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Events

Lifesavers Conference 2022

Sun, 03/13/2022

Location

Hyatt Regency Chicago
151 E Wacker Drive Chicago , IL 60601 See map: Google Maps
Logo for 2022 Lifesavers Conference The Lifesavers Conference is the largest gathering of highway safety professionals in the United States, bringing together a unique combination of public heath and safety professionals, researchers, advocates, practitioners, and students committed to sharing best practices, research, and policy initiatives that are proven to work.

 

Fact Sheets, Research Notes, and Traffic Techs

Sample of Fact Sheets

 

Evaluation of Utah’s .05 BAC Per Se Law [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 154.81 KB) February 2022; DOT HS 813 234

Detecting Change in Community Traffic Safety Attitudes [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 685.87 KB) January 2022; DOT HS 813 244

Older Driver Performance Across Six Naturalistic Studies [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 282.87 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 180

Continuation of Research on Traffic Safety During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: January – June 2021 [Traffic Safety Facts] (PDF, 674.48 KB) October 2021; DOT HS 813 210

Defining Contextual Variables Related to Seat Belt Use in Fatal Crashes [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 154.05 KB) September 2021; DOT HS 813 144

Effectiveness of Dynamic Speed Feedback Signs [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 188.33 KB) July 2021; DOT HS 813 164

Update to Special Reports on Traffic Safety During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: Fourth Quarter Data [Traffic Safety Facts] (PDF, 582.69 KB) June 2021; DOT HS 813 135

Seat Belt Use, Race, and Hispanic Origin [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 168.38 KB) June 2021; DOT HS 813 142

High-Visibility Enforcement: Assessing Change and Identifying Opportunities [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 130.15 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 067

Pilot Test of a Methodology for an Observation Survey of Motorcycle Personal Protective Equipment [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 124.94 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 076

Older Driver Physical Fitness [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 181.15 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 104

Exploring the Predictive Validity of Drug Evaluation and Classification Program Evaluations [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 134.37 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 013

State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 261.49 KB) April 2021; DOT HS 813 052

Evaluation of On-Site Oral Fluid Drug Screening Devices [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 166.38 KB) March 2021; DOT HS 812 859

Examination of Three Districts Implementing Stop-Arm Camera Programs to Enforce Laws Against Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 166.50 KB) April 2021; DOT HS 813 113

Indirect Effects of School Bus Seat Belt Installation [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 121.25 KB) April 2021; DOT HS 813 050

Motorcycle Fatal Crash Data Visualization
Traffic Safety Facts Annual Report Tables (dot.gov)

2021 Traffic Safety Facts: School-Transportation Related Crashes (PDF, 354 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 103 105

2019 Pedestrians Traffic Safety Fact Sheet (PDF, 516 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 079

Geographic Summary of Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities Research Note (PDF, 3 MB) June 2021; DOT HS 813 089

2019 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists Traffic Safety Fact Sheet (PDF, 508 KB) October 2021; DOT HS 813 197

Comparing Demographic Trends in Vulnerable Road User Fatalities and the U.S. Population, 1980–2019 (PDF, 618 KB) August 2021; DOT HS 813 178

Early Estimate of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities for the First 9 Months (January–September) of 2021 (PDF, 316 KB) February 2022; DOT HS 813 240

Early Estimate of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities for the First Half (January–June) of 2021 (PDF, 375 KB) October 2021; DOT HS 813 199

Early Estimate of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities for the First Quarter of 2021 (PDF, 757 KB) August 2021; DOT HS 813 149

Early Estimate of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities in 2020 (PDF, 364 KB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 115

Early Estimates of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities and Fatality Rate by Sub-Categories in 2020 (PDF, 785 KB) June 2021; DOT HS 813 118

Overview of the 2020 Crash Investigation Sampling System Research Note (PDF, 515 KB) February 2022; DOT HS 813 255

Seat Belt Use in 2021 – Overall Results (PDF, 619 KB) December 2021; DOT HS 813 241

Evaluating High-Visibility Enforcement of Bicycle Passing Laws [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 235.42 KB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 249

Drug Testing and Traffic Safety: What You Need to Know  (PDF, 990 KB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 264

 

Additional Resources

Older Drivers

  • Clearinghouse for Older Road User Safety
    The Clearinghouse for Older Road User Safety (ChORUS) at RoadSafeSeniors.org, to serve as the one-stop shop for all: consumers, health care professionals, law enforcement, licensing agencies and highway safety offices. The site has been newly improved to facilitate user access to a wealth of information that empowers older adults, and those supporting them, to improve older road user safety and mobility. ChORUS serves as the trusted, reliable, and centralized source of information about road safety for aging drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and cyclists. ChORUS offers tools and resources for transportation planning as drivers age.
     
