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Laws & Regulations

Standing General Order on Crash Reporting

For incidents involving ADS and Level 2 ADAS

Overview

Standing General Order

The General Order is available for download. This version, amended in August 2021, supersedes the original Standing General Order.

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Standing General Order

NHTSA has issued a Standing General Order (the General Order) requiring identified manufacturers and operators to report to the agency certain crashes involving vehicles equipped with automated driving systems or SAE Level 2 advanced driver assistance systems. The General Order allows NHTSA to obtain timely and transparent notification of real-world crashes associated with ADS and Level 2 ADAS vehicles from manufacturers and operators. With these data, NHTSA can respond to crashes that raise safety concerns about ADS and Level 2 ADAS technologies through further investigation and enforcement. If NHTSA finds a safety defect, it will take action to ensure that unsafe vehicles are taken off public roads or remedied, as appropriate.

NHTSA issued the General Order in June 2021 to evaluate whether the manufacturers of ADS and Level 2 ADAS systems and the vehicles equipped with them, including manufacturers of prototype vehicles and equipment, are meeting their statutory obligations to ensure that their vehicles and equipment are free of defects that pose unreasonable risks to motor vehicle safety. Prior to the implementation of the General Order, NHTSA’s sources of timely crash notifications were limited and generally inconsistent across manufacturers, including developers.

Understanding the Differences: ADS vs Level 2 ADAS

Automated driving systems, still in development, encompass SAE Levels 3 through 5. In its mature state, a vehicle equipped with ADS aims to perform the entire dynamic driving task on a sustained basis within a defined operational design domain without driver involvement. While these vehicles are in development and are being tested on public roads in limited capacities, they are not available for consumer purchase at this time.

Level 2 advanced driver assistance systems provide both speed and steering input when the driver assistance system is engaged but require the human driver to remain fully engaged in the driving task at all times.

Reporting Requirements

ADS: Entities named in the General Order must report a crash if ADS was in use at any time within 30 seconds of the crash and the crash resulted in property damage or injury.

Level 2 ADAS: Entities named in the General Order must report a crash if Level 2 ADAS was in use at any time within 30 seconds of the crash and the crash involved a vulnerable road user or resulted in a fatality, a vehicle tow-away, an air bag deployment, or any individual being transported to a hospital for medical treatment.

More information on the reporting requirements is available in the General Order.

Data and Limitations

Understanding the terms and requirements of the General Order, the data it aims to obtain, and the limitations of those data are crucial for accurate interpretation and analysis. See the Data section on this webpage for important considerations when reviewing these data and other information.

ADS

ADS SUMMARY REPORT

On June 15, 2022, NHTSA released a report on ADS crash data that the agency received under the General Order.

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Observations from reported crashes of ADS-equipped vehicles are presented in this section. It is important to note that these crashes are categorized based on what driving automation system was reported as being equipped on the vehicle, not on what system was reported to be engaged at the time of the incident. In some cases, reporting entities may mistakenly classify the onboard automation system as ADS when it is actually Level 2 ADAS (and vice versa). NHTSA is currently working with reporting entities to correct this information and to improve data quality in future reporting.

When multiple versions of a report exist from a specific entity, the values from the latest report are used. Reports where the latest ADS Equipped? field is blank or contains Unknown, see Narrative or No have not been included in these charts. There may be cases where more than one report is submitted for a crash, resulting in duplicate counts if sufficient information is not available to match the reports to the same crash. 

DASHBOARD

ADS-Equipped Vehicles

Crashes by:

Notes: The data in the above charts are through May 15, 2022. The totals in some charts may be greater than the number of crashes, because of several factors, including multiple sources for the same crash, multiple entities reporting the same crash and multiple entities reporting the same crash but with different information. Also, vehicles could have collided with more than one object and damage may occur in several areas of a vehicle.

Level 2 ADAS

Level 2 ADAS Summary Report

On June 15, 2022, NHTSA released a report on Level 2 ADAS crash data that the agency received under the General Order.

