GHSA 2017

Highway Safety in a New Era

Conference

GHSA Logo

GHSA Annual Meeting 2017

September 16-20

Louisville Marriott Downtown

Louisville, Kentucky

Featured Resources

Featured Resources
  • Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 8th Edition
    (PDF, 13.75 MB) DOT HS 812 202; November 2015
    This 8th edition of Countermeasures That Work is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.
  • NHTSA Compendium of Traffic Safety Research Projects: 1985 – 2013
    (PDF, 2.5 MB) DOT HS 811 847; January 2014
    This compendium contains summaries of over 500 studies and projects published by NHTSA from 1985 to 2013. The studies include research on alcohol-involved driving, drug-involved driving, occupant protection (e.g., seat belts and child safety seats), speed and other unsafe driving behaviors, motorcyclist safety, pedestrian and bicyclist safety, older driver safety, novice and young driver safety, fatigue and distraction, and emergency medical services.

Also, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

  • The Community Guide
    This website houses the official collection of all Community Preventative Services Task Force findings and the systematic reviews on which they are based. The Community Guide is based on a scientific systematic review process and includes publications related to motor vehicle-related injury prevention. Three areas included in the guide are child safety seats, seat belts, and alcohol-impaired driving.

New on the Web

GHSA 2017 Conference

  • Examination of the Legalization and Decriminalization of Marijuana on the DWI System: Highlights From the Expert Panel Meeting
    (PDF, 9.7 MB) DOT HS 812 430; June 2017
    In accordance with the MAP-21 Act, NHTSA and GHSA convened an expert panel to study recreational and/or medical marijuana laws and their effect on driving, including law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation, toxicologists, and highway safety officials. The panel identified changes to the DWI system following enactment of laws legalizing and/or decriminalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational purposes; identified lessons learned; and found measures that should be used to evaluate these laws and their impact on traffic safety and the DWI system.
  • The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers
    (PDF, 1.14 MB) DOT HS 812 425; June 2017
    Young drivers are at greater risk for alcohol-related crash deaths than any other age group, and there has been only limited progress. One innovative possibility that has not yet been tried for most young drivers is the implementation of a voluntary alcohol ignition interlock program as a preventative approach. This study examined its feasibility by discussions conducted in 2010 with ignition interlock manufacturers and service providers, insurance companies, community groups, parents, teens and young adults. Finally, ignition interlock recorder data on users 16 to 26 years old were examined, and a web survey of voluntary users and their parents was analyzed.
  • 2013-2014 National Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Drug Results
    (PDF, 1.99MB) DOT HS 812 411; May 2017
    This report is one of three that summarizes the results of the 2013–2014 National Roadside Study (NRS) of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers. NHTSA contracted with the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) to conduct this study. This report (Volume 3) presents national prevalence estimates of drug-positive driving and alcohol-plus-drug-positive driving derived from the study, and compares them with the 2007 NRS, which was the first roadside study to estimate the prevalence of drug-positive driving in the Unites States. Another report (Volume 1) describes the sampling plan and data-collection methodology (Kelley-Baker et al., 2016). A third report (Volume 2) (Ramirez et al., 2016) presents the results for alcohol-positive driving.
  • Determining the Effectiveness of Flexible Checkpoints
    (PDF, 1.54 MB) DOT HS 812 420; May 2017
    The objectives for this project were to (a) determine how flexible checkpoints are being used in the United States; (b) identify agencies that use flexible checkpoints to document problems or concerns they’ve found, and to determine and document solutions that could be used by other agencies that implement flexible checkpoints; and (c) determine the effectiveness of flexible checkpoints in one site.
  • Evaluation of Responsible Beverage Service to Reduce Impaired Driving by 21- to 34-Year-Old Drivers
    (PDF, 82.74 KB) DOT HS 812 398; April 2017
    A number of studies have revealed that approximately half of intoxicated drivers had their last drink at a licensed bar or restaurant. This study evaluated an intervention that integrated outreach, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, targeted enforcement and, as necessary, corrective actions by law enforcement agencies. The immediate goal of the intervention was to reduce the practice of over-serving alcohol and serving alcohol to obviously intoxicated individuals in bars and restaurants. The long-term goal was to reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) arrests and impaired driving crashes.
  • Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk: A Case-Control Study
    (PDF, 5.32 MB) DOT HS 812 355; December 2016
    This study used a “case-control” design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both obtaining 10,221 breath samples, 9,285 oral fluid samples, and 1,764 blood samples from more than 3,000 crash drivers and 6,000 control drivers. Crash risk estimates for alcohol indicated drivers with BrACs of .08 g/210L is 3.98 times that of drivers with no alcohol.
  • 2013-2014 National Roadside Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Alcohol Results
    (PDF, 1.6 MB) DOT HS 812 362; December 2016
    This is the second of three reports on our 2013-2104 National Roadside Survey. This report focuses on the Alcohol Results. The results showed a continuing reduction in alcohol-positive drivers on weekend nights – to 8.3 percent during our study. The results were announced during an event in early 2015.