  • Overcome Senior Driver Concerns With Occupational Therapy
    The newly launched older driver video, made possible by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), provides a look into the ways occupational therapy can assist in senior drivers retaining their independence and mobility. An occupational therapy practitioner focuses on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), which are activities that permit individuals to live independently and contribute to overall quality of life. For older drivers, age-related illnesses, chronic conditions, and sudden changes in health, such as a stroke or a heart attack, can impair driving ability. Changes to an older driver’s health do not automatically mean giving up independence or, in this case, the keys to the car. An occupational therapist can aid older drivers in maintaining their mobility through consultation, evaluation, and recommendations to their driving experience. Watch the video to learn more about how occupational therapy practitioners can help seniors drive toward independence. Speak to your primary care physician about community mobility and partnering with occupational therapy.

 

Featured Resources

Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide For State Highway Safety Offices, Tenth Edition, 2020

Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 10th Edition, 2020 (PDF, 6.96 MB) July 2021; DOT HS 813 097

The guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrian Safety; Bicycle Safety; and Drowsy Driving. The guide: describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.

Countermeasures That Work, 10th Edition [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 221.43 KB) September 2021; DOT HS 813 098

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work. The guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) and other professionals interested in highway safety in selecting effective, evidence- based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas.

Countermeasures That Work – Alcohol-Impaired Driving [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 223.30 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 132

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (Report No. DOT HS 813 097), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 1, “Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving.”

Countermeasures That Work – Alcohol Measurement Devices [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 257.22 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 167

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (Report No. DOT HS 813 097), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 1, “Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving.”

Countermeasures That Work – Bicyclists [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 277.66 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 131

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (Report No. DOT HS 813 097), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 9, “Bicycle Safety.”

Countermeasures That Work - Child Passenger Safety [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 225.62 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 114

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work, a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 2, “Seat Belts and Child Restraints.”

Countermeasures That Work – Distracted Driving [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 213.38 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 192

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (Report No. DOT HS 813 097), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 4, “Distracted Driving.

Countermeasures That Work: Drowsy Driving [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 251.48 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 207

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work, a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 10, “Drowsy Driving.”

Countermeasures That Work – Drug-Impaired Driving [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 246.97 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 119

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 10th edition, a basic reference to assist SHSOs and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problems areas. This Traffic Tech briefly reviews and highlights the effective drug-impaired-driving countermeasures from the Countermeasure’s Chapter 1, “Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving.”

Countermeasures That Work – Motorcyclists [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 149.40 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 173

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work, a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problems. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 5, “Motorcycle Safety.”

Countermeasures That Work - Older Drivers [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 248.32 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 103

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (CMTW), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights effective countermeasures from Chapter 7, “Older Drivers.”

Countermeasures That Work – Pedestrians [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 242.14 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 187

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (Report No. DOT HS 813 097), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures from Chapter 8, “Pedestrian Safety.”

Countermeasures That Work – Seat Belts [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 239.56 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 190

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work (Report No. DOT HS 813 097), a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. This Traffic Tech highlights the effective countermeasures for increasing adult seat belt use from Chapter 2, “Seat Belts and Child Restraints.”

Countermeasures That Work – Speeding and Speed Management [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 157.98 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 204

NHTSA published its 10th edition of Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 10th edition, a basic reference to assist SHSOs and other highway safety professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problems areas. This Traffic Tech briefly reviews and highlights the effective drug-impaired-driving countermeasures from the Countermeasure’s Chapter 3, “Speeding and Speed Management.”

Drug Testing and Traffic Safety: What You Need to Know  (PDF, 990 KB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 264

Drugged driving is both of great interest and very complex. This report continues that discussion by examining how drug use data from people involved in a motor vehicle crashes is entered into NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a cornerstone of NHTSA's information collection systems. It has given Federal and State agencies, legislators, advocacy groups, and researchers key data about fatal motor vehicle crashes for all road user types and on all public roads. It is internationally respected for its breadth and depth of data. But reporting drug use across a myriad of substances, and with varying testing protocols across forensic laboratories and across States can lead to confusion about the meaning of results. Currently, the limitations described in this report constrain interpretation of drug test results data, including comparisons across jurisdictions or years. In some other research areas with missing or incomplete data, estimates may still be useful. This is not the case with FARS drug data. The report discusses NHTSA’s actions for improving the quantity and quality of drug data in FARS.

Evaluating High-Visibility Enforcement of Bicycle Passing Laws (PDF, 5.82 MB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 248

This study selected two localities to implement high-visibility enforcement (HVE) programs to increase compliance with laws requiring drivers to leave a minimum distance when passing bicycles. In one locality, a local ordinance required leaving 5 feet, and in the other the State law and local ordinance required a minimum 3 feet to pass. Police in both cities used the same ultrasonic measuring devices to determine if drivers passing decoy officers on bicycles were too close. Each locality developed its own publicity program to increase the visibility of the enforcement. HVE programs continued for approximately 4 months in each locality. Results discuss passing distance and violation changes.

Evaluating High-Visibility Enforcement of Bicycle Passing Laws [Traffic Tech] (PDF, 235.42 KB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 249

This Traffic Tech summarizes a study that selected Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Knoxville, Tennessee, to implement high-visibility enforcement (HVE) programs to increase compliance with laws requiring drivers to leave a minimum distance (3 feet and 5 feet) when passing a bicycles. The HVE programs showed that the average passing distance in both cities during baseline was already well in excess of the prevailing legal requirement, but violations were still high. By the end of the HVE programs, statistically significant increases in average passing distance and significant decreases in violations were achieved in both cities.

Evaluation of Utah’s .05 BAC Per Se Law (PDF, 1.53 MB) February 2022; DOT HS 813 233

On December 30, 2018, Utah became the first State to lower their legal driving limit from .08 to .05 g/dL. This research report is an evaluation of the impacts of this lower limit.

Continuation of Research on Traffic Safety During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: January – June 2021 [Traffic Safety Facts] (PDF, 674.48 KB) October 2021; DOT HS 813 210

After the declaration of the COVID-19 public health emergency in March 2020, American driving patterns and behaviors changed significantly. Of drivers who remained on the roads, some engaged in riskier behavior: speeding, failure to wear seat belts, and driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. Data showed average speeds increased 20 miles per hour or more, higher than the posted speed limit, and there was an estimated 11-percent increase in speeding-related fatalities. Other data suggested fewer people in crashes used their seat belts. Earlier research reports showed changes in the prevalence of alcohol and other drugs during the pandemic among seriously or fatally injured road users at different phases of the pandemic.

Update to Special Reports on Traffic Safety During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: Fourth Quarter Data [Traffic Safety Facts] (PDF, 582.69 KB) June 2021; DOT HS 813 135

NHTSA reviewed nationwide changes in traffic safety and observed behaviors caused by the COVID-19 public health emergency. This research note includes data through the end of the 2020 calendar year, updating earlier preliminary reports. The research note includes changes in travel patterns, rates of crash severity, and the prevalence of drugs and alcohol among seriously and fatally injured road users at select trauma centers.

Overview of Motor Vehicle Crashes 2020 (PDF, 1.23 MB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 266

This technical report provides an overview of motor vehicle crashes in 2020. There were 38,824 people killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes on U.S. roadways during 2020, a 6.8-percent increase from 36,355 fatalities in 2019, or 2,469 more people killed in traffic crashes in 2020. The estimated number of people injured on our roadways decreased in 2020 to 2.28 million, falling from 2.74 million in 2019, a statistically significant decrease of 17 percent. The estimated number of police-reported crashes decreased from 6.76 million in 2019 to 5.25 million in 2020, a statistically significant 22-percent decrease. This report includes detailed monthly analysis of vehicle miles traveled/fatality/injury trends and analysis of several major behavioral factors such as speeding, alcohol-impaired driving, and seat belt non-use.

School Bus Safety Videos

  • NHTSA Video: STOP means STOP!
    Watch the proper way to stop for a school bus, and what not to do.
  • NHTSA Video: Don't Be This Driver
    Did you know that the greatest risk to a child isn’t riding a bus but approaching or leaving one? STOP means STOP! As you’ll see in this video, it’s not just a bus you’re stopping for, it’s a bus full of students.

 

Education and Training Resources

TSI - Motorcycle Safety - Developing Your Program Through Data and Collaboration

Improve motorcycle safety programs by learning how to use data for problem identification and intervention development, while fostering collaborative stakeholder relationships.

TSI - Motorcycle Safety - Law Enforcement Officer (LEO) Course

NHTSA developed the Motorcycle Safety Law Enforcement Course to provide law enforcement officers an understanding of motorcyclist behavior and enforcement concepts related to motorcycle safety, so that they have knowledge and confidence when interacting with motorcyclists. (Released Fall 2021)

Mild Cognitive Impairment and Driving Safety: Early Action With Patients

This free web-based course for healthcare providers focuses on the management of older drivers with mild cognitive impairment.

Older Driver Safety: It Takes a Team!

This free web-based course for healthcare providers focuses on raising awareness of risk factors for unsafe driving in older drivers, to provide a framework for assessment of the older driver, and to highlight tools to develop a driver agreement.

Older Driver Safety and Cannabis Use

This free web-based course for healthcare providers focuses on improving clinicians' understanding of the increases among cannabis use among older drivers and the possible impact on driving safety.

Hot Topics in Older Driver Safety: Leveraging Resources for Driver Safety Assessment and Rehabilitation

This free web-based course for health care providers focuses on resources that can help them assess driving safety in older adults, particularly use of occupational therapist (OT) services, and to understand how OTs and other providers assess driving risk and provide solutions to driving-related challenges.

Driver Safety: The Clinician’s Connection

The next course, coming soon, relates to driving cessation vs. re-training among older adults. The course will be offered at the Driver Safety: The Clinician’s Connection website.

School Bus Driver In-Service Curriculum

The School Bus Driver In-Service Curriculum is completely online and provides refresher training to School Bus Drivers to help reduce the number of school transportation-related crashes and improve the safety of students in and around the school bus. (Released May 2020)

Pupil Transportation Program Management Course

NHTSA and the Transportation Safety Institute (TSI) developed a Pupil Transportation Safety Program Management Course. Safety for students on and around the school bus is a growing concern of the public, communities, school districts, and parents. It is a specialized field that requires understanding of the laws, enforcement, school bus operations, data and problem identification, and partnering in your community. This course is designed so that those involved in pupil transportation safety can gain the skills and knowledge to manage a successful and sustainable pupil transportation program.