PDF Download

Observations from reported crashes of Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicles are presented in this section. It is important to note that these crashes are categorized based on what driving automation system was reported as being equipped on the vehicle, not on what system was reported to be engaged at the time of the incident. In some cashes, reporting entities may mistakenly classify the onboard automation system as ADS when it is actually Level 2 ADAS (and vice versa). NHTSA is currently working with reporting entities to correct this information and to improve data quality in future reporting. 

Crashes in the Level 2 ADAS charts are identified as Level 2 ADAS because the reporting entity responded No to the ADS Equipped? field in the incident report. When multiple versions of a report exist from a specific entity, the values from the latest report are used. Reports where the latest ADS Equipped? field is blank or contains Unknown, see Narrative or Yes have not been included in these charts. There may be cases where more than one report is submitted for a crash, resulting in duplicate counts if sufficient information is not available to match the reports to the same crash.

DASHBOARD

Level 2 ADAS-Equipped Vehicles

Crashes by:

Notes: The data in the above charts are through May 15, 2022. The totals in some charts may be greater than the number of crashes, because of several factors, including multiple sources for the same crash, multiple entities reporting the same crash and multiple entities reporting the same crash but with different values. Also, vehicles could have collided with more than one object and damage may occur in several areas of a vehicle.

Data

Data and Limitations

Understanding the terms and requirements of the General Order, the data it aims to obtain, and the limitations of those data are crucial for accurate interpretation and analysis. The following should be considered when reviewing these data and other information.

ADS: Entities named in the General Order must report a crash if ADS was in use at any time within 30 seconds of the crash and resulted in property damage or injury.

Level 2 ADAS: Entities named in the General Order must report a crash if Level 2 ADAS was in use at any time within 30 seconds of the crash and the crash involves a vulnerable road user or results in a fatality, a vehicle tow-away, an air bag deployment, or any individual being transported to a hospital for medical treatment.

More information on the reporting requirements is available in the General Order.

Crash data recording and telemetry capabilities may vary widely by manufacturer and driving automation system. ADS-equipped vehicles typically utilize multiple sensors and cameras and tend to have relatively advanced data recording and telemetry capabilities. As a result, crashes involving ADS-equipped vehicles can generally be reported in a timely manner with great detail. However, it is important to keep in mind differences and variation in data recording and telemetry capabilities for different reporting entities when reviewing the summary incident report data. 

Many Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicles may be limited in their capabilities to record data related to driving automation system engagement and crash circumstances. The vehicle’s ability to remotely transmit this data to the manufacturer for notification purposes can also widely vary. Furthermore, Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicles are generally privately owned; as a result, when a reportable crash does occur, manufacturers may not know of it unless contacted by the vehicle owner. These limitations are important to keep in mind when reviewing the summary incident report data.

Manufacturers of Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicles with limited data recording and telemetry capabilities may only receive consumer reports of driving automation system involvement in a crash outcome, and there may be a time delay before the manufacturer is notified, if the manufacturer is notified at all. In general, timeliness of the General Order reporting is dependent on if and when the manufacturer becomes aware of the crash and not on when the crash occurs. Due to variation in data recording and telemetry capabilities, the summary incident report data should not be assumed to be statistically representative of all crashes.

For example, a Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicle manufacturer with access to advanced data recording and telemetry may report a higher number of crashes than a manufacturer with limited access, simply due to the latter’s reliance on conventional crash reporting processes. In other words, it is feasible that some Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicle crashes are not included in the summary incident report data because the reporting entity was not aware of them. Furthermore, some crashes of Level 2 ADAS-equipped vehicles with limited telematic capabilities may not be included in the General Order if the consumer did not state that the automation system was engaged within 30 seconds of the crash or if there is no other available information indicating Level 2 ADAS engagement due to limited data available from the crashed vehicle. By contrast, some manufacturers have access to a much greater amount of crash data almost immediately after a crash because of their advanced data recording and telemetry.

A reporting entity is required to submit an incident report within a certain time from when it receives notice of a crash that may be reportable. This report is required regardless of whether the reporting entity has verified or agrees with the information. Therefore, initial reports may reflect incomplete or unknown information. This means that a reporting entity with access to vehicle telemetry may quickly become aware of an air bag deployment incident subject to the General Order, but it may not become aware of all circumstances related to the crash, such as surface conditions, whether all passengers were belted, or whether an injury occurred. Similarly, a reporting entity may receive a consumer complaint or claim that includes incomplete information. A reporting entity that receives new or additional information after the initial report is submitted is required to submit an updated report but is not required to take additional affirmative actions to gather further details. 

Confidential business information requests have been made by multiple reporting entities for three data fields available to the public: ADAS / ADS Version, Was vehicle within its ODD [operational design domain] at the time of the incident? and Narrative. Information received by NHTSA, for which a properly filed confidentiality request is submitted, will be kept confidential until the chief counsel makes a determination regarding its confidentiality. All personally identifiable information has also been removed from the summary incident report data. Redactions of CBI and PII are noted in the data except for the VIN of the subject vehicle and the dates recorded in the report. The last 6 digits of the subject vehicle VIN have been withheld as PII, and dates are reported as month and year without the day. Additional information regarding NHTSA's procedures for reviewing, processing and releasing information claimed to be confidential by a reporting entity can be found in Appendix B of the General Order and in 49 C.F.R. Part 512.

For crashes that meet the reporting requirements of the General Order, the reporting entity may be required to submit multiple reports for a single crash (an initial report, a 10-day followup and any subsequent updates). In addition, more than one entity may be responsible for reporting the same crash. For example, the vehicle manufacturer, system developer/supplier and operator of the vehicle may all be named in the General Order. This means that a single crash may have multiple reports from multiple entities. Consequently, the overall number of reports submitted does not equate to the total number of incidents and is not a meaningful safety metric. 

Reporting entities are not required to submit information regarding the number of vehicles they have manufactured, the number of vehicles they are operating, or the distances traveled by those vehicles. Data required to contextualize the incident rates are limited. Data regarding the number of crashes reported for any given manufacturer or operator have not, therefore, been normalized or adjusted by any measure of exposure, including operational design domains or vehicle miles traveled. For example, a reporting entity could report an absolute number of crashes that is higher than another reporting entity but operate a higher number of vehicles for many more miles. 

Understanding the Data Files

Summary incident report data reported to the agency under the General Order are available for download below. Information from initial reports, updates and monthly reports will be updated on a monthly basis. These publicly available incident report data include all information reported by the reporting entity except information that is or may lead to the disclosure of personally identifiable information and information claimed by the reporting entity to be confidential business information. NHTSA is legally prohibited from disclosing this information, which has been redacted from the CSV file. 

It is important to understand the requirements of the General Order to understand the data and other information reflected in these reports. Although the General Order requires that all reports be submitted using the same Incident Report Form, there are different reporting requirements under the General Order’s Request No. 1, Request No. 2, Request No. 3 and Request No. 4. The General Order also includes specific definitions of various terms, including notice, crash, ADS, ADAS, and subject vehicle. When reviewing a report, it is important to consider all fields for additional context.

Detailed data element definitions and the report log can be found in this document.

Download Data

The below CSV files contain incident report data through May 15, 2022.

ADS Incident Report Data Level 2 ADAS Incident Report Data Other Incident Report Data Data Element Definitions & Log (PDF)

Download Summary Incident Report Data

In this section, you can download incident report data (CSV format) for ADS and Level 2 ADAS. For some incidents, the system type (ADS or Level 2 ADAS) was not reported and data for those incidents are listed in the Other data file. Data files include the following information:

  • Name of the reporting entity
  • Make, model and model year of the vehicle involved in the incident
  • A unique vehicle identifier
  • Incident information (e.g., incident month and year)
  • A unique incident identifier
  • Incident scene (e.g., roadway type)
  • Crash description (e.g., object crash occurred with)
  • Post-crash information (e.g., indication of any investigation by a law enforcement agency)
  • Narrative (e.g., description of the pre-crash, crash and post-crash details)
  • Summary incident report data reflects information as reported to NHTSA. With the exceptions of personally identifiable information and confidential business information, which NHTSA is prohibited from disclosing, and the five NHTSA generated fields discussed below, all information included in the summary incident report data is reproduced as submitted by the reporting entities. Redactions of personally identifiable information and confidential business information are noted in the data except for the VIN of the subject vehicle. The last 6 digits of the subject vehicle VIN have been withheld as personally identifiable information.
  • Five data fields in the summary incident report data are generated by NHTSA. They are: Report ID, Report Version, Report Submission Date, Same Incident ID and Same Vehicle ID. Each report submitted by a reporting entity is assigned a unique Report ID. Updates to that report retain the original Report ID but are assigned a new Report Version. The Report Submission Date reflects the date on which the report was first submitted by the reporting entity. To assist the public in reviewing the data, the summary incident report data also includes the Same Incident ID field, a unique identifier that allows the user to determine if multiple reports refer to the same incident and the Same Vehicle ID field, a unique identifier that allows the user to determine if multiple incidents involve the same vehicle. Note: In cases where certain field values (such as the VIN) are missing or incorrect, values for the Same Incident ID and Same Vehicle ID fields may be unavailable, inaccurate, or different between versions of reports with the same Report ID. For more information and an explanation of the data and information included in each field see the Data Dictionary, which is linked in the Data section of this webpage.
  • There may be multiple reports for the same crash. Depending on the circumstances of the crash and the automation system type, the General Order may require multiple reports to be submitted for a single incident in the form of initial reports and subsequent updates. In addition to this, more than one entity may be responsible for reporting the same incident. This means that a single incident may have multiple reports from multiple entities. The Same Incident ID field is provided to allow users to determine if multiple reports refer to the same incident.
  • Entities must tell us when they have nothing to report. The summary incident report data includes Monthly – No Incident reports that do not include any crash information. These reports are intended to be a monthly check-in and are required when entities have not received notice of crashes reportable under the monthly criteria or have no new reportable information to provide from previously submitted reports. For instance, entities submitting 1-Day and 10-Day reports may still submit a Monthly – No Incident report for the applicable month if they have no additional updates.
  • Use caution when comparing crash data between entities. Entities subject to the General Order manufacture or operate different types of vehicles with different capabilities in various locations. The number of vehicles an entity has on the road, its access to crash data, operating location and many other factors could all impact a comparison.

FAQs

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

ADAS stands for "advanced driver assistance system," and Level 2 refers to SAE Level 2 driving automation technologies. ADAS provides partial driving automation that assiss an attentive driver. In a vehicle equipped with ADAS, the driver must continually monitor the driving environment, and always be prepared to provide steering, braking, and throttle inputs. Level 2 systems, which can simultaneously support vehicle lane position, speed, and following distance, have already been installed on millions of vehicles and are becoming increasingly available as standard or optional equipment in many new vehicles across most manufacturers.

ADS stands for "automated driving system" and refers to SAE Levels 3-5 driving automation technologies. In its mature state, a vehicle equipped with ADS aims to perform the entire dynamic driving task on a sustained basis within a defined operational design domain without driver involvement. While these vehicles are in development and are being tested on public roads in limited capacities, they are not available for consumer purchase at this time. 

A description of the different levels is available on NHTSA.gov.

The Society of Automotive Engineers has published a document describing a taxonomy to classify systems into six Levels of Driving Automation. These SAE Levels are used to describe varying degrees of driving automation that perform all or part of the dynamic driving task on a sustained basis and vary from Level 0 (no driving automation) to Level 5 (full driving automation). 

Currently, vehicles equipped with Level 2 ADAS are widely available for consumer purchase, and often combine technologies such as lane centering and adaptive cruise control. Some ADS-equipped vehicles are currently in use in limited commercial fleets (e.g., delivery, commercial taxi, or people-moving services) in restricted operating environments. Other ADS technologies are being tested and developed as prototypes. ADS-equipped vehicles are not available today for consumer purchase in the United States.

NHTSA issued the General Order to obtain timely notice of incidents that may provide information regarding potential safety defects in ADS, in Level 2 ADAS or in vehicles equipped with these technologies, and that can assist in evaluating the safety of these vehicles.

