Behaviors and Attitudes
NHTSA studies behaviors and attitudes in highway safety, focusing on drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and motorcyclists. We identify and measure behaviors involved in crashes or associated with injuries, and develop and refine countermeasures to deter unsafe behaviors and promote safe alternatives.
2016 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, Volume #4: Emergency Medical Services, Crash Injury Experience, and Other Traffic Safety Topics
This report is the fourth of four reports describing the results of the 2016 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, which used address-based sampling with multi-mode methodology to produce nationally representative estimates of self-reported behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to motor vehicle occupant safety topics among adults 18 and older. Volume #4 covers EMS, crash injury experience, and other traffic safety topics.
Characterizing Ambulance Driver Training in EMS
The technical report, “System Level RESS Safety and Protection Test Procedure Development, Validation, and Assessment” was prepared for NHTSA by Argonne National Laboratory via Interagency Agreement DTNH22-15-X-00513. The project originally initiated in August 2015 with a cost of $550,000. The draft report was received by NHTSA in December of 2017 and circulated for agency comments. These comments were assessed, and appropriate revisions were included in this final report.
NHTSA Visual-Manual Driver Distraction Guidelines Test Procedures Documentation
These two guidelines facilitate the “Task Acceptance Testing,” in NHTSA’s Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices. They do not change the scope or tests themselves, and just give supplemental information. They are:
- Task Acceptance Testing – Driving Simulator
- Task Acceptance Testing – Visual Occlusion
The test procedures differ slightly from those described in the NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines. These procedures facilitate data collection from three error-free task instances for each participant, which yield better estimates of metric values, and makes modification more consistent with the Occlusion Testing method.
2016 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey: Volume 1, Methodology Report
The 2016 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey used address-based sampling with a multi-mode methodology to produce nationally representative estimates of self-reported behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to various motor vehicle occupant safety topics among United States adults 18 and older. This volume is third in a series of four volumes describing the survey and the results and discusses findings about child passenger systems and how people use car seats, booster seats and seat belts for children up to age 12. The other MVOSS reports are Volume 1: Methodology Report; Volume 2: Seat Belt Report; and Volume 4: Emergency Medical Services, Crash Injury Experience, and Other Traffic Safety Topics.
2016 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey;Volume 2: Seat Belt Report
This report describes Volume 2 (seat belts), part of the four volumes of results of NHTSA’s seventh (2016) Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey of nationally representative, self-reported behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to various traffic safety topics. While the focus of the survey is adult seat belt use and child passenger safety, there are also questions about emergency medical services, crash injury experience, emergency situations, air bags, speeding, cell phone use, and alcohol-impaired driving. Specifically, it explores (1) 2016 self-reported seat belt use, (2) reasons for seat belt use and non-use, (3) attitudes concerning the utility of seat belts, and (4) attitudes, knowledge, and experience with seat belt laws and their enforcement.
Young Driver Survey
The over-representation of young drivers in crashes and road fatalities is a serious public health concern and imposes substantial human, social, and economic costs. Contributing factors to crash risk include exposure, inexperience, distraction, recklessness, and social influence from peer passengers. Fortunately, young driver motor vehicle crashes are preventable, and proven strategies can improve the safety of young drivers on the road. The Young Driver Survey explored traffic safety attitudes and beliefs of young people 16 to 21 years old residing in Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. This questionnaire explored issues with the driving experiences of younger drivers and identified key challenges to safety measures. About 18,000 respondents (n = 17,698) completed the survey.
Motorcyclists’ Attitudes on Using High-Visibility Gear To Improve Conspicuity A Study Conducted Under NCREP — The National Cooperative Research and Evaluation Program Findings From A Focus Group Study
Multi-vehicle motorcycle crash research suggests difficulty detecting motorcycles is a relevant factor. Countermeasures increase conspicuity of a motorcycle rider by wearing high-visibility gear, especially at night or in low-light conditions, yet many riders do not wear high-visibility gear. This report describes a study exploring why riders will or won’t wear high-visibility gear. Eighteen focus groups of 137 riders in Maryland, California, Texas, and Michigan discussed their attitudes, beliefs and preferences regarding high-visibility gear. The groups consisted of riders of the same gender and who ride the same motorcycle type (cruiser, touring motorcycle, or sport motorcycle). Findings revealed that a minority of participants regularly wear high-visibility gear. Primary reasons for not wearing high-visibility apparel were objections to appearance and the belief that it does not fit with their riding culture.
Safety Performance of Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems
This report describes objective test procedures based on failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for meaningful, comparable, and quantitative evaluations of Li-ion-based rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) in electrically propelled platforms. These are applicable to all components of RESS and ancillary vehicle systems associated with electric propulsion; they can also serve as best practice guides for safety assessment of future designs. RESS safety performance is assessed with single and dual-point failure modes during all normal and abnormal operating conditions including charging, vehicle storage, operation, crash event, and post-crash state.
Social Media Practices in Traffic Safety
This study researched how State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) are using social media, and the opportunities, benefits, and challenges social media presents. While social media continues to rapidly evolve, this report provides statistical analysis on the state of the practice of SHSO social media. It also describes new and creative ways SHSOs are sharing information, ideas, and other content – and how these activities can be measured or tracked. It provides promising practices and case study examples for using social media in traffic safety programming, and can be a tool for traffic safety programmers to design social media programs.
Mild Cognitive Impairment and Driving Performance
The objective of this project was to explore differences in driving performance and exposure between participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) – operationally defined through recognized clinical methods – and a comparison group of drivers of comparable age who did not meet those criteria. MCI refers to an intermediary, symptomatic state between age-appropriate cognitive decline and dementia. An initial literature review revealed a lack of clear boundaries between these cognitive status categories, which led researchers to consider continuous measures of cognitive impairment to predict road test performance and exposure. Thirty-eight participants were recruited. Clinical measures, administered by a certified driver rehabilitation specialist (CDRS), included the trail-making and maze tests, plus the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) was used to obtain participants' self-reports indicating cognitive status. A CDRS also administered the road tests in two study locations (in and near Roanoke and Richmond, Virginia). Exposure data were recorded with GPS loggers and cameras installed in participants' own vehicles for approximately one month. Regression models identified MoCA scores, and to a lesserextent Maze Test scores, as significant predictors of road test results, particularly with respect to tactical driving tasks.There were no significant regression models for analyses of exposure measures. Analysis of impairment status (not impaired, MCI, or moderate cognitive impairment) using only the MoCA classifications showed that those classified as unimpaired received significantly fewer points off on the on-road assessment than those classified as MCI, and this difference increased when comparing the unimpaired to those with any level of impairment. While the evidence was mixed regarding the extent to which MCI drivers appropriately self-restrict their exposure, MoCA appears to be a practical tool for occupational therapist generalists to use in identifying referrals for a comprehensive driving evaluation.
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