The course is offered in a virtual-live format and developed for State and Regional Highway Safety Professionals, injury prevention professionals, law enforcement, and all others interested in pupil transportation safety

Pedestrian Safety for Law Enforcement

Bicycle Safety for Law Enforcement

NHTSA developed two courses for Pedestrian Safety & Bicycle Safety for Law Enforcement, providing training resources on the importance of their role in pedestrian and bicycle safety. The purpose of these courses is to identify factors that contribute to crashes and relevant countermeasures to improve safety, recognize important details to include in crash scene investigation and reporting, and identify opportunities to partner and proactively communicate with the community about safety. In addition to being educationally sound, these courses also include state-of-the-art features like avatars, computer-generated crash simulations, interactive games and activities, and testimonials from law enforcement officers.

 

Traffic Safety Marketing

Samples of TSM material

 

U Drive. U Text. U Pay.

The 2022 U Drive. U Text. U Pay. national distracted driving enforcement campaign runs from April 4-11, 2022. It’s supported by the “Connect-to-Disconnect” enforcement blitz on April 7, which is followed by social norming and social media efforts with the “If you’re texting, you’re not driving” and “#justdrive” tags. Sample earned media templates, how-to guides, and downloadable graphics are available to support these outreach efforts.

African American Seat Belt Safety Toolkit

Motor vehicle crashes remain the primary cause of death for African Americans age 24 and younger. While many African Americans understand the risks of not wearing a seat belt, 56% of those killed in motor vehicle crashes were unbuckled. NHTSA is raising awareness of the dangers associated with not wearing a seat belt with a new seat belt safety toolkit that includes several pieces of educational material, including a social media playbook.

Child Passenger Safety

To highlight the importance of always securing children in the right car seat, booster seat, or seat belt, NHTSA has launched a new English and Spanish language PSAs.

Assets include English and Spanish TV, radio, print, outdoor, and digital banner ads.

Heatstroke Prevention and Awareness

National heatstroke prevention day is May 1, 2022. The 2022 campaign will launch on April 25, supported by a $2.5M national paid media campaign targeting the states that have the highest instances of vehicular heatstroke deaths. Messaging is focused on parents with children ages 2 and younger and other caregivers such as grandparents and daycare providers. Everyone has a role in helping to ensure no child dies in a hot car.

Grandparents and Car Seat Safety Web Page and Educational Flyer

The Grandparents and Car Seat Safety Web Page and Educational Flyer were created for grandparents and elderly caregivers who are responsible for car seat installation. What might be physically easier for younger parents could prove frustrating for grandparents with today’s car seats that are equipped with modern safety technology. These resources are here to help grandparents and elderly caregivers navigate this critical safety information.

School Bus Safety Evergreen Campaign Material

School buses are the safest way for children to get to school. Their design was meant to be safer than any passenger vehicle in avoiding crashes and preventing injuries. Teaching children to follow safety rules on the bus is just as important as informing drivers about the laws regarding school buses. Use these resources to provide your community with safety messages to keep children safe on and off the school bus. Material includes general resources for your community.

Ride Sober or Get Pulled Over (Motorcycles)

As law enforcement professionals and highway safety advocates, your efforts will help reduce the number of drunk drivers on the roads and save lives. By increasing State enforcement efforts, raising public awareness through paid, earned, and social media, and maximizing your local resources, you can indeed make a difference.

Use this enforcement material to crack down on drunk riders and to increase community awareness of the dangers of drunk driving.

Coming Soon to TSM

Seat Belt Use

  • Click It or Ticket
    The 2022 national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) enforcement mobilization runs from May 23 to June 5, 2022. Driving or riding unbuckled will result in a ticket, no matter what State you’re in. Look for a new CIOT National TV advertisement and social media graphics.
  • Thanksgiving Holiday Travel
    Buckle Up - Every Trip. Every Time.
    November 23-27, 2022

    This Thanksgiving weekend, millions will hit our Nation's roads, eager to spend time with family and friends. It’s one of the busiest travel times of the year, and unfortunately more people on the roadways means the potential for more vehicle crashes.

    Use these social norming marketing tools, which can be distributed to fit your local needs and objectives. These materials can help partner your office with other States, communities, and organizations on this seat belt safety initiative.

    For Thanksgiving Weekend seat belt enforcement (CIOT) campaign material, click here.

Speed Prevention

  • Speed Campaign (Coming Summer 2022)
    NHTSA seeks to help States and partners communicate about the dangers and consequences of speeding by creating new creative assets that will support a national paid media campaign as well as support states’ and partners’ integrated anti-speeding communication campaigns.

