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American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2014). Bikeology curriculum and parent guide.

Ackery, A. D., McLellan, B. A., & Redelmeier, D. A. (2012). Bicyclist deaths and striking vehicles in the USA. Injury Prevention, 18(1), 22–26.

Agran, P. F., Castillo, D. N., & Winn, D. G. (1990). Limitations of data compiled from police reports on pediatric pedestrian and bicycle motor vehicle events. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 22(4), 361–370. 

Almeida, G., Luz, C., Martins, R., & Cordovil, R. (2016). Differences between estimation and real performance in school-age children: Fundamental movement skills. Child Development Research, 2016, 1-7. 

Attewell, R. G., Glase, K., & McFadden, M. (2001). Bicycle helmet efficacy: A meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33(3), 345–352. 

Barajas, J. M. (2018). Not all crashes are created equal: Associations between the built environment and disparities in bicycle collisions. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 865-882.

Bike Delaware. (n.d.). Delaware yield crash data.

Bíl, M., Dobiáš, M., Andrášik, R., Bílová, M., & Hejna, P. (2018). Cycling fatalities: When a helmet is useless and when it might save your life. Safety Science, 105, 71–76.

Blank, K., Sandt, L., & O’Brien, S. (2020). The role of law enforcement in supporting pedestrian and bicyclist safety: An idea book (Report No. DOT HS 812 852). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Blomberg, R. D., & Cleven, A. M. (2006). Pilot test of “Heed the Speed,” a program to reduce speeds in residential neighborhoods (Report No. DOT HS 810 648). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Blomberg, R. D., Thomas III, F. D., & Marziani, B. J. (2012). Demonstration and evaluation of the Heed the Speed pedestrian safety program (Report No. DOT HS 811 515). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Blomberg, R. D., Wright, T. J., Van Houten, R., Finstad, K., & Thomas, F. D. (2022). Evaluating high-visibility enforcement of bicycle passing laws (Report No. DOT HS 813 248). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Britt, J., Silver, I., & Rivara, F. P. (1998). Bicycle helmet promotion among low income preschool children. Injury Prevention, 4(4), 280–283. 

Brookshire, K., Sandt, L., Sundstrom, C., Thomas, L., & Blomberg, R. (2016). Advancing pedestrian and bicyclist safety: A primer for highway safety professionals. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Brown, C. T. (2021). Arrested mobility: The unintentional consequences of overpolicing Black mobility in the United States. In I. Klaus & S. Kling (Eds.), Reclaiming the right to the city (pp. 13-17). Chicago Council on Global Affairs. 

Buckley, L., Sheehan, M., & Chapman, R. (2009). Bicycle helmet wearing among adolescents: Effectiveness of school-based injury prevention countermeasure. Transportation Research Record, 2140(1), 173–181. 

Buehler, R., & Pucher, J. (2021). COVID-19 impacts on cycling, 2019–2020. Transport Reviews, 41(4), 393-400. 

Buehler, R., Pucher, J., & Bauman, A. (2020). Physical activity from walking and cycling for daily travel in the United States, 2001–2017: Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic variation. Journal of Transport & Health, 16

Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2022). Bikeshare and e-scooter systems in the U.S.  

Carpenter, C. S., & Warman, C. (2019). What do bicycle helmet laws do? Evidence from Canada. Economic Inquiry, 57(2), 832–854. 

Center for Health Training. (n.d.). Safe Routes to School: Practice and promise. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Health impact in 5 years.

Cicchino, J. B., Kulie, P. E., & McCarthy, M. L. (2021). Severity of e-scooter rider injuries associated with trip characteristics. Journal of Safety Research, 76, 26-261. 

Cloutier, M.-S., Lachapelle, U., d Amours-Ouellet, A.-A., Bergeron, J., Lord, S., & Torres, J. (2017). “Outta my way!” Individual and environmental correlates of interactions between pedestrians and vehicles during street crossings. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 104, 36–45.

Consumer Product Safety Commission. (2022) Which helmet for which activity? (Report No. 349). 

