Crash Avoidance

Office of Crash Avoidance Research Technical Publications

Office of Crash Avoidance Research Technical Publications 2016
Office of Crash Avoidance Research Technical Publications

2016

Validations of Integrated DVI Configurations Final Research Report

September 2016 - This report documents the development and proof-of-concept of an integration architecture (IA) prototype managing V2Vs. Driver data created a user-modified configuration to demonstrate the need and impact of a defined IA in the V2V environment. This research supports NHTSA’s focus on V2V technologies that have the potential to significantly affect driving safety, mobility, and sustainability of the transportation system.

Commercial Connected Vehicle Test Procedure Development and Test Results – Blind Spot Warning/Lane Change Warning

November 2016 - Test procedures to evaluate the blind spot warning/lane change warning (BSW/LCW) safety application of commercial vehicles with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) equipment. The prototype V2V equipment was observed to be capable of tracking potential BSW/LCW threats, but occasionally the equipment would not recognize that a vehicle was in the V2V equipment determined blind spot warning zone due to the equipment’s error in estimating the lateral range between the vehicles. The V2V equipment determined blind zone was different for each side of the vehicle evaluated in this study (shorter on right side). When the turn signals were activated, the blind zone was extended by a time based on the closing speed of the approaching vehicle. The BSW/LCW test procedures are generally well developed but the blind zone definition for commercial vehicles/tractor-trailers combinations needs to be further refined.

Driver Acceptance of Collision Warning Applications Based on Heavy Truck V2V Technology

This report describes an independent evaluation and analysis of methods and results of data gauging heavy-truck driver acceptance of collision warning based on V2V communication technology during driver acceptance clinics. V2V technology transmits vehicle information—location, size, and speed— to predict impending collisions and warn the driver. Results suggest V2V safety warnings have a high acceptance rate among heavy truck drivers. Results from the clinics will help shape future research into improved V2V safety applications for heavy vehicles.

In-Vehicle Voice Control Interface Performance Evaluation, Final Report

This paper reports empirical research about voice control systems used by drivers and the measures that could be used for evaluating these possible distractions while driving. An on-road study identified drivers’ patterns of use and interaction errors encountered with VCS. Twenty-two themes characterized interactions with VCS. Results suggest an evaluation protocol based solely on error free trials would not be representative of many VCS interactions commonly experienced. Two other studies were conducted in controlled laboratory environments. Results indicated that both performance and eye glance measures may be appropriate for evaluation of VCS and that the computer-based protocol yielded similar results to the driving simulator protocol.

Crash Avoidance Needs and Countermeasure Profiles for Safety Applications Based on Light Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communications

This study will help support the development of V2P based collision avoidance technologies and examined the GES and FARS crash databases in order to classify 21 pedestrian pre-crash scenarios based on different vehicle and pedestrian maneuvers. These scenarios were ranked based on associated costs and five priority scenarios were selected that represent 88 percent of pedestrian crash costs. For the priority scenarios crash contributing factors were examined and quantified to identify common occurrences in crashes, including physical settings, environmental conditions, and driver and pedestrian characteristics. Kinematic equations describing the crash scenarios were also derived and exercised to obtain estimates of the minimum stopping distances for various vehicle velocities and braking levels. The goal of this study was to develop an updated understanding of the pedestrian crash problem and the potential of V2P technology to address pedestrian crashes.

Commercial Connected Vehicle Test Procedure Development and Test Results - Emergency Electronic Brake Light

This report documents NHTSA’s test track research performed to support development of objective test procedures to evaluate the blind spot warning/lane change warning (BSW/LCW) safety application of commercial vehicles with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) equipment. The prototype V2V equipment was observed to be capable of tracking potential BSW/LCW threats, but occasionally the equipment would not recognize that a vehicle was in the V2V equipment determined blind spot warning zone due to the equipment’s error in estimating the lateral range between the vehicles. The V2V equipment determined blind zone was different for each side of the vehicle evaluated in this study (shorter on right side). When the turn signals were activated, the blind zone was extended by a time based on the closing speed of the approaching vehicle. The BSW/LCW test procedures are generally well developed but the blind zone definition for commercial vehicles/tractor-trailers combinations needs to be further refined.

Commercial Connected Vehicle Test Procedure Development and Test Results – Forward Collision Warning

This report documents NHTSA’s test track research performed to support development of objective test procedures to evaluate the forward collision warning (FCW) safety application of commercial vehicles with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) equipment. The prototype V2V equipment was observed to be capable of tracking potential FCW threats, but had some issues when vehicles were in a curve or when switching lanes. For the curve tests, the V2V equipment had trouble determining the lateral distance between the host vehicle (HV – test subject) and the remote vehicle (RV – collision threat) for certain scenarios. Future testing with commercial vehicles equipped with V2V technology will be required to fully develop some of the FCW objective test track procedures and performance metrics.