Impaired Driving

  •  If You Feel Different, You Drive Different
    New TV Ad for Drug-Impaired Driving Social Norming Campaign with Ad Council
    New TV ad featuring the tagline with a target audience of males 18-34 who may smoke marijuana and drive high.
  • Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over
    New Digital Video
    The new video aimed at males 21-34 will communicate the enforcement message that if you are driving while impaired, you may get pulled over and face consequences.

Rail Crossings

  • Rail Grade Crossing
    The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Federal Transit Administration (FTA), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have launched the Stop. Trains Can’t. national rail grade crossing safety campaign to increase public awareness about being safe around rail grade tracks, and reduce crossing deaths and injuries. Assets include English and Spanish TV, radio, print, outdoor, and digital banner ads.

 

Coming Soon

Enforcement

  • Characteristics of State Law Enforcement Liaison Programs: Survey Results
    States use a variety of Law Enforcement Liaison (LEL) network models. This project conducted an online survey of State LEL programs to identify program characteristics and practices. The goal of this project is to improve the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's understanding of LEL programs across the United States and to characterize existing LEL program approaches. Study outcomes are intended to inform funding agencies and LEL programs about the characteristics of program outcomes and successes.
  • Synthesis of Studies that Relate Amount of Enforcement to Magnitude of Safety Outcomes
    A basic question concerning the amount of enforcement needed to generate a deterrent effect on behavior is how much is enough. What makes this question particularly difficult to answer is that the deterrent effect of enforcement activity will likely vary from location to location due to a number of site characteristics such as geography, demographic composition and community attitudes. Ideally, local communities would answer based upon their needs and characteristics, but many localities would have difficulty generating a valid quantitative measure of enforcement and associated publicity due to the expertise and resources required. A good starting point would be to review the existing research literature that relates enforcement activity and publicity about enforcement to traffic safety outcomes. This project involved conducting a systematic literature review that assessed the relationship between level of enforcement and traffic safety outcomes.

Impaired Driving

  • A “How To” Guide for Conducting a Statewide Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Other Drugs
    This Report and Traffic Tech provide How To information States can use for budgeting, planning, and conducting a Statewide Roadside Survey for determining the presence of alcohol- and drug-positive driving. It provides detailed information on what types of research questions can be answered with a roadside survey, describes statistical sampling, and provides step-by-step protocols. It includes Appendices with examples of consent and other documents States can use. This report will be useful to States who are interested in conducting a roadside survey to examine trends in alcohol and drug use among drivers, for example after new legislation such as legalization of marijuana for medical or recreational use.
  • Drug Testing and Traffic Safety: What You Need to Know
    The FARS database is a cornerstone of NHTSA's information collection systems and the information has provided Federal and State agencies, legislators, advocacy groups, and researchers key data about fatal motor vehicle crashes for all road user types and on all public roads. FARS data on alcohol-impaired driving have been a foundation for national and State-level planning, research, and policymaking for decades. In contrast, reporting of drug use, across a myriad of potential substances, and with varying testing protocols across forensic laboratories and across States can lead to confusion about the meaning of results at the community or national level. Whether to test, what to test for, and how to test for the presence of drugs is determined at the local level. Currently, the limitations described in this report constrain interpretation of drug test results data, including comparisons across jurisdictions or across years. The results of this research are critical for understanding the issues with drugs and driving.

 Pedestrians and Bicycles

  • Understanding and Using New Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities
    The objective of this project was to identify discrepancies between how pedestrian and bicycle facilities were designed to be used versus actual behaviors and knowledge of pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists; examine knowledge of proper facility use and enforcement by law enforcement; and document available educational resources and initiatives. This effort looked at how new pedestrian/bicycle facilities were designed to be used versus how they are actually used by the public, knowledge of proper use, enforcement by law enforcement, and available educational/training resources. Facilities such as sharrows, bike lanes, green lanes, HAWKs, shared right turns, leading pedestrian intervals (LPIs), and pedestrian hybrid beacons were investigated for current education and training resources and initiatives as well as common misconceptions of facility purpose and correct use. This project was based on a literature and education/training review and limited discussions with relevant officials (engineers, law enforcement officers, program managers).
  • Safety in Numbers
    In pedestrian and bicyclist safety, Jacobsen’s 2003 “Safety in Numbers” (SIN) theory posits an inverse relationship between the extent of walking and bicycling and the probability of motorist collisions. This literature review summarizes SIN research, identifying implications of the work chronologically, developing the SIN concept, and subsequent work testing and expanding the theory. It considers study fields and areas of practice including engineering, planning and land use, sociology, psychology, education, public health, enforcement, human factors, and others.
  • A Nationwide Review of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety Education within Drivers Education
    This report s a review of drivers’ education and training materials across the Nation on the level of emphasis placed on pedestrian, bicyclist, and micromobility safety education, as well as specific content such as illegal school bus and stop-arm laws.
  • Developing and Implementing a Statewide Pedestrian and Bicyclist Education and Enforcement Program
    This report documents the Florida Department of Transportation’s education and enforcement efforts of their Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety Action Plan. The information is intended to serve as a resource for other States interested in developing corridor-focused grassroots safety education and high visibility enforcement pedestrian and bicycle safety programs.