  • Updated ABCs of BAC brochure
    (PDF, 857.38 KB) DOT HS 809 844; July 2016
  • Investigation and Prosecution of Distracted Driving Cases
    (PDF, 224.53 KB) DOT HS 812 407; May 2017
    This is a prosecutor’s monograph about distracted driving. This monograph provides guidance and training materials to assist State and local attorneys, and other members of the judiciary, in prosecuting distracted driving cases that involve a serious injury or fatality.
  • Examination of the Feasibility of Alcohol Interlocks for Motorcycles
    (PDF, 1.21 MB) DOT HS 812 423; June 2017
    In 2011, some 30 percent of the 4,612 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashes had blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of .08 g/dL or higher. Although alcohol ignition interlocks are a common sanction to deter impaired driving, they are not typically used on motorcycles. This report reviews information on alcohol ignition interlocks to help determine whether they can be an appropriate DUI countermeasure when installed on motorcycles operated by convicted DUI offenders. The report summarizes issues of perceived liability, technical barriers, statutory or legislative barriers, and other factors related to this issue.
  • Changes to Puerto Rico’s Motorcycle Rider Law
    (PDF, 1.04 MB) DOT HS 812 397; April 2017
    This report describes effects of a 2007 motorcycle safety law enacted in Puerto Rico in terms of rider reaction to the law, safety effects, and the degree to which the law was enforced. The law introduced or expanded safety-related statutes including reducing the blood alcohol concentration per se illegal level for motorcycle riders from .08 g/dL to .02 g/dL; requirements for reflective vests at night and other protective gear at all times of day; daytime running headlights, and other safety-related measures.
  • Evaluation of the Washington Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement Program
    (PDF, 2.95MB) DOT HS 812 395; April 2017
    The Washington Traffic Safety Commission and NHTSA conducted a high-visibility Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement (NTSBE) program in Washington. The two-year program followed the basic Click It or Ticket model by using highly visible enforcement combined with increased paid and earned media about the enforcement, but applied its efforts during the nighttime rather than the daytime hours. The NTSBE program positively affected driver awareness, increased observed nighttime seat belt use, and did not decrease the daytime use rate.
  • Evaluation of a Rural Seat Belt Demonstration Program in Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee
    (PDF, 1.62 MB) DOT HS 812 328; September 2016
    Three southeastern States initiated high-visibility enforcement campaigns to address lower seat belt use in rural areas versus non-rural areas. Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee conducted four waves of intensified enforcement and media from November 2008 to May 2010. The May campaigns were conducted just prior to the national Click It or Ticket campaigns. Combining activity, awareness, and usage data from all three States, there was a significant positive correlation between media expenditures and awareness of rural seat belt messages. Two awareness indices correlated highly with usage and achieved statistical significance: awareness of rural seat belt messages and perceived risk of a ticket for not buckling up. While the significant correlations between awareness measures and belt usage suggest that the message got through to drivers, comparison of changes in belt use in the RDP versus the control areas produced mixed results. Seat belt use increased significantly in the targeted rural areas of all three States, but it also increased at about the same rate in the control areas in two of the States. Only Georgia provided evidence of a rate of increase in rural usage greater than experienced in the control area, which may have been partially due to the use and public awareness of checkpoints.<
  • Expanding the Seat Belt Program Strategies Toolbox: A Starter Kit for Trying New Program Ideas
    (PDF, 1.52 MB) DOT HS 812 341; October 2016
    Researchers examined behavioral-change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising as possible approaches to increase seat belt use. This report is the result, a "starter kit" of ideas of varying levels of readiness so occupant protection programmers can use in seat belt programming across the country. Five strategies include high school service-learning programs, hospital discharge programs, targeted online advertising, online learning and e-learning, and product/message placement.
  • Identifying Opportunities to Decrease Vehicle Occupant Fatalities
    (PDF, 539.11 KB) DOT HS 812 435; July 2017
    This study focused on identifying opportunities to decrease vehicle occupant fatalities by comparing selected States with observed seat belt use rates above and below the 2013 national average as well as low and high percentages of statewide unbuckled fatalities. The goal was to determine if the higher seat belt use States implemented policies, procedures, and practices that could be suggested for use in the States with lower seat belt use to improve their performance.
  • Older-Driver Foot Movements
    (PDF, 10.07 MB) DOT HS 812 431; July 2017
    This study explored how drivers 60 and older control the accelerator and brake while driving and parking, advancing an earlier study about pedal misapplication crashes. An instrumented vehicle on a test route in actual traffic measured foot movement and position affecting possible pedal error. Participants included 6 drivers with peripheral neuropathy of the feet, 2 with hip replacements, and 18 older but healthy drivers. Researchers also documented participants’ functional abilities such as leg functional reach and anthropometries such as height and femur length to determine whether these factors related to pedal control. Drivers with medical conditions scored significantly poorer than the normally aging drivers while parking. Poor vehicle fit was significantly related to functional ability.
  • Medical Review Practices for Driver Licensing: Volume 3: Guidelines and Processes in the United States
    (PDF, 4.78 MB) DOT HS 812 402; April 2017
    This is the third of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically or functionally at-risk drivers. This volume updates the information presented in 2003 (Summary of Medical Advisory Board Practices in the United States). Medical Review/Driver Reexamination Department staff in 49 of the 51 State driver licensing agencies plus the District of Columbia responded to a survey designed to gather information about the driver medical review structure and processes in their jurisdictions. The first section of this report presents a 5- to 10-page narrative for each jurisdiction describing the organization of the medical review program; mechanisms used to identify drivers with medical conditions and functional impairments; procedures and medical guidelines used to evaluate drivers for fitness to drive; medical review and reexamination outcomes; appeals processes; availability of counseling and public information and education; outreach to law enforcement, medical professionals and others who may have concerns about a medically or functionally impaired driver; and administrative issues such as training of employees, and costs associated with medical review/reexamination. Following the State-by-State summaries, tables compare and contrast States’ responses to each survey question. This updated information may serve as a reference to State driver licensing agencies when updating their own guidelines, practices, and outreach to those who may refer drivers for medical review, by showing what works in other jurisdictions; and may promote practices that maintain public safety while allowing for personal mobility.
  • Medical Review Practices for Driver Licensing Volume 2: Case Studies of Medical Referrals and Licensing Outcomes in Six States
    (PDF, 5.75 MB) DOT HS 812 380; March 2017
    Second of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically at-risk drivers. This volume presents findings of case studies describing the referral sources, medical review requirements, and licensing outcomes in six States in 2012: Maine, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Conclusions support recommendations that may increase appropriate referrals for medical review, improve the medical review process while maintaining individual and public safety and preserving mobility among those with declining functional abilities, and ensure licensing agency resources applied to medical review focus on drivers most needing to be medically reviewed and tested.
  • Medical Review Practices for Driver Licensing Volume 1: A Case Study of Guidelines and Processes in Seven U.S. States
    (PDF, 14.36 MB) DOT HS 812 331; October 2016
    This is the first of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfilled the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically at-risk drivers, documenting strengths and weaknesses of a variety of approaches. This report presents the methods used to group the diverse medical review practices across the 51 driver licensing agencies into four broad medical review structures, describes selection of States for case study, and identifies strengths and weaknesses associated with each of the four medical review structures. The seven States were Maine, North Carolina, Texas, Wisconsin, Ohio, Washington, and Oregon.
  • Evaluation of an Updated Version of the Risk Awareness and Perception Training Program for Young Drivers
    (PDF, 1.62 MB) DOT HS 812 379; March 2017
    Previous research suggests newly licensed teen drivers often fail to anticipate where unexpected hazards might materialize. One training program designed to address these apparent deficiencies in knowledge and skills that has shown promise in previous tests is the Risk Awareness and Perception Training (RAPT) program. This project updated RAPT using high definition video and computer simulations to create a more interactive and realistic program. Researchers evaluated the modified program’s impact on the behaviors of novice and experienced drivers through the use of a computer-based test and during on-road drives in live traffic on a pre-defined route. Both the novice and experienced driver RAPT-trained groups showed substantial improvement in performance from pre- to post-test with the RAPT trainees hitting almost all of the targets during the computer post-test. The performance differences extended to the eye-tracker data arising from the on-road drives. The RAPT-trained groups hit significantly higher numbers of total primary targets and percentages of targets compared to the control groups. The study also employed a “Think Aloud,” or commentary driving, data collection effort. This data collection approach did not reveal any performance differences among the training groups. This study also included a persistence measure using the computer assessment one month after training. Results showed the RAPT-trained groups’ target hit rates decreased from the initial post-test to the persistence measure but remained above their baseline hit rates and above the control groups’ persistence measure hit rates. Taken together, the results suggest the RAPT revision represented a significant improvement over the previous versions in terms of realism with a similar impact on driver behaviors as measured by a computer assessment and through the use of eye-tracking in a live traffic environment.
  • More Cops More Stops: Evaluation of a Combined HVE Program in Oklahoma and Tennessee
    (PDF, 1.87 MB) DOT HS 812 337; October 2016
    This report evaluates the “More Cops More Stops” combined enforcement program in Oklahoma and Tennessee, letting the traffic safety community make better informed programming decisions. This evaluation provides little evidence to support the continued use of More Cops More Stops to enhance the effect of Click It or Ticket and Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over.

