Behaviors and Attitudes
NHTSA studies behaviors and attitudes in highway safety, focusing on drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and motorcyclists. We identify and measure behaviors involved in crashes or associated with injuries, and develop and refine countermeasures to deter unsafe behaviors and promote safe alternatives.
|State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes
Automatic license plate readers (ALPRs) are an important tool in law enforcement and traffic safety. This report gathered information on and provided insight into law enforcement agency implementation and use of ALPRs for traffic safety purposes, with specific emphasis on its use for detecting drivers with revoked, suspended, or restricted licenses. Researchers used two research methods, a literature review and six case studies representing city, county, and State LEAs in a mix of geographic locations. The evidence gleaned from the case studies provides additional indicators to support the effectiveness of ALPR for traffic safety purposes—when viewed in terms of efficiency and productivity gains as well as improvements in traffic safety by culling vehicles that are more prone to crash risk. Effectiveness as a traffic safety countermeasure was often viewed as a secondary outcome—as a by-product of looking for stolen vehicles or other criminal activity.
|DOT HS 813 051|
|State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes – Traffic TechThis Traffic Tech briefly summarizes a larger report, State of Knowledge and Practice for Using Automated License Plate Readers for Traffic Safety Purposes, which gathered information and insight into law enforcement implementation and use of automatic license plate readers (ALPRs) for traffic safety purposes, with emphasis detecting drivers with revoked, suspended, or restricted licenses. Evidence gleaned from the case studies provides additional indicators to support the effectiveness of ALPR for traffic safety purposes—when viewed in terms of efficiency and productivity gains as well as improvements in traffic safety by culling vehicles that are more prone to crash risk.||DOT HS 813 052|
|Indirect Effects of School Bus Seat Belt Installation - Traffic TechThis Traffic Tech briefly summarizes a full NHTSA report on the indirect effects of seat belt installation on school buses, based on a study of school districts in 12 States, as well as a literature review and program scan.||DOT HS 813 050|
|Examination of Three Districts Implementing Stop Arm Camera Programs to Enforce Laws Against Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses - Traffic TechThis Traffic Tech briefly describes a literature review and a detailed examination of stop arm camera program implementation in three school districts. The districts offered their experiences with legislation, reactions and experiences of their bus drivers, efforts to educate and inform the public, cooperation with law enforcement, successes and challenges in issuing citations and penalties, and lessons learned. This study also analyzed camera vendor supplied citation data previously gathered from an additional 34 school districts.||DOT HS 813 113|
|Indirect Effects of School Bus Seat Belt Installation
The project is a synthesis of the research findings, a literature review, and program scan summarizing data on the indirect effects of seat belts on school buses. Findings also include anecdotal observations from bus drivers and school district officials obtained from a concurrent NHTSA report, Education on Proper Use of Seat Belts on School Buses (Report No. DOT HS 812 999). Overall, findings indicate seat belt use is associated with improved student behavior and reduced bus driver distraction. Seat belt use is higher when required-use policies are in place, and that seat belt use is heavily reliant on the efforts of the bus drivers. A more-detailed study focusing on the indirect benefits experienced by a sample of school jurisdictions would better quantify the potential outcomes of school bus seat belts.
|DOT HS 813 049|
|Examination of Three Districts Implementing Stop Arm Camera Programs to Enforce Laws Against Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses
This study included a literature review of stop-arm camera implementations in the United States; a detailed examination of stop-arm camera implementation in three school districts; and an analysis of previously collected camera-enforcement data from an additional 33 districts obtained from a camera vendor. The three districts in the study provided information about their experiences in implementing photo enforcement, including their experiences with legislation; reactions and experiences of their bus drivers; efforts to educate and inform the public; cooperation with law enforcement; successes and challenges in issuing citations and penalties; and lessons learned.
|DOT HS 813 102|
|A Guide to Implementing Child Passenger Safety Inspection Stations
Brief Description: Child passenger safety (CPS) inspection stations (also known as “car seat check locations” or “fitting stations”) and child passenger safety technicians (CPSTs) have been conducting child safety seat inspections for over 20 years. In 1997 NHTSA’s national training program to certify CPSTs and instructors was implemented. This guide is intended to define a CPS inspection station, examine the need for permanent CPS inspection stations, address the importance of building community support for CPS inspection stations, discuss the key elements of a successful CPS inspection station, and identify resources for implementing and maintaining CPS inspection stations.
|DOT HS 812 692|
|High Visibility Enforcement and Seat Belt Use
High-visibility enforcement (HVE) is a traffic safety approach designed to deter unlawful behaviors and promote voluntary behavior change in accordance with traffic laws. HVE deters risky behavior by reminding motorists through communications and additional enforcement that they may be pulled over for illegal behaviors. Over the past two decades, traffic safety programs have used and evaluated HVE efforts to change many risky behaviors. This Traffic Tech summarizes evaluations of HVE effectiveness for seat belt use.
|DOT HS 813 070|
|Update to Special Report on Traffic Safety During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: Third Quarter Data, Research Note, Traffic Safety Facts
This is an update to NHTSA's recent Special Reports examining traffic safety trends during the COVID public health emergency.
|DOT HS 813 069|
|Education on Proper Use of Seat Belts on School Buses
NHTSA sponsored this project to understand how school districts that purchase large school buses with seat belts can maximize their effectiveness and benefit by improving proper usage. The project obtained observational data on the impact of seat belts on student behavior on buses and on bus driver distraction. It examined how policies were carried out by school bus drivers, and consequences for non-compliance. In general, the most important factors were training, education, and enforcement. Most survey respondents said seat belts on school buses contributed to calmer and less distracted environments for school bus drivers.
|DOT HS 812 999|
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