 

New Publications on the Web

 Sample of Publications

 

Evaluating High-Visibility Enforcement of Bicycle Passing Laws (PDF, 5.82 MB) March 2022; DOT HS 813 248

This study selected two localities to implement high-visibility enforcement (HVE) programs to increase compliance with laws requiring drivers to leave a minimum distance when passing bicycles. In one locality, a local ordinance required leaving 5 feet, and in the other the State law and local ordinance required a minimum 3 feet to pass. Police in both cities used the same ultrasonic measuring devices to determine if drivers passing decoy officers on bicycles were too close. Each locality developed its own publicity program to increase the visibility of the enforcement. HVE programs continued for approximately 4 months in each locality. Results discuss passing distance and violation changes.

Evaluation of Utah’s .05 BAC Per Se Law (PDF, 1.53 MB) February 2022; DOT HS 813 233

On December 30, 2018, Utah became the first State to lower their legal driving limit from .08 to .05 g/dL. This research report is an evaluation of the impacts of this lower limit.

Detecting Change in Community Traffic Safety Attitudes (PDF, 465.43 KB) January 2022; DOT HS 813 242

Historically, evaluations of community traffic safety programs have collected data using nonprobability intercept surveys rather than more rigorous probability surveys, or they used secondary data instead of primary data collection of any kind. The technique used to select a sample of respondents from the broader population can affect the interpretability of the results of an evaluation. For example, compared to rigorous probability sampling, nonprobability sampling methods make it more difficult to generalize findings to the broader population. However, it is not always feasible to use probability sampling when collecting data based on operational complexity, statistical complexity, cost, and timing constraints. This document may serve as a tool to build on basic statistics knowledge of community traffic safety program evaluators by highlighting sound practices for using nonprobability sampling methods and secondary data sources. This document presents two nonprobability sampling methodologies (opt-in online panel surveys with quota sampling and intercept surveys with quota sampling) with practical steps for increasing the rigor of community traffic safety program evaluations. This document also identifies and describes existing data sources that may be of use to local traffic safety officials looking to evaluate their road safety programs as well as limitations of these data sources and suggestions regarding their use.

Older Driver Performance Across Six Naturalistic Studies (PDF, 815.97 KB) November 2021; DOT HS 813 181

This study aggregated and analyzed naturalistic data from six NHTSA-sponsored studies to determine the extent older drivers’ scores on clinical measures were associated with ability to control their vehicles, including traffic control devices and maintaining proper lane position. Researchers also examined the association between the clinical measures and indices of driving exposure (total mileage and total driving time, exposure to high-speed and limited-access roadways, and other situations). Analyses of NHTSA on-road performance and naturalistic driving data explored whether participants with poorer driving skills were more likely to limit their overall driving (time or miles), avoid difficult conditions, or otherwise self-regulate. Researchers used the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study, yielded findings suggesting significant differences in driver responses in crash and near-crash events tied to measures of both cognitive and physical function.

Exploring the Relationship Between Entry-Level Motorcycle Rider Training and Motorcycle Crashes (PDF, 817.28 KB) October 2021; DOT HS 813 189

Research on entry-level motorcycle rider training has not supported the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of training and the relationship between entry-level motorcycle rider training and motorcyclist safety has not been thoroughly explored. This study explored the relationship between entry-level motorcyclist training and safety-related outcomes: (1) Do crash characteristics like collision type, contributing factors, etc., differ between trained and untrained riders? (2) Is there a difference in rider behavior (speed, impairment, or aggressive driving) between trained and untrained riders? (3) What types of citations were issued to trained and untrained riders operating motorcycles or passenger vehicles? (4) Do crash injury severity and type differ between trained and untrained riders? To address these questions, analysis of public records linking motorcyclists’ training to crash data, citation data, and hospital records was carried out using Maryland’s Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System.

National Pedestrian Safety Month 2021 Resource Guide (PDF, 2.3 MB) October 2021

Effectiveness of Dynamic Speed feedback signs, Volume I: Literature review and meta-analysis (PDF, 1.74 MB) August 2021; DOT HS 813 170-A

This study uses published research to perform a comprehensive, quantitative review of the effectiveness of dynamic speed feedback signs (DSFSs) where effectiveness was measured by vehicle speed reductions. In 2019 over one-quarter (26%) of all fatal crashes were speeding-related, and speeding-related vehicle crashes cost society hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Lowering excess speeds to reduce these human, societal, and economic costs is therefore a major focus of safety officials and highway engineers. This study focuses on DSFSs, which present drivers with real-time feedback on their speed. This report presents evidence that DSFSs can be effective in reducing mean speeds, 85th percentile speeds, and the percentages of drivers over the speed limit in a range of contexts. Across all types of vehicles and different installation locations, the clear majority of studies found significant reductions in speeds at the DSFSs when the DSFSs are activated. Overall, reductions of 4 mph at the DSFS were estimated for passenger vehicles as a result of DSFS installation, and reductions between 2 to 4 mph at the DSFS were estimated across all vehicle types in the different contexts assessed. As reductions in speed of just a few mph can significantly reduce injury from crashes, these effects demonstrate that DSFSs can be effective tools in saving lives. This reported is accompanied by a second volume, Effectiveness of Dynamic Speed Feedback Signs, Volume II: Technical Appendices and Annotated Bibliography.

