Laws & Regulations

Corporate Average Fuel Economy

NHTSA's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards regulate how far our vehicles must travel on a gallon of fuel. NHTSA sets CAFE standards for passenger cars and for light trucks (collectively, light-duty vehicles), and separately sets fuel consumption standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks and engines. NHTSA also regulates the fuel-economy window stickers on new vehicles. This site contains information about many aspects of these programs, and we encourage you to check back as new information is posted.

Sept. 19, 2019: NHTSA and EPA establish One National Program for fuel economy regulation

"The Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule Part One: One National Program" takes the first step toward finalizing the agencies' August 2018 proposal by announcing EPA's decision to withdraw California's waiver of preemption under Section 209 of the Clean Air Act, and finalizing NHTSA's regulatory text relating to preemption under 49 U.S.C. 32191. The agencies anticipate issuing a final rule on standards in the near future.

Aug. 2, 2018: U.S. DOT and EPA propose SAFE Vehicles Rule

The Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule would amend existing Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions standards for passenger cars and light trucks and establish new standards covering model years 2021 through 2026. The proposal would retain the model year 2020 standards for both programs through model year 2026. If adopted, the proposed rule’s preferred alternative would save more than $500 billion in societal costs and reduce highway fatalities by 12,700 lives (over the lifetimes of vehicles through MY 2029).

NHTSA and EPA are seeking comment on this proposal, the analysis on which it is based, and a wide variety of alternative options for 60 days following official publication in the Federal Register. The agencies will hold three public hearings in the coming weeks for members of the public who wish to comment in person.


Light-Duty Vehicles


2016 Draft Technical Assessment Report and associated mid-term evaluation documents

Documents associated with the MYs 2017 and beyond rulemaking

Documents Associated with Earlier Rulemaking

CAFE Compliance and Effects Modeling System 


Compliance and Enforcement

CAFE self-service reporting data portal

NHTSA’s Public Information Center allows researchers, analysts, media, general public, etc.) to easily access dynamic data about manufacturer compliance with the light-duty CAFE program through the CAFE PIC self-service reporting portal. The PIC provides timely, reliable fuel economy data, which can be viewed in report and/or graph format. The data can be easily sorted and filtered based on specific areas of interest to produce custom reports, which can also be downloaded as excel or pdf files.

Rulemaking on civil penalty rate

July 12, 2019: NHTSA final rule retains the $5.50 penalty rate applicable to automobile manufacturers that fail to meet CAFE standards.

Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Phase 2

Final Rule for Phase 2 fuel efficiency and GHG emissions standards for medium- & heavy-duty vehicles, MY2018-2027

Documents relating to the Phase 2 proposal for medium- & heavy-duty vehicles, MY 2018-2027

Phase 1

Phase 1 of Fuel Efficiency and GHG Emission Program for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks, MYs 2014-2018  

Technical Amendments

Final Rule

NEPA Process

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

Fuel Economy and Environment Label

NHTSA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a joint final rule establishing new requirements for a fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S.