees and motor fuel taxes are deposited to fund highway and highway safety initiatives.

House Report 1700 - Statement of Congress that accompanied the Highway Safety Act of 1966 to show the intent of Congress in carrying out the Act.  Of prime concern to Congress was the funds apportioned to States are used to initiate State and local programs that would ultimately become self-sustaining.


I

Impaired - Alcohol-impaired or drug-impaired as defined by State law, provided that the State's legal alcohol-impairment level does not exceed .08 BAC.  23 CFR § 1300.25(b)

Impaired driving high-visibility enforcement efforts - Participation in national impaired driving law enforcement campaigns organized by NHTSA, participation in impaired driving law enforcement campaigns organized by the State, or the use of sobriety checkpoints and/or saturation patrols conducted in a highly visible manner and supported by publicity through paid or earned media.

Improper payment - Any payment that should not have been made or that was made in an incorrect amount (including overpayments and underpayments) under statutory, contractual, administrative, or other legally applicable requirements. 2 CFR § 200.53
   
Indirect (facilities & administrative (F&A) costs - Those costs incurred for a common or joint purpose benefitting more than one cost objective, and not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefitted, without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. To facilitate equitable distribution of indirect expenses to the cost objectives served, it may be necessary to establish a number of pools of indirect (F&A) costs. 2 CFR § 200.56   

Indian tribe or federally recognized Indian tribe - Any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians 25 U.S.C. 450b(e) and 2 CFR § 200.54.

Interagency service - The cost of services provided by one agency to another within the governmental unit that may include allowable direct costs of the service plus a pro-rated share of indirect costs.  A standard indirect cost allowance equal to ten percent of the direct salary and wage cost of providing the service (excluding overtime, shift premiums, and fringe benefits) may be used in lieu of determining the actual indirect costs of the service. 2 CFR § 200.417   

Internal controls - A process, implemented by a non-Federal entity, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the following categories:  (a) effectiveness and efficiency of operations; (b) reliability of reporting for internal and external use; and (c) compliance with applicable laws and regulations. 2 CFR § 200.61   


L

Low-range State - A State that has an average impaired driving fatality rate of 0.30 or lower. 23 CFR § 1300.23(b)

Lower seat belt use rate State - A State that has an observed seat belt use rate below 90.0 percent (not rounded) based on validated data from the State survey of seat belt use conducted during the previous calendar year, in accordance with the Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340.  23 CFR § 1300.21(b) 

Licensed driver - An individual who possesses a valid unrestricted driver’s license. 23 CFR § 1300.26(b)

Local participation or local share - The minimum 40 percent or 95 percent (Indian Nations) that must be expended by or for the benefit of political subdivisions. 23 CFR Part 1300, Appendix C

M

Maintenance of effort - The assurances made by States awarded Section 405 occupant protection, impaired driving, and traffic safety information system improvements grants, that the lead State agencies responsible for occupant protection, impaired driving, and traffic safety information system improvements programs shall maintain their aggregate expenditures for such programs at or above the average level of such expenditures in fiscal years 2014 and 2015.  23 CFR § 1300.21(d)(5),  23 CFR § 1300.23(d)(2), and 23 CFR § 1300.22(e)

Management decision - The evaluation by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity of single audit findings and corrective action plan and the issuance of a written decision to the auditee as to what corrective action is necessary.  2 CFR § 200.66   

Management Review - A NHTSA review of a State Highway Safety Office’s (SHSO’s) systems and program performance and operational processes for the purpose of improving and strengthening highway safety practices to ensure efficient administration and effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs that have potential for saving lives.

Management Review Commendation - Recognition of exemplary performance and/or best practices that are innovative and demonstrate successful results.

Management Review Corrective Action Plan (MR CAP) - A document jointly developed by NHTSA and the SHSO that identifies actions to address findings discussed in the MR Final Report, tasks to complete the actions, target dates for completion of each task, and status of each required action.

Management Review Finding - A determination that one or more areas of review is in non-compliance with Federal and/or State laws, regulations, rules, and/or written.  “Finding” is also a term used when NHTSA conducts other monitoring activities. 

Management Review Management Consideration (MC) - A determination that an element needs improvement and, if improved, should have a positive impact on the management of the State highway safety program.

Management Review Recommended Action - A recommended approach based on a management consideration which should have a positive impact on the management of the State highway safety program and is not a compliance item.  It is a good business practice that the State may accept.  “Recommended action” is also a term used when NHTSA conducts other monitoring activities.