New on TSM

What's New on TSM
  • Keeping Kids Safe: A Parent’s Guide to Protecting Children In and Around Cars (2017 version)

    Information on new car safety features to protect children, recommendations for selecting and installing the right car seat for a child and tips for keeping kids safe in and out of vehicles.

  • Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over Campaign

    To support NHTSA’s impaired-driving campaign, Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over, NHTSA developed the companion ad for Man/Woman in the Mirror, for the Ride Sober or Get Pulled Over campaign. Motorcycle Man in the Mirror debuted in August 2017, during the warm weather riding months.

  • New enhancements to NHTSA’s Last Call 360 mobile experience

For States

For State use, the Speed campaign has been revamped and features three new ads: No Excuses and Life Flash (English & Spanish). Campaign material also includes—in English and Spanish—new infographics, banner ads, social media tips, mobile data terminal messages for law enforcement, and earned media. Download the ads and all assets at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov.

  • African-American Seat Belt Toolkit (April 2016)

    NHTSA updated the web-based toolkit to educate African-Americans about the importance of seat belt use in reducing the large injury disparity between them and other American motorists. NHTSA’s African-American seat belt toolkit serves as a resource for State and community organizations that is both user-friendly and population specific.

  • Hispanic Buckle Up Toolkit (January 2015)

    NHTSA in conjunction with the National Latino Children’s Institute (NLCI) developed a bilingual, bicultural web-based toolkit to educate Hispanics to buckle up on every trip.

    The web based toolkit contains: a Video, PowerPoint presentation, posters, palm cards, rotofolio, sticker templates, and radio PSAs. The toolkit is intended for advocates, community groups and law enforcement who work with Hispanic populations.

Traffic Safety Facts

GHSA 2017 TSF graphic
Fact Sheets
Traffic Techs

Coming Soon

  • Interlock Data Utilization
    The objectives of this exploratory study were to determine (a) how ignition interlock data are being used for DWI offender monitoring and offender-related programs, such as screening, assessments, and treatment for alcohol abuse problems; and (b) if the interlock data can be used effectively to reduce alcohol-impaired driving recidivism. The objectives were met by identifying nine States with large numbers of interlocks in use including two States that use interlock data in systematic or unique ways.
  • Computer based training course for law enforcement on ignition interlocks
    (Coming December 2017)
  • 2016 Drug-Impaired-Driving Law Digest
  • National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of surveys on distracted driving that have provided data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the development of countermeasures and interventions to reduce distracted driving on the nation’s roadways. Specifically, the 2015 NSDDAB assessed the extent to which drivers are distracted by various activities; demographic and typological descriptions of drivers prone to distractions; the extent and frequency of cell phone use, texting, and use of apps while driving; attitudes and perceptions about distracted driving; knowledge of and attitudes toward measures to deter distracted driving; perceptions about the danger of distracted driving; exposure to the consequences of distracted driving; willingness to intervene when someone is distracted while driving; and changes and trends in distracted driving behavior and attitudes since 2010. Like the previous studies conducted in 2010 and 2012, this survey yields national estimates of behavior and attitudes toward distracted driving in the United States.

  • Distracted Driving Demonstration Projects: Lessons Learned
    (Coming Fall/Winter 2017)  
    This is a summary document of the enforcement strategies conducted at six different demonstrations sites across the country, along with the insights and challenges the participating police agencies garnered from the project. The document focuses on providing law enforcement officers with strategies for enforcing distracted driving laws.