Effectiveness of Dynamic Speed Feedback Signs Volume II: Technical Appendices and Annotated Bibliography (PDF, 7.17 MB) August 2021; DOT HS 813 170-B

This study uses published research to perform a comprehensive, quantitative review of the effectiveness of dynamic speed feedback signs (DSFSs) where effectiveness was measured by vehicle speed reductions. In 2019 over one-quarter (26%) of all fatal crashes were speeding-related, and speeding-related vehicle crashes cost society hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Lowering excess speeds to reduce these human, societal, and economic costs is therefore a major focus of safety officials and highway engineers. This study focuses on DSFSs, which present drivers with real-time feedback on their speed. This report presents evidence that DSFSs can be effective in reducing mean speeds, 85th percentile speeds, and the percentages of drivers over the speed limit in a range of contexts. Across all types of vehicles and different installation locations, the clear majority of studies found significant reductions in speeds at the DSFSs when the DSFSs are activated. Overall, reductions of 4 mph at the DSFS were estimated for passenger vehicles as a result of DSFS installation, and reductions between 2 to 4 mph at the DSFS were estimated across all vehicle types in the different contexts assessed. As reductions in speed of just a few mph can significantly reduce injury from crashes, these effects demonstrate that DSFSs can be effective tools in saving lives. This reported is accompanied by its first volume, Effectiveness of Dynamic Speed Feedback Signs, Volume I: Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

Impact Analysis of Bicycle Safety Laws (PDF, 1.4 MB) August 2021; DOT HS 813 123

Bicycling is increasingly popular, economical, environmentally friendly, and has cardiovascular benefits. Many States have enacted bicycle traffic safety improvement laws such as safe passing, promote safer practices among bicyclists such as mandatory helmet use, or treat bicyclists as a separate class of road user, as with the Idaho Stop law. The Impact Analysis of Bicycle Safety Laws documented a study of six laws (safe passing, mandatory helmet use, bicycling under the influence, where-to-ride, sidewalk riding, and the Idaho stop) to determine if States and communities should create separate laws to govern bicyclists, and if bicyclist-specific traffic safety laws protect them from motor vehicle crash injuries and fatalities.

A Primer for Evaluating Underage Drinking and Driving Programs (PDF, 3.16 MB) June 2021; DOT HS 812 953

The purpose of this primer is to provide a practical “how-to” guide for both practitioners and researchers interested in evaluating underage drinking and driving programs. The main goal is to distill program evaluation and provide information specific to underage drinking and driving. To achieve this, the guide presents components such as how to address barriers to program evaluation; how to address challenges unique to developing and evaluating underage drinking and driving programs; key elements to look for when searching for effective interventions or programs; models and theories grounded in both public health and psychology that can serve as a guide for developing, implementing, and evaluating interventions and/or programs; evaluation standards from the CDC framework that can support a quality evaluation and assist when prioritizing and/or choosing from the multitude of options at each phase of program evaluation; and how to obtain Institutional Review Board approval.

High-Visibility Enforcement: Assessing Change and Identifying Opportunities (PDF, 1.17 MB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 066

This study interviewed nine officials from State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) to determine

if they perceived a change in participation in or support for high-visibility enforcement (HVE) over the past decade. The research team also interviewed six SHSO or local law enforcement agency (LEA) officials to profile innovative strategies that States or LEAs are using to increase law enforcement participation in HVE. Most of the nine SHSO officials believed there had been a decrease in law enforcement participation in and support for grant funded HVE activities over the previous 10 years, and the SHSO officials identified several common challenges to participation in HVE. However, interviews with SHSO and LEA officials regarding innovative strategies being used to increase participation in HVE revealed possible solutions for these challenges.

Physical Fitness Training and Older Driver Performance and Exposure (PDF, 2.4 MB) May 2021; DOT HS 813 107

This research hypothesized that participation in a structured exercise program by inactive adults 70 or older would result in improved road test performance and increased driving exposure (the amount and circumstances under which people choose to drive). Participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=20) that involved activities including weight-bearing, resistance, or dance/movement elements, or a control group (n=10). The researchers assessed physical and cognitive status before and after training, and a certified driver rehabilitation specialist evaluated behind-the-wheel performance using a recognized road test. Treatment effectiveness was gauged in terms of “change scores” for road test performance and for multiple indices of driving exposure. Correlations between measures of physical/functional status and driving performance were weak or very weak.