Cushing, M., Hooshmand, J., Pomares, B., & Hotz, G. (2016). Vision Zero in the United States versus Sweden: Infrastructure improvement for cycling safety. American Journal of Public Health, 106(12), 2178–2180. 

Davis, C. (2017, July 26). After a year of bicycle safety enforcement, APD wants to see more education. KXAN

Dennis, J., Potter, B., Ramsay, T., & Zarychanski, R. (2010). The effects of provincial bicycle helmet legislation on helmet use and bicycle ridership in Canada. Injury Prevention, 16(4), 219–224. 

Dennis, J., Ramsay, T., Turgeon, A. F., & Zarychanski, R. (2013). Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: Interrupted time series analysis. BMJ, 346

Dill, J., Monsere, C., MacArthur, J., McNeil, N., Kothuri, S., Brodie, S., Chrzan, J., Fink, C., Judelman, B., Schoner, J., Elliot, J., Jacobson, T., & Proulx, F. (2021). AASHTO council on active transportation: Research roadmap. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. 

DiMaggio, C., Frangos, S. G., & Li, G. (2016). National Safe Routes to School program and risk of school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injury. Annals of Epidemiology, 26(6), 412–417. 

Dumbaugh, E., Li, Y., Saha, D., & Merlin, L. (2020). The influence of the built environment on crash risk in lower-income and higher-income communities (Report No. CSCRS-R11). Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety. 

Ducheyne, F., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lenoir, M., & Cardon, G. (2013). Does a cycle training course improve cycling skills in children? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 59, 38-45. 

Ellis, J. (2014).  Bicycle safety education for children from a developmental and learning perspective (Report No. DOT HS 811 880). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.  

Elvik, R. (2013). Corrigendum to: “Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001” Accident Analysis & Prevention, 60, 245–253. 

Elvik, R. (2017). Exploring factors influencing the strength of the safety-in-numbers effect. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 100, 75–84. 

Elvik, R., & Bjørnskau, T. (2017). Safety-in-numbers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence. Safety Science, 92, 274–282. 

Elvik, R., & Goel, R. (2019). Safety-in-numbers: An updated meta-analysis of estimates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 129, 136–147. 

Evans, I., Pansch, J., Singer-Berk, L., & Lindsey, G. (2018). Factors affecting vehicle passing distance and encroachments while overtaking cyclists. ITE Journal, 88(5), 40–45. 

Feng, F., Bao, S., Hampshire, R. C., & Delp, M. (2018). Drivers overtaking bicyclists - An examination using naturalistic driving data. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 115, 98–109. 

Ferenchak, N. N., & Marshall, W. E. (2019). Suppressed child pedestrian and bicycle trips as an indicator of safety: Adopting a proactive safety approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 124, 128–144. 

Fischer, P., & Retting, R. A. (2017). A right to the road: Understanding and addressing bicyclist safety. Governors Highway Safety Association. 

Goffman, E. (2021). Traffic gardens teach safety and engineering to kids as biking surges.  Mobility Lab. 

Goodyear, S. (2015, June 29). A nifty device to stop cars from driving too close to bikes. Bloomberg.

Goughnour, E., Peach, K., Dunn, M., Mitman, M., & Gelinne, D. (2021). Primer on safe system approach for pedestrians and bicyclists (Report No. FHWA-SA-21-065). Federal Highway Administration. 

Gulack, B. C., Englum, B. R., Rialon, K. L., Talbot, L. J., Keenan, J. E., Rice, H. E., Scarborough, J. E., & Adibe, O. O. (2015). Inequalities in the use of helmets by race and payer status among pediatric cyclists. Surgery, 158(2), 556–561. 

Hamann, C. J., & Peek-Asa, C. (2013). On-road bicycle facilities and bicycle crashes in Iowa, 2007-2010. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 56, 103–109. 

Hatfield, J., Boufous, S., & Eveston, T. (2019). An evaluation of the effects of an innovative school-based cycling education program on safety and participation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 127, 52–60. 

