Behaviors and Attitudes
NHTSA studies behaviors and attitudes in highway safety, focusing on drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and motorcyclists. We identify and measure behaviors involved in crashes or associated with injuries, and develop and refine countermeasures to deter unsafe behaviors and promote safe alternatives.
The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers
Young drivers are at greater risk for alcohol-related crash deaths than any other age group, and there has been only limited progress. One innovative possibility that has not yet been tried for most young drivers is the implementation of a voluntary alcohol ignition interlock program as a preventative approach. This study examined its feasibility by discussions conducted in 2010 with ignition interlock manufacturers and service providers, insurance companies, community groups, parents, teens and young adults. Finally, ignition interlock recorder data on users 16 to 26 years old were examined, and a web survey with parents of voluntary users and voluntary users themselves was analyzed.
2013–2014 National Roadside Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Drug Results
This report is one of three that summarizes the results of the 2013–2014 National Roadside Study (NRS) of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contracted with the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) to conduct this study. This report (Volume 3) presents national prevalence estimates of drug-positive driving and alcohol-plus-drug-positive driving derived from the study, and compares them with the 2007 NRS, which was the first roadside study to estimate the prevalence of drug-positive driving in the Unites States. Another report (Volume 1) describes the sampling plan and data-collection methodology (Kelley-Baker et al., 2016). A third report (Volume 2) (Ramirez et al., 2016) presents the results for alcohol-positive driving.
Determining the Effectiveness Of Flexible Checkpoints
The objectives for this project were to (a) determine how flexible checkpoints are being used in the United States; (b) identify agencies that use flexible checkpoints to document problems or concerns they’ve found, and to determine and document solutions that could be used by other agencies that implement flexible checkpoints; and (c) determine the effectiveness of flexible checkpoints in one site.
Changes to Puerto Rico Motorcycle Rider Law
This report describes effects of a 2007 motorcycle safety law enacted in Puerto Rico in terms of rider reaction to the law, safety effects, and the degree to which the law was enforced. The law introduced or expanded safety-related statutes including reducing the blood alcohol concentration per se illegal level for motorcycle riders from .08g/dL to .02g/dL; requirements for reflective vests at night and other protective gear at all times of day; daytime running headlights, and other safety-related measures.
Evaluation of the Washington Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement Program
The Washington Traffic Safety Commission and NHTSA conducted a high-visibility Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement (NTSBE) program in Washington. The two-year program followed the basic “Click It or Ticket” model by using highly visible enforcement combined with increased paid and earned media about the enforcement but applied its efforts during the nighttime rather than the daytime hours. The NTSBE program positively affected driver awareness, increased observed nighttime seat belt use, and did not decrease the daytime use rate.
Evaluation of Responsible Beverage Service to Reduce Impaired Driving by 21- to 34-Year-Old Drivers
A number of studies have revealed that approximately half of intoxicated drivers had their last drink at a licensed bar or restaurant. This study evaluated an intervention that integrated outreach, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, targeted enforcement and, as necessary, corrective actions by law enforcement agencies. The immediate goal of the intervention was to reduce the practice of over-serving alcohol and serving alcohol to obviously intoxicated individuals in bars and restaurants. The long-term goal was to reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) arrests and impaired driving crashes.
Medical Review Practices For Driver Licensing Volume 3: Guidelines and Processes In the United States
This is the third of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically or functionally at-risk drivers. This volume updates the information presented in 2003 (Summary of Medical Advisory Board Practices in the United States). Medical Review/Driver Reexamination Department staff in 49 of the 51 State driver licensing agencies plus the District of Columbia responded to a survey designed to gather information about the driver medical review structure and processes in their jurisdictions. The first section of this report presents a 5- to 10-page narrative for each jurisdiction describing the organization of the medical review program; mechanisms used to identify drivers with medical conditions and functional impairments; procedures and medical guidelines used to evaluate drivers for fitness to drive; medical review and reexamination outcomes; appeals processes; availability of counseling and public information and education; outreach to law enforcement, medical professionals and others who may have concerns about a medically or functionally impaired driver; and administrative issues such as training of employees, and costs associated with medical review/reexamination. Following the State-by-State summaries, tables compare and contrast States’ responses to each survey question. This updated information may serve as a reference to State driver licensing agencies when updating their own guidelines, practices, and outreach to those who may refer drivers for medical review, by showing what works in other jurisdictions; and may promote practices that maintain public safety while allowing for personal mobility.
Evaluation of an Updated Version of the Risk Awareness and Perception Training Program for Young Drivers
Previous research suggests newly licensed teen drivers often fail to anticipate where unexpected hazards might materialize. One training program designed to address these apparent deficiencies in knowledge and skills that has shown promise in previous tests is the Risk Awareness and Perception Training (RAPT) program. This project updated RAPT using high definition video and computer simulations to create a more interactive and realistic program. Researchers evaluated the modified program’s impact on the behaviors of novice and experienced drivers through the use of a computer-based test and during on-road drives in live traffic on a pre-defined route. Both the novice and experienced driver RAPT-trained groups showed substantial improvement in performance from pre- to post-test with the RAPT trainees hitting almost all of the targets during the computer post-test. The performance differences extended to the eye-tracker data arising from the on-road drives. The RAPT-trained groups hit significantly higher numbers of total primary targets and percentages of targets compared to the control groups. The study also employed a “Think Aloud,” or commentary driving, data collection effort. This data collection approach did not reveal any performance differences among the training groups. This study also included a persistence measure using the computer assessment one month after training. Results showed the RAPT-trained groups’ target hit rates decreased from the initial post-test to the persistence measure but remained above their baseline hit rates and above the control groups’ persistence measure hit rates. Taken together, the results suggest the RAPT revision represented a significant improvement over the previous versions in terms of realism with a similar impact on driver behaviors as measured by a computer assessment and through the use of eye-tracking in a live traffic environment.
Medical Review Practices for Driver Licensing Volume 2: Case Studies of Medical Referrals and Licensing Outcomes in Maine, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin
Second of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically at-risk drivers. This volume presents findings of case studies describing the referral sources, medical review requirements, and licensing outcomes in six States in 2012, Maine, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Conclusions support recommendations that may increase appropriate referrals for medical review. improve the medical review process while maintaining individual and public safety and preserving mobility among those with declining functional abilities, and ensure licensing agency resources applied to medical review focus on drivers most needing to be medically reviewed and tested.
Evaluating the Enforceability of Texting Laws: Strategies Tested in Connecticut and Massachusetts
This evaluation sought to determine the enforceability of texting laws and to test methods for enforcing these laws. Participating law enforcement agencies in Connecticut and Massachusetts demonstrated that a variety of enforcement strategies could be used to enforce texting laws, including spotter, stationary, and roving patrol strategies. Strategy variations involved using one- and two-officer patrols, uniformed and plain clothed officers, marked and unmarked patrol vehicles, and a variety of vehicle types, including SUVs, vans, pickup trucks, motorcycles, and cruisers. This evaluation gathered first-hand insights from the participating officers regarding their experiences enforcing texting laws. Key insights highlighted the importance of conducting officer training, holding roll calls focused on texting enforcement, engaging in pre-planning to ensure smooth operation of the strategies, creating partnerships with local and State enforcement agencies to multiply forces and maximize resources, and establishing leadership priority for conducting texting enforcement.
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