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Laws & Regulations

Standing General Order on Crash Reporting for Levels of Driving Automation 2-5

NHTSA issued a Standing General Order that requires manufacturers and operators of Automated Driving Systems (ADS) and SAE Level 2 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) equipped vehicles to report crashes to the agency. Because these new technologies present unique risks, NHTSA is evaluating whether the manufacturers of these vehicles (including manufacturers of prototype vehicles and equipment) are meeting their statutory obligations to ensure that their vehicles and equipment are free of defects that pose an unreasonable risk to motor vehicle safety.

The original order was issued in June 2021. An amended order was issued in August and supersedes the original order, effective August 12, 2021.

Frequently Asked Questions

No, NHTSA has not determined that the vehicles are unsafe. NHTSA is proactively taking steps to improve safety and transparency amid crashes and incidents involving such vehicles, the rapid evolution of these technologies, and the ongoing use and testing on public roads of new technologies and features. If NHTSA finds a safety defect, it will take action to ensure that unsafe vehicles are taken off public roads or remedied, as appropriate.

ADAS means "Advanced Driver Assistance System," and Level 2 refers to SAE Level 2. ADAS provides partial driving automation in the form of assisting an attentive driver. ADS means "Automated Driving System" and refers to SAE Levels 3-5 driving automation technologies. In a vehicle equipped with ADAS, the driver must continually monitor the driving environment, and always be prepared to provide steering, braking, and throttle inputs at all times. At its mature state, a vehicle equipped with ADS can perform the entire dynamic driving task on a sustained basis within a defined operating design domain (commonly referred to as the ODD) without driver involvement.

The SAE Levels are used to describe varying degrees of driving automation that perform all or part of the dynamic driving task on a sustained basis and vary from Level 0 (no driving automation) to Level 5 (full driving automation). A description of the different SAE Levels is available here.

This question should be directed to the manufacturer of your vehicle. Currently, vehicles equipped with Level 2 ADAS are widely available for consumer purchase, and include technologies such as lane centering and adaptive cruise control. Some ADS-equipped vehicles are in limited commercial fleet usage (e.g., delivery, commercial taxi, or people-moving services) in restricted operating environments, and others are being tested and developed as prototypes.

NHTSA issued the Order to obtain timely notice of incidents that may provide information regarding potential safety defects on Level 2 ADAS, ADS, or vehicles equipped with these technologies.

The reporting obligations included in the Order only apply to vehicle and equipment manufacturers and operators of ADS and SAE Level 2 vehicles.  Those companies are specifically named in the Order. The Order does not apply to individual consumers or other entities (such as vehicle dealers).

The list of manufacturers and operators subject to the Order is available here.

The Order requires manufacturers and operators to report crashes on a public road in the United States involving their vehicles or Level 2 ADAS or ADS technologies (including both deployed and prototype systems being tested). To be reportable, the vehicle’s Level 2 ADAS or ADS must have been engaged at the time of or any point in time immediately prior (<30 seconds) to the crash, and the crash must have resulted in an injury, fatality, or property damage.

If the crash involved a hospital treated injury, a fatality, a vehicle tow-away, an air bag deployment, or a vulnerable road user (such as a pedestrian or bicyclist), a crash report is due within one calendar day after the company receives notice of the crash. The company must also file an updated report on the tenth calendar day after it receives notice. Reports of other crashes involving vehicles equipped with ADS and that involve any injury or property damage are due on the 15th day of the following month.

Yes. A company that violates the Order is subject to civil penalties, currently up to $22,992 per violation per day, up to a maximum penalty of $114,954,525 for a related series of violations. NHTSA could also refer the issue to the United States Department of Justice for a civil action to compel compliance with the Order.

Yes. You can view a static image of the incident report form here. Please note, the actual form is interactive to assist the reporting entities in completing the form and to assist the agency in reviewing data. This static image cannot be used to submit a crash report under the Order.

Only those companies subject to the Order can submit crash reports under the Order.

NHTSA encourages all members of the public with information about potential safety concerns to contact NHTSA through our website or by calling our Vehicle Safety Hotline (Toll-Free: 1-888-327-4236 / Hearing Impaired [TTY] 1-800-424-9153).

NHTSA uses the reports to identify crashes for which follow up information gathering is appropriate. This could include, but is not limited to, vehicle and crash site inspections, data analysis, and mandatory information requests directed to one or more companies involved in the crash. NHTSA may also open defect investigations, as warranted.

NHTSA intends to make summary crash information it receives under the Order publicly available. NHTSA will process the information it receives under the Order, and then will begin making information publicly available on By law, NHTSA may not publicly disclose certain information, including personally identifiable information (PII) (such as the identity of individuals involved in crashes) and confidential business information.