Helak, K., Jehle, D., McNabb, D., Battisti, A., Sanford, S., & Lark, M. C. (2017). Factors influencing injury severity of bicyclists involved in crashes with motor vehicles: Bike lanes, alcohol, lighting, speed, and helmet use. Southern Medical Journal, 110(7), 441–444. 

Hess, G., & Peterson, M. N. (2015). “Bicycles may use full lane” signage communicates U.S. roadway rules and increases perception of safety. Plos One, 10(8), e0136973. 

Hooshmand, J., Hotz, G., Neilson, V., & Chandler, L. (2014). BikeSafe: Evaluating a bicycle safety program for middle school aged children. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 66, 182–186. 

Høye, A. (2018a). Recommend or mandate? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 120, 239–249. 

Høye, A. (2018b). Bicycle helmets – To wear or not to wear? A meta-analyses [sic] of the effects of bicycle helmets on injuries. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 117, 85–97. 

Hu, W., & Cicchino, J. B. (2022). Relationship of pedestrian crash types and passenger vehicle types. Journal of Safety Research, 82, 392–401. 

Huybers, S., Fenerty, L., Kureshi, N., Thibault-Halman, G., LeBlanc, J. C., Clarke, D. B., & Walling, S. (2017). Long-term effects of education and legislation enforcement on all-age bicycle helmet use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Community Health, 42, 83–89. 

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2022). Bicycle helmet use laws.

Isaksson-Hellman, I., & Töreki, J. (2019). The effect of speed limit reductions in urban areas on cyclists’ injuries in collisions with cars. Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(sup3), 39–44. 

Injury Surveillance Workgroup 8. (2017). Consensus recommendations for pedestrian injury surveillance. Safe States Alliance. 

Jackson, S., Miller, S., Johnson, K., Duke, G. R., Nachmann, K., Peach, K., Chestnutt, C., Nham, J., & Goughnour, E. (2022). Understanding and using new pedestrian and bicycle facilities (Report No. DOT HS 813 317). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Jackson, S., Retting, R., & Miller, S. (2021). Impact analysis of bicycle safety laws (Report No. DOT HS 813 123). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Jewett, A., Beck, L. F., Taylor, C., & Baldwin, G. (2016). Bicycle helmet use among persons 5 years and older in the United States, 2012. Journal of Safety Research, 59, 1–7. 

Kakefuda, I., Stallones, L., & Gibbs, J. (2009). Discrepancy in bicycle helmet use among college students between two bicycle use purposes: Commuting and recreation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(3), 513–521. 

Kamruzzaman, M., Debnath, A., & Bourdaniotis, V. (2019). An exploratory study on the safety effects of speed limit reduction policy in Brisbane and Melbourne CBDs. Australasian Transport Research Forum 2019. 

Kanny, D., Schieber, R. A., Pryor, V., & Kresnow, M. J. (2001). Effectiveness of a state law mandating use of bicycle helmets among children: An observational evaluation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(11), 1072–1076. 

Karkhaneh, M., Kalenga, J. C., Hagel, B. E., & Rowe, B. H. (2006). Effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation to increase helmet use: A systematic review. Injury Prevention, 12(2), 76–82. 

Karkhaneh, M., Rowe, B. H., Saunders, L. D., Voaklander, D. C., & Hagel, B. E. (2011). Bicycle helmet use four years after the introduction of helmet legislation in Alberta, Canada. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 788–796. 

Karkhaneh, M., Rowe, B. H., Saunders, L. D., Voaklander, D. C., & Hagel, B. E. (2013). Trends in head injuries associated with mandatory bicycle helmet legislation targeting children and adolescents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 59, 206–212. 

Kay, J. J., Savolainen, P. T., Gates, T. J., & Datta, T. K. (2014). Driver behavior during bicycle passing maneuvers in response to a Share the Road sign treatment. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 70, 92–99. 

Kehoe, N. P., Goughnour, E., Jackson, S., Sykes, K., Miller, S., & Blackburn, L. (2022). Safety in numbers: A literature review (Report No. DOT HS 813 279). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Kett, P., Rivara, F., Gomez, A., Kirk, A. P., & Yantsides, C. (2016). The effect of an all-ages bicycle helmet law on bicycle-related trauma. Journal of Community Health, 41, 1160–1166. 