Summary of NHTSA Heavy Vehicle Vehicle-to-Vehicle Safety Communications Research

This report summarizes NHTSA’s V2V research on heavy vehicles (trucks and buses over 10,000 pounds). Most of the research conducted under the light vehicle V2V research program is directly applicable to applications in heavy vehicles, including the foundational elements such as 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications and the supporting security credential management system that enables trust for V2V Basic Safety Messages. Heavy-vehicle V2V systems have been prototyped and tested in controlled scenarios in track testing and driver clinics as well as in a real world environment in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Testing these heavy-vehicle V2V systems included class 8 tractors in an integrated configuration, retrofit safety devices designed to facilitate installation of V2V capability in existing trucks, and retrofitted local transit buses. Additional research is exploring V2V systems in single-unit trucks and areas such as cyber security.

Commercial Connected Vehicle Test Procedure Development and Test Results – Intersection Movement Assist

This report documents NHTSA’s test track research performed to support development of objective test procedures to evaluate the intersection movement assist (IMA) safety application of commercial vehicles with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) equipment. The prototype V2V equipment was observed to track potential IMA threats, but the IMA warnings and alerts issued from the V2V equipment on the trucks occurred very early. Due to the early warnings it was not possible to fully evaluate some of the test procedures.

Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

This report summarizes the results assessment and comparison of six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systemsThese standards are ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - Functional Safety), MIL-STD-882E (Department of Defense Standard Practice, System Safety), DO-178C (Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification), Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture), and MISRA C (Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Critical Systems).. The assessment was carried out along the 11 dimensions: (1) type of standard, (2) definition of safety and hazard, (3) identification of safety requirements, (4) hazard and safety analysis methods, (5) management of safety requirements, (6) risk assessment approach, (7) design for safety approach, (8) software safety, (9) system lifecycle consideration, (10) human factors consideration, and (11) approach for review, audit, and certification.

Field Study of Heavy-Vehicle Crash Avoidance Systems: Final Report

This study investigated the performance of collision avoidance systems (CASs) currently used in the trucking industry. A total of 169 drivers operating 151 tractor-trailers from 7 trucking companies were recruited to a 1-year field operational test. All vehicles were equipped with either the Meritor WABCO OnGuard or the Bendix Wingman Advanced CAS system. A new miniature data acquisition system (MiniDAS) was developed by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute to collect continuous video of the forward roadway, video of the driver's face, CAS activations and alerts, and vehicle network data whenever the trucks were in motion. Six thousand CAS activations and lane departure warning alerts were sampled, including all automatic emergency braking events and impact alerts. In order to estimate system reliability, these were analyzed to determine whether a safety critical event (SCE) took place. An SCE could be a crash, a near crash, or a crash-relevant conflict, all of which require the driver to perform a rapid evasive maneuver. No rear-end collisions were reported by participating companies in the 3 million miles of driving data recorded in this study. The more severe alerts had increased activation likelihood when a driver response was required. This study did not find that drivers changed their driving performance over time; neither the alert activation rates changed, nor drivers' response to the alerts meaningfully changed over time at highway speeds.

Large-Scale Field Test of Forward Collision Alert and Lane Departure Warning Systems

This report covers a field study of vehicle crash warning technologies using an innovative large-scale data collection technique for gathering information about the crash avoidance systems and how drivers respond to them. Although the specific system studied was the General Motors camera-based forward collision alert and lane departure warning system, this technique could be applied to other emerging active safety crash avoidance systems. The study team found that this data collection technique has several strengths including cost, sample size, and naturalistic testing by having drivers using their own vehicles where they can adjust system settings or even turn systems off. The technique allowed researchers to study possible long-term changes in how drivers adapt to such systems, and to acquire “rapid-turnaround” large-scale results in an efficient manner.

Independent Evaluation of Heavy-Truck Safety Applications Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communications Used in the Safety Pilot Model Deployment

This report presents the methodology and results of an independent evaluation and analysis by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center of heavy trucks participating in the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD), a field study vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology, The heavy trucks in the -- part of U.S. DOT's Intelligent Transportation Systems research program. In 2012 the SPMD deployed in Ann Arbor, Michigan, approximately 2,800 vehicles equipped with designated short-range-communication-based V2V and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technology in real-world driving environments. The goals of the evaluation were to characterize capability, assess unintended consequences of the warnings, and gauge driver acceptance of V2V and V2I safety applications. The evaluation is based on naturalistic driving by 33 participants who drove heavy trucks equipped with V2V and retrofit safety devices. The results V2V safety applications work in real-world environments and issue useful alerts in driving conflicts. However, improvement in the accuracy of these warnings is needed.