The reporting obligations included in the General Order apply only to the manufacturers, developers, and operators (also called “reporting entities”) specifically named in the General Order. The General Order does not apply to individual consumers or other entities, such as independently owned vehicle dealers or government entities.

The manufacturers, developers, and operators subject to the General Order are listed in the General Order linked at the top of this webpage. 

NHTSA has informed a limited number of these entities that they need not submit any additional reports based on a determination that they are not currently engaged in activities within the scope of the General Order. NHTSA may add additional reporting entities in future amendments to the General Order.

NHTSA encourages all members of the public with information about potential safety concerns to contact NHTSA through our website or by calling our Vehicle Safety Hotline at 888-327-4236, [TTY] 800-424-9153.

Use caution when attempting to compare crash data between entities. Reporting entities are required to report only those crashes that they know about. Different reporting entities may have different levels of access to information from crashes involving vehicles they manufacture due to differences in vehicle technology, the ADS or the Level 2 ADAS. For example, some entities may have access to detailed vehicle and crash data immediately after a crash, because the vehicles supply instantaneous telematics, while others may only learn of crashes from consumer complaints submitted days or weeks afterwards and which may include limited crash information. This means that an entity with better data collection capabilities could potentially have more incident reports simply because they are aware of more incidents. 

In addition, entities subject to the General Order manufacture and/or operate different types of vehicles with different capabilities in various locations. Many factors, including the number of vehicles, miles traveled, access to crash data, operating locations, among others can and likely would affect the validity of comparisons of crash data between entities.  

Reporting requirements are different for ADS and Level 2 ADAS. More information on the reporting requirements is available in the General Order.

Not necessarily. A reporting entity is required to submit an incident report within a certain time from when it receives notice of a crash that may be reportable. This report is required regardless of whether the reporting entity has verified or agrees with the information. Therefore, initial reports may reflect incomplete or unknown information. A reporting entity that receives new or additional information after the initial report is submitted is required to submit an updated report but is not required to take additional steps to gather further details. 

NHTSA can use its enforcement authority to conduct additional investigations into particular incidents in order to understand what happened in a crash, as described below.

Yes. A reporting entity that violates the General Order is subject to civil penalties. While these penalty amounts are required to be adjusted annually, as of March 21, 2022, they are a maximum of $24,423 per violation per day, up to a total possible penalty of $122,106,996 for a related series of violations. NHTSA could also refer the issue to the United States Department of Justice for a civil action to compel compliance with the General Order.

Yes, a static image of the form can be found here. The actual form used by the reporting entities is interactive and fields may vary based upon the type of report and the information submitted. Definitions for the fields on the form can be found in the Data section on this webpage.

NHTSA uses the incident report data to identify crashes for which follow-up information gathering is appropriate and to better understand emerging crash trends in new technologies, either of which may include information reflecting a potential safety defect. This could include, but is not limited to, vehicle and crash site inspections, data analysis, and mandatory information requests directed to one or more reporting entities involved in the crash. NHTSA may also open defect investigations and/or even request recalls, as warranted. 

The data from the General Order may also help with the development of risk models so that NHTSA can better understand which events need immediate attention and what situations require monitoring. As NHTSA gathers more data, it may shed more light on the overall safety of Level 2 ADAS and ADS.

Yes. NHTSA periodically makes incident report data it receives under the General Order publicly available as CSV files. See the Data section of this webpage for the latest files. These publicly available incident report data include all information reported by the reporting entity except information that is or may lead to the disclosure of personally identifiable information and information claimed by the reporting entity to be confidential business information. NHTSA is legally prohibited from disclosing this information, which has been redacted from the CSV file. NHTSA plans to post updates to the CSV files monthly. NHTSA plans to post updates to the CSV files monthly. 

The General Order is a legal requirement mandating that reporting entities named in the General Order submit incident reports to the agency regarding crashes that meet the specified criteria. AV TEST is a voluntary program for companies to share information about the testing of automated vehicles.

NHTSA will continue to update the General Order as appropriate to evaluate the safety of emerging technologies. The agency will continue to consider comments and requests for updates to the General Order. The data reported in the CSV files will be updated monthly. 
 

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