Management Review Recommended Action Plan (MR RAP) - A document jointly developed by NHTSA and the SHSO that identifies actions to address management considerations in the MR Final Report, tasks to complete the actions, target dates for completion of each task, and status of each recommended action.

Management Review Required Action - A specific corrective action based on Federal and/or State laws, regulations, rules, and/or written Federal policy and/or guidelines which the State must implement to resolve a non-compliance issue (finding).

Match - The portion of highway safety grant programs costs not paid by Federal funds.  Federal share payable for the various highway safety grant programs (Sections 402 and 405) shall not exceed 80 percent.  States are required to provide program match for the remaining percentage.  Match can be direct or indirect costs, but must be traceable and auditable.  The Federal share of grants awarded to the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is 100 percent.  NHTSA Order 462-6C and 23 CFR § 1300.20(f)

Mid-range State - A State that has an average impaired driving fatality rate that is higher than 0.30 and lower than 0.60.  23 CFR § 1300.23(b)

Milestone - A major event to be accomplished by a given point in time.

Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) - Minimum set of crash data elements with standardized definitions that are relevant to injury control, highway, and traffic safety.

Modified Total Direct Cost (MTDC) - All direct salaries and wages, applicable fringe benefits, materials and supplies, services, travel, and up to the first $25,000 of each subaward (regardless of the period of performance of the subawards under the award).  MTDC excludes equipment, capital expenditures, charges for patient care, rental costs, tuition remission, scholarships and fellowships, participant support costs and the portion of each subaward in excess of $25,000. 2 CFR § 200.68

Monitoring - Oversight of the day-to-day operations of grant and subrecipient supported activities to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State requirements and that performance targets are being achieved.  2 CFR § 200.328

Motorcycle - A motor vehicle with motive power having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground.  2 CFR § 1300.25(b)


N

National Priority Safety Program - Section 405 Grants.  Identified program areas that encompass a major highway safety problem of national concern and for which effective counter-measures are identified.  23 CFR Part 1300

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)  -  An agency of the U.S. DOT whose mission is to promote safer vehicles and safer driving practices to reduce deaths, injuries, medical costs and other economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes.

NHTSA Regional Offices - NHTSA is geographically divided into ten regions, each having technical assistance and oversight responsibility for specific States, Territories and Indian Highway Safety Program.

Nonmotorized Safety Grants - Section 405(h) of FAST Act establishes criteria, for awarding grants to States for the purpose of decreasing pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities and injuries that result from crashes involving a motor vehicle.  23 CFR § 1300.27 

Nonprofit organization - Any corporation, trust, association, cooperative, or other organization, not including IHEs, that:  (a) Is operated primarily for scientific, educational, service, charitable, or similar purposes in the public interest; (b) Is not organized primarily for profit; and (c) Uses net proceeds to maintain, improve, or expand the operations of the organization.  2 CFR § 200.70
   
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) - Published in the Federal Register to allow for comments on draft rulemaking by the Federal government.

Number of fatalities - The total number of persons suffering fatal injuries in a motor vehicle traffic crash during a calendar year, based on data reported in the FARS database.  23 CFR § 1300.3

Number of serious injuries - The total number of persons suffering at least one serious injury for each separate motor vehicle traffic crash during a calendar year, as reported by the State, where the crash involves a motor vehicle traveling on a public road.  23 CFR § 1300.3


O

Objective - A shorter-term benchmark than a target that is quantifiable and measurable.  Ideally a target is established after which a series of objectives are identified to reach that target.
 
Obligation Limitation  - A restriction, or “ceiling” on the amount of Federal assistance that may be promised (obligated) during a specified time period.  This is a statutory budgetary control that does not affect the apportionment or allocation of funds.  Rather, it controls the rate at which these funds may be used

Occupant protection device - Any device(s) installed in a vehicle designed to prevent an occupant from crashing into the vehicle’s interior or to reduce the severity of injuries for that occupant.  Safety belts, child safety seats, air bags, padded interiors, and side door beams are all occupant protection devices.

Office of Inspector General (OIG) - The office of the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for performing audit functions, evaluating the effectiveness of programs, ensuring policies and procedures are followed, and maintaining a system to review and resolve audit findings.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) - An agency within the Executive Office of the President of the United States that evaluates, formulates, and coordinates management procedures and program objectives within and among Federal departments and agencies.  OMB also controls the administration of the Federal budget, while routinely providing the President with recommendations regarding budget proposals and relevant legislative enactments.
Paid media - The purchase of advertising in a variety of mediums including television and radio, cinema, digital/internet, social, prints, outdoors and sports marketing for highway safety messages.


P

Pass-Through Entity - A non-Federal entity that provides a subaward to a subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal program.  The State Highway Safety Office is an example of a pass-through entity.  2 CFR § 200.74

Passenger motor vehicle - A passenger car, pickup truck, van, minivan or sport utility vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of less than 10,000 pounds.  23 CFR § 1300.20(b)

Period of performance - The time during which the non-Federal entity may incur new obligations to carry out the work authorized under the Federal award.  The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must include start and end dates of the period of performance in the Federal award.  2 CFR § 200.77   

Personal wireless communications device - A device through which personal wireless services (commercial mobile services, unlicensed wireless services, and common carrier wireless exchange access services) are transmitted, but does not include a global navigation satellite system receiver used for positioning, emergency notification, or navigation purposes.  23 CFR § 1300.20(g)

Primary offense - An offense for which a law enforcement officer may stop a vehicle and issue a citation in the absence of evidence of another offense.  23 CFR § 1300.20(g)

Primary belt law - A safety belt use law that allows primary enforcement.

Performance measure - A metric that is used to establish targets and to assess progress toward meeting the established targets.  23 CFR § 1300.3

Performance target - A quantifiable level of performance or a goal, expressed as a value, to be achieved within a specified time period.  23 CFR § 1300.3

Performance plan - A component of the HSP that includes:  (1) A list of annual quantifiable and measurable highway safety performance targets that is data-driven, consistent with the Uniform Guidelines for Highway Safety Program and based on highway safety problems identified by the State during the planning process conducted and ; (2) All performance measures developed by NHTSA in collaboration with the Governor’s Highway Safety Association, which must be used as minimum measures in developing the performance targets. 23 CFR § 1300.11(c)

Performance report - A component of the HSP that includes a program area-level report on the State’s progress towards meeting State performance targets from the previous fiscal year’s HSP, and a description of how the State will adjust its upcoming HSP to better meet performance targets if a State has not met its performance targets. 23 CFR § 1300.11(c)

Planning and Administration (P&A) - Direct and indirect costs that are attributable to the overall development and management of the HSP.  Costs include salaries and related personnel benefits for the GR and other technical, administrative, and clerical staff in the States’ Highway Safety Offices.  Costs also include other office expenses, such as travel, equipment, supplies, rent and utilities necessary to carry out the functions of the highway safety office. 23 CFR Part 1300, Appendix D

Problem identification - The data collection and analysis process for identifying geographic areas of the State, types of crashes, or types of populations (e.g., high-risk populations) that present specific safety challenges to efforts to improve a specific program area.
   
Program area - Any of the national priority safety program areas identified in 23 U.S.C. 405 or a program area identified by a State in the highway safety plan as encompassing a major highway safety problem in the State and for which documented effective countermeasure strategies have been identified or projected by analysis to be effective. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Program income - Notwithstanding 2 CFR § 200.80, gross income earned by the non-Federal entity that is directly generated by a supported activity or earned as a result of the Federal award during the period of performance. 2 CFR § 1201.80

Program management costs - Those costs attributable to a program area (e.g., salary and travel expenses of an impaired driving program manager/coordinator of a State Highway Safety Agency) 23 CFR Part 1300, Appendix D

Project - A specific undertaking or activity proposed or implemented with grant funds under 23 U.S.C. Chapter 4 and Section 1906 and that addresses countermeasure strategies identified in the HSP. A project may include multiple project agreements. 23 CFR § 1300.3
 
Project agreement - A written agreement at the State level or between the State and a subrecipient or contractor under which the State agrees to perform a project or to provide Federal funds in exchange for the subrecipient's or contractor's performance of a project that supports the highway safety program. 23 CFR § 1300.3 (Also referred to as “Grant Agreement” in 2 CFR § 200.51)

Project number - A unique identifier assigned by the State Highway Safety Office to each project agreement in the Highway Safety Plan. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Promotional items - Purpose is to generate good will or to incentivize behavior.  Promotional items are not allowable costs.  NHTSA Memo - Use of NHTSA Highway Safety Grant Funds for Certain Purposes, 5/18/2016

Proportionate funding - Federally funded activities and equipment that have both related and unrelated highway safety grant components.  The Federal share is based proportionately on the projected use for Federal (NHTSA) grant purposes.  Grant Funding Guidance II. E.  

Public road - Any road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority and open to public travel.  23 CFR § 1300.3

Public Service Announcement (PSA) - A television, newspaper, or radio message that is broadcast free of charge by the network or station as a public service.

Public/Private partnership - Government’s encouragement of partnerships between the government and private sector to work jointly toward and end in an effort to maximize progress. 


Q

Questioned cost - A cost that is questioned by the auditor because of an audit finding:  (a) Which resulted from a violation or possible violation of a statute, regulation, or the terms and conditions of a Federal award, including for funds used to match Federal funds; (b) Where the costs, at the time of the audit, are not supported by adequate documentation; or (c) Where the costs incurred appear unreasonable and do not reflect the actions a prudent person would take in the circumstances.  2 CFR § 200.84


R

Rate - A ratio of the number per year normalized by the number of vehicles, drivers, population, or vehicle miles traveled.  

Real property - Land, including land improvements, structures and appurtenances thereto, but excludes moveable machinery and equipment.  2 CFR § 200.85

Recipient  - A non-Federal entity that receives a Federal award directly from a Federal-awarding agency to carry out an activity under a Federal program. The term recipient does not include subrecipients.  2 CFR § 200.86

Regional Program Manager (RPM) - A Highway Safety Specialist in a NHTSA Regional Office.
  
Restriction on driving privileges - Any type of State-imposed limitation, such as a license revocation or suspension, location restriction, alcohol-ignition interlock device, or alcohol use prohibition.  23 CFR § 1300.23(b)

Risk evaluation - The evaluation by the pass-through entity of  each subrecipient's risk of noncompliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the subaward for purposes of determining the appropriate subrecipient monitoring.  2 CFR § 200.331(b)

S

Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient, Transportation Equity Act  - A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) - An authorization for highway, highway safety, transit, and other surface transportation modes that covers transportation funding from FY06-FY09 and extended through FY12.

Section 154 Transfer Program - A State that does not enact and enforce an open container law that complies with the requirements of 23 U.S.C. §154 shall have 2.5 percent of Federal highway construction funds transferred to Section 154.  The State determines how much of the Section 154 funds will be allocated to alcohol-impaired enforcement and countermeasures and how much to the highway safety improvement program.  Funds designated for alcohol-impaired enforcement and countermeasures are transferred from the Federal Highway Administration to NHTSA and then to the State.  NHTSA & FHWA Penalty Transfer Provisions Interim Guidance - Open Container and Repeat Offender Laws, 9/30/2016 and 23 CFR Part 1270.

Section 164 Transfer Program - A State that does not enact and enforce a repeat intoxicated driver law that complies with the requirements of 23 U.S.C. §164, shall have 2.5 percent of Federal-aid highway construction funds transferred to Section 154.  The State determines how much of the Section 154 funds will be allocated to alcohol-impaired enforcement and countermeasures and how much goes to highway safety improvement program.  Funds designated for alcohol-impaired enforcement and countermeasures are transferred from the Federal Highway Administration to NHTSA and then to the State.  NHTSA & FHWA Penalty Transfer Provisions Interim Guidance - Open Container and Repeat Offender Laws, 9/30/2016 and 23 CFR Part 1275.

Section 402 - The State and Community Highway Safety Grant Program which provides Federal grants to States, Territories, and the Indian Nations for implementing traffic safety projects at the State and local levels.  Section 402 funds are apportioned on a formula basis of population and roadway miles.  23 USC § 402 (Highway Safety Act of 1966) and 23 CFR § 1300.3

Section 403 - Funds appropriated by Congress for the purpose of highway safety research and demonstration.  Demonstration projects may be awarded to States to identify the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of a particular countermeasure or group of countermeasures. 23 USC § 403 

Section 405 - As part of MAP-21, 23 U.S.C. 405 created the National Priority Safety Program grants which identified program areas that encompass a major highway safety problem of national concern and for which effective counter-measures are identified.  FAST Act continued and amended Section 405. 23 CFR § 1300

Section 1906 - SAFETEA-LU established an incentive grant program to prohibit racial profiling. FAST Act revised several aspects of the Section 1906 Program, titled Racial Profiling Data Collection Grants. 23 CFR § 1300.28

Self-Sustaining or Self-Sufficient - A program that is able to financially support its existence with funds generated through or as a result of the program. (e.g., fines, services performed, contributions.)

Serious injuries - Until April 15, 2019, injuries classified as “A” on the KABCO  scale through the use of the conversion tables developed by NHTSA, and thereafter, “suspected serious injury (A)” as defined in the Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) Guideline, 4th Edition.  23 CFR § 1300.3 KABCO - “K” Fatal injuries include deaths which occur within thirty days following injury in a motor vehicle crash.  “A” Severe injuries include skull fractures, internal injuries, broken or distorted limbs, unconsciousness, severe lacerations, severe burns, and unable to leave the scene without assistance.  “B” Moderate injuries include visible injuries such as a “lump” on the head, abrasions, and minor lacerations.“C” Minor injuries include hysteria, nausea, momentary unconsciousness, and complaint of pain without visible signs of injury.  “O” No fatality or injury; property damage only.  “Unk Severity” Severity of injury unknown.

Severity - A measurement of the degree of seriousness concerning both vehicle impact (damage) and bodily injuries sustained by vehicle occupant.

Single Audit - An audit required for a non-Federal entity that expends $750,000 or more during the non-Federal entity’s FY in Federal awards. 2 CFR § 200.514

State - Except as provided in § 1300.25(b), “State” refers to any of the fifty States of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or, for the application of this part to Indian Country as provided in 23 U.S.C. 402(h), the Secretary of the Interior. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Sobriety checkpoint - A law enforcement activity during which law enforcement officials stop motor vehicles on a non-discriminatory, lawful basis for the purpose of determining whether the operators of such motor vehicles are driving while impaired by alcohol and/or other drugs. 23 CFR § 1300.23(b)

Standard offense for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs - The offense described in a State’s statute that makes it a criminal offense to operate a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, but does not require a measurement of alcohol or drug content. 23 CFR § 1300.23(b)

State Highway Safety Office (SHSO) - The State agency that administers and manages the State and Community Highway Safety Grant Program and other Federally-funded highway safety grants at the State level.  Also known as the “State Highway Safety Agency” with authority and functions as described in 23 CFR § 1300.4

State Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) - A statewide-coordinated safety plan that provides a comprehensive framework for reducing highway fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads.  The SHSP strategically establishes statewide goals, objectives, and key emphasis areas developed in consultation with Federal, State, local, and private sector safety stakeholders.  The SHSP is administered by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and is a major part of the core Highway Safety Improvement Program. 23 USC 148(a)(10)

Subaward - An award provided by a pass-through entity to a subrecipient for the subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal award received by the pass-through entity.  It does not include payments to a contractor or payments to an individual that is a beneficiary of a Federal program. A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the pass-through entity considers a contract.  A subaward is for the purpose of carrying out a portion of a Federal award and creates a Federal assistance relationship with the subrecipient. 2 CFR § 200.92 and 2 CFR § 200.330(a)

Subrecipient - A non-Federal entity that receives a subaward from a pass-through entity to carry out part of a Federal program; but does not include an individual that is a beneficiary of such program.  A subrecipient may also be a recipient of other Federal awards directly from a Federal awarding agency.  2 CFR § 200.93.

Supplies - Tangible personal property other than those described in 2 CFR § 200.33 Equipment. 2 CFR § 200.94 and 2 CFR § 200.314.


T

Target or performance target - A quantifiable level of performance or a goal, expressed as a value, to be achieved within a specified time period. 23 CFR § 1300.3

Teen Traffic Safety Program - A Statewide program to improve traffic safety for teen drivers and component of HSP, if the State elects to include.  Includes a description of projects that the State will conduct and must meet the eligible use requirements of 23 U.S.C. 402(m)(2). 23 CFR § 1300.11(e)

Texting - Reading from or manually entering data into a personal wireless communications device, including doing so for the purpose of SMS texting, e-mailing, instant messaging, or engaging in any other form of electronic data retrieval or electronic data communication. 23 CFR § 1300.24(b)

Transportation Safety Institute (TSI) - An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and is a steward for NHTSA training programs.  TSI is responsible for equipping highway safety professionals at the national, state, and local levels with core competencies needed to reduce traffic crashes and improve the nation’s highway safety programs.


U

Unique entity identifier - The identifier required for System for Award Management (SAM) registration to uniquely identify business entities.  Formerly known as the DUNS number, the State Highway Safety Office must ensure that every subaward is clearly identified to the subrecipient as a subaward and includes the unique entity identifier. 2 CFR § 200.331(a)(1)(ii)

United States Code (U.S.C.) - The codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. It is divided by broad subjects into titles and published by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives. 

Unrestricted driver’s license - Full, non-provisional driver’s licensure to operate a motor vehicle on public roadways. 23 CFR § 1300.26(b)

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) - A means of determining exposure in calculating fatality rates