Exploring the Predictive Validity of Drug Evaluation and Classification Program Evaluations (PDF, 1.65 MB) May 2021; DOT HS 812 959

This report seeks to determine which combinations of drug-related signs and symptoms from the Drug Evaluation and Classification (DEC) protocol most efficiently and effectively predict the drug category or combination used by the subject. A sample of 2,261 DEC evaluations conducted on suspected drug-impaired drivers included cases involving specific drug categories and two-drug combinations commonly encountered by DREs. This study also examined how effectively the set of drug-related measures from the DEC procedure could distinguish drug-positive from drug-negative cases for two common drug categories (cannabis and CNS depressants) and the relative importance of clinical, behavioral and observational measures in predicting drug categories responsible for impairment. Thirteen drug-related indicators were found to significantly contribute to the prediction of drug category; 12 indicators contributed significantly to the prediction of drug combinations.

State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes (PDF, 2.78 MB) April 2021; DOT HS 813 051

Automatic license plate readers (ALPRs) are an important tool in law enforcement and traffic safety. This report gathered information on and provided insight into law enforcement agency implementation and use of ALPRs for traffic safety purposes, with specific emphasis on its use for detecting drivers with revoked, suspended, or restricted licenses. Researchers used two research methods, a literature review and six case studies representing city, county, and State LEAs in a mix of geographic locations. The evidence gleaned from the case studies provides additional indicators to support the effectiveness of ALPR for traffic safety purposes—when viewed in terms of efficiency and productivity gains as well as improvements in traffic safety by culling vehicles that are more prone to crash risk. Effectiveness as a traffic safety countermeasure was often viewed as a secondary outcome—as a by-product of looking for stolen vehicles or other criminal activity.

Examination of Three Districts Implementing Stop-Arm Camera Programs to Enforce Laws Against Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses (PDF, 1.4 MB) April 2021; DOT HS 813 102

This study included a literature review of stop-arm camera implementations in the United States; a detailed examination of stop-arm camera implementation in three school districts; and an analysis of previously collected camera-enforcement data from an additional 33 districts obtained from a camera vendor. The three districts in the study provided information about their experiences in implementing photo enforcement, including their experiences with legislation; reactions and experiences of their bus drivers; efforts to educate and inform the public; cooperation with law enforcement; successes and challenges in issuing citations and penalties; and lessons learned.

Evaluation of On-Site Oral Fluid Drug Screening Technology (PDF, 6.5 MB) March 2021; DOT HS 812 854

Oral fluid has emerged as a popular matrix for drug detection in criminal justice, workplace, and impaired-driving populations. The advantages of oral fluid compared to blood and urine specimens include that the sample collection is a noninvasive procedure with minimal potential for adulteration. Additionally, oral fluid samples can be collected proximate to the time of driving, allowing for better correlation between signs and symptoms of impairment observed at the time of the arrest as compared to drugs detected in a biological sample collected later. With the increase in popularity of this matrix, several point-of-contact oral fluid devices have been developed and marketed for use in the field without any controlled assessment to evaluate their applicability and quality. The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the practical aspects of designing and performing tests on the latest generation of oral fluid devices to assess their accuracy, reliability and performance to specification. Five devices, the Dräger DrugTest 5000 (DDT5000), Dräger DrugCheck 3000 (DDC3000), Securetec DrugWipe S 5-Panel (DrugWipe), the Alere DDS2 Mobile System (DDS2) and the AquilaScan Oral Fluids Testing Detection System were included in the evaluation. An appropriate scope of testing and cutoff concentrations was based on two important previous studies: the Roadside Testing Assessment (ROSITA), which recommended greater 90% sensitivity and specificity and greater than 95 percent accuracy, and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID), which recommended greater than 80 percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Based on the summation of all testing performed for each device, the DDT5000, the DDC3000, and each of their individual assays demonstrated performance consistent with the requirements of the ROSITA group. The DDS2 data, in aggregate, also met the performance requirements for ROSITA; however, the THC assay did not. None of the individual assays on the DrugWipe or the AquilaScan met the performance requirement of ROSITA, nor did the performance of either device in aggregate. The DDT5000, DDC3000 and DDS2 in aggregate also met the performance requirements for DRUID. In its Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) Act, Congress directed NHTSA to establish a cooperative program — the National Cooperative Research and Evaluation Program (NCREP) — to conduct research and evaluations of State highway safety countermeasures. NCREP was continued in the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act. This program is administered by NHTSA and managed jointly by NHTSA and the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA). Each year, the States (through GHSA) identify potential highway safety research or evaluation topics they believe are important for informing State policy, planning, and programmatic activities. One such topic identified by GHSA, an evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices, formed the basis for this project.

Education on Proper Use of Seat Belts on School Buses (PDF, 856.71 KB) January 2021; DOT HS 812 999

NHTSA sponsored this project to understand how school districts that purchase large school buses with seat belts can maximize their effectiveness and benefit by improving proper usage. The project obtained observational data on the impact of seat belts on student behavior on buses and on bus driver distraction. It examined how policies were carried out by school bus drivers, and consequences for non-compliance. In general, the most important factors were training, education, and enforcement. Most survey respondents said seat belts on school buses contributed to calmer and less distracted environments for school bus drivers.

 

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