  • Additional Analysis of National Child Restraint Use Special Study (NCRUSS) – Child Restraint Installation Decisions, Driver Characteristics, and Lateral Movement (Research Note)
    (Coming Fall 2017)  
    The NCRUSS, conducted in 2011, recorded the use of car seats and belt-positioning booster seats. Observers interviewed the drivers of 4,167 vehicles and recorded observations of the restraint use of one child per vehicle.  Observers also collected information on the driver, the vehicle, specific use of the car seat and the driver’s self-reported confidence in the correct installation of the car seat. This first Research Note addresses further analysis of the data targeting installation methods (lower anchors or seat belts) used to secure car seats in vehicles.
  • Innovative and Sustained Seat Belt Enforcement Project
    (Coming Winter 2017)
    This study provided a process evaluation of a demonstration project designed to identify innovative and sustainable approaches to enforce seat belt laws and promote community engagement. The study’s approach to innovation and sustainability focused on achieving a change in culture regarding seat belt enforcement among patrol officers, command staff, and law enforcement executive leadership. The approach to achieving a culture change utilized a combination of strategies that were both internal and external to the participating law enforcement agency, the Owensboro, Kentucky, Police Department.  
  • Implementing a Leadership Framework for Traffic Safety and Seat Belt Enforcement
    (Coming February 2018)
    The purpose of this demonstration project/study was to work closely with select law enforcement agencies to implement a leadership model framework, evaluate the process, and determine if the traffic safety outcome of interest was realized, specifically the impact on increased seat belt use and reduction in unrestrained fatalities.  Technical assistance was provided to two law enforcement demonstration communities for the implementation of the leadership frameworks in support of occupant protection enforcement and safety strategies. The findings will be provided to other law enforcement agencies to use as a resource for improving occupant protection enforcement programs and efforts.
  • Analysis of Child Safety Seats Using 2014 Safe Kids Worldwide Data (Research Note)
    (Coming mid-September 2017)
    Child safety seats have been found to reduce the risk of fatal injury by 71 percent for infants and by 54 percent for toddlers. However, a large proportion of child safety seats are not installed correctly. This study analyzes arrival data collected from 33,190 checklists from Safe Kids Worldwide car seat checkup events in 2014. Installation accuracy of the child safety seat was defined as concurrently having the correct direction, correct recline angle, and correct securing method (per seat type).
  • The Effects of Medical Conditions on Driving Performance
    This study examines the effects of medical conditions on driving performance.

  • Advancing Pedestrian Safety Using Education and Enforcement in Pedestrian Focus Cities and States: Tampa Bay, Florida

  • Advancing Pedestrian Safety Using Education and Enforcement in Pedestrian Focus Cities and States: New Mexico

  • Advancing Pedestrian Safety Using Education and Enforcement in Pedestrian Focus Cities and States: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • Uniform Guidelines for Motorcycle Safety Countermeasures: An Update to the National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety Implementation Guide

  • Matching Countermeasures to Driver Types and Speeding Behavior
    An address-based mail survey of licensed drivers in Idaho was conducted to learn more about why drivers speed and what new countermeasures can be developed by examining some of the underlying behavioral and attitudinal aspects of speeding. Three primary questions were examined with the data, including: 1) How well do existing typologies of speeding behavior predict speeding convictions; 2) What speeding countermeasures are most appropriate for the various driver types and roadway situations; and 3) How strong is the relationship between driver records and self-reported speeding in the survey?
  • A Comparative Analysis of State Traffic Safety Countermeasures and Implications for Progress “Toward Zero Deaths” in the United States (Research Note)
    This Research Note is an examination of proven countermeasures (based on the NHTSA publication, Countermeasures That Work – 8th Edition) to consider how their adoption might help States achieve progress “Toward Zero Deaths.”
  • Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 9th Edition
    This guide (its 9th edition) is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. The areas include: Alcohol and Drug Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.
  • Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in LA, MS, NM, and TX
    This study evaluates seat belt demonstrations for teenagers in four States: Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Texas.

Behavioral Research Databases

2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior (2013)
A study on bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behaviors. Datasets are available in SPSS and comma delimited formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2011 National Survey on Speeding Attitudes and Behaviors (NSSAB) (2013)
National survey on speeding attitudes and behaviors. Datasets are available in SPSS and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2008 National Surveys of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behavior (2010)
National survey on drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors. Datasets are available in SAS and SPSS formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Surveys (MVOSS) (2008-2009)
National motor vehicle occupant safety survey. Datasets are available in SAS and SPSS formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2014-2015 Marijuana, Other Drugs, and Alcohol Use by Drivers in Washington State (2016)
A 2014-2015 study on the use of marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol by drivers in Washington State. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2013-2014 National Roadside Survey/Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers (2016-2017)
A 2013-2014 national roadside study on alcohol and drug use by drivers. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2007 National Roadside Survey/Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers (2009)
A 2007 national roadside study on alcohol and drug use by drivers. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.

2013-2014 Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk: A Case-Control Study (2016)
A 2013-2014 case-control study on drug and alcohol crash risk for drivers. Datasets are available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Excel formats. A data dictionary and weighting variable are provided for application.