Kraemer, J. D. (2016). Bicycle helmet laws and persistent racial and ethnic helmet use disparities among urban high school students: A repeated cross-sectional analysis. Injury Epidemiology, 3(1). 

Kroman, D. (2022, February 17). King County repeals mandatory bicycle helmet law. The Seattle Times. 

Kullgren, A., Stigson, H., Ydenius, A., Axelsson, A., Engström, E., & Rizzi, M. (2019). The potential of vehicle and road infrastructure interventions in fatal bicyclist accidents on Swedish roads-What can in-depth studies tell us? Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(sup1), S7–S12. 

Kwan, I., & Mapstone, J. (2009). Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(3), 305–312. 

Lachapelle, U., Noland, R. B., & Von Hagen, L. A. (2013). Teaching children about bicycle safety: An evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 52, 237–249. 

LaMondia, J. J., & Duthie, J. C. (2012). Analysis of factors influencing bicycle–vehicle interactions on urban roadways by ordered probit regression. Transportation Research Record, 2314(1), 81–88. 

Langford, B. C., Chen, J., & Cherry, C. R. (2015). Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 82, 220–226. 

League of American Bicyclists. (n.d.-a). Bicycling and walking in the United States: Benchmarking progress. 

League of American Bicyclists. (n.d.-b). Smart cycling

Lockhart, S., Fenerty, L., & Walling, S. (2010). Operation Headway: A multifaceted bike helmet promotion program. Injury Prevention, 16(Supplement 1), A161. 

Love, D. C., Breaud, A., Burns, S., Margulies, J., Romano, M., & Lawrence, R. (2012). Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 451–456. 

Ludwig, T. D., Buchholz, C., & Clarke, S. W. (2005). Using social marketing to increase the use of helmets among bicyclists. Journal of American College Health, 54(1), 51–58. 

Macarthur, C., Parkin, P. C., Sidky, M., & Wallace, W. (1998). Evaluation of a bicycle skills training program for young children: A randomized controlled trial. Injury Prevention, 4(2), 116–121. 

MacArthur, J., Harpool, M., Schepke, D., & Cherry, C. R. (2018). A North American survey of electric bicycle owners (Report No. NITC-RR-1041). Transportation Research and Education Center. 

MacArthur, J., McNeil, N., Cummings, A., & Broach, J. (2020). Adaptive bike share: Expanding bike share to people with disabilities and older adults. Transportation Research Record, 2674(8), 556–565. 

Mackenzie, J. R. R., Dutschke, J. K., & Ponte, G. (2019). An evaluation of bicycle passing distances in the ACT (Report No. CASR157). Centre for Automotive Safety Research. 

Macpherson, A., & Spinks, A. (2008). Bicycle helmet legislation for the uptake of helmet use and prevention of head injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008(3). 

Madsen, J. C. O., Andersen, T., & Lahrmann, H. (2013). Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles: A controlled experiment. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 820–829. 

Maitland, M. E. (2013). Bicycle helmets: Don't say something by not saying something. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 23(6), 415–416. 

Mandic, S., Flaherty, C., Pocock, T., Kek, C. C., McArthur, S., Ergler, C., Chillón, P., & Bengoechea, E. G. (2018). Effects of cycle skills training on children’s cycling-related knowledge, confidence and behaviours. Journal of Transport & Health, 8, 271–282. 

McArthur, A., Savolainen, P., & Gates, T. (2014). Spatial analysis of child pedestrian and bicycle crashes: Development of safety performance function for areas adjacent to schools. Transportation Research Record, 2465(1), 57–63. 

McCullough, S. R., Lugo, A., & van Stokkum, R. (2019). Making bicycling equitable: Lessons from sociocultural research. UC Davis: Institute of Transportation Studies. 

McDonald, N. (2015). Impact of Safe Routes to School programs on walking and biking. Active Living Research. 

McDonald, N. C., Steiner, R. L., Lee, C., Rhoulac Smith, T., Zhu, X., & Yang, Y. (2014). Impