Behaviors and Attitudes
NHTSA studies behaviors and attitudes in highway safety, focusing on drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and motorcyclists. We identify and measure behaviors involved in crashes or associated with injuries, and develop and refine countermeasures to deter unsafe behaviors and promote safe alternatives.
The Effects of Medical Conditions on Driving Performance: A Literature Review and Synthesis
This literature review relates changes in performance or safety outcome measures for older drivers to their medical conditions or medication use, and associated functional impairments.
Functional Safety Assessment of a Generic Accelerator Control System with Electronic Throttle Control in Gasoline Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles
This report describes research to derive safety requirements related to the failures and countermeasures of the accelerator control system (ACS) with electronic faults, such as errant electronic throttle control (ETC) signals, following an industry process standard, specifically identification of safety requirements for ACS/ETC systems in motor vehicles powered by gasoline engines. It follows the Concept Phase process of ISO 26262 and applies Hazard and Operability study, Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Systems Theoretic Process Analysis methods. It identifies 5 vehicle-level safety goals and 179 ACS/ETC system safety requirements (an output of the ISO 26262 and STPA processes). It observes opportunities to improve the risk assessment approach in ISO 26262. DOT HS 812 557.
Impaired Driving Leadership Model: Findings Based on Three State Case Studies - Report
This report describes case studies of the Impaired-Driving Leadership Model implemented by New Mexico, Washington State and Oklahoma. Each case study highlights the process that led to each model’s implementation, elements of the model’s structure, key components of its operation, and observed impacts following implementation. The report also identifies common and distinguishing elements of each model, lessons learned, and recommendations for other States considering implementing the model. The report indicates improvements (declines) in impaired-driving fatalities over time following implementation.
Additional Analysis of National Child Restraint Use Special Study: Child Restraint Misuse (Research Note)
This Research Note is the third in a series describing installation problems of child safety seats reported by the National Child Restraint Use Special Study. This report shows that in rear-facing infant and convertible seats, the most common misuses concerned: Child under 1 year old and angle of seat is 30° or less (42% of misuse cases); loose installation (seat moves 2 inches laterally, 29%); and harness slack (15%). In forward-facing car seats, the most common misuses were the following: loose installation (47%); harness slack (28%); and harness straps behind child’s arm, back, or leg (15%). In highback and backless booster seats, the most common misuses were the following: lap belt across abdomen or ribcage (59%); and shoulder belt behind arm or back (24%).
Teen Driver Monitoring Technology, Traffic Tech, Technology Transfer Series
Studies have shown that event-triggered feedback interventions can improve young novice drivers’ driving safety. This report describes two studies of effects of the feedback systems on teen risky driving behaviors. One focused on feedback that included video of risky events as compared to a system that did not include video feedback. The other study explored feedback on teens who began independent driving younger than 16 versus those 16 or older when they began driving independently. Data recorders captured 5,675 events in the first study, of which 3,332 or 58.7 percent indicated unsafe driving with either an unsafe event or behavior. The second study captured 6,671 events of which 5,448 or 81.7 percent indicated unsafe driving. Teens receiving feedback had rates of unsafe driving ranging from 1/6 to 1/3 times the rates of those without feedback.
Pedestrian and Bicyclist Data Analysis (Research Note)
This Research Note presents fatality and injury data for pedestrians and bicyclists, and identifies similarities and differences between these two types of non-motorist road users. The first section examines long-term trends for both pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities over 35 years, from 1980 to 2015. It focuses on fatality numbers and percentages, gender and age, and considers changes that have taken place over time. The second section examines characteristics of both pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities including urban or rural locations, hours of the day, light conditions, month of the year, day of the week, and non-motorist actions prior to the crashes.
Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Texas
Four States in NHTSA’s Region 6 began multi-wave teen seat belt demonstration projects in May 2009. They conducted four waves of paid media and law enforcement activities over the following year. Two of these waves were conducted immediately prior to statewide Click It or Ticket (CIOT) seat belt mobilizations (May 2009 and May 2010), and two were conducted independent of CIOT mobilizations. Enforcement and media indices indicated that these were strong programs. Awareness surveys conducted in three of the States indicated that media efforts and law enforcement agencies successfully reached the teen population in two States (Mississippi and Texas). Teen seat belt use increased in all four States, but only in Mississippi did teen belt use increase substantially more in the program than control area. The results of this evaluation were similar to those found in previous teen-focused demonstrations in Colorado and Nevada.
Age Versus Experience: Evaluation of Video Feedback Intervention For Newly Licensed Teen Drivers
Event-triggered, video-based interventions can improve driving safety among young drivers. Nine states including Iowa allow drivers under 16 to operate motor vehicles but little is known about how younger drivers compare to16-year-old drivers in terms of risky driving behaviors. This project examined the effects of age, experience, and video-based feedback on the rate of unsafe driving events captured on video event recorders for 90 newly licensed teen drivers. Results show that young drivers who received feedback had lower rates of unsafe driving events relative to the control group. The results indicate that video-based feedback could have safety benefits for young drivers.
Countermeasures That Work: Ninth Edition, Traffic Tech, Technology Transfer Series
This 9th edition of Countermeasures That Work is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.
Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide, Ninth Edition,
2017: This 9th edition of Countermeasures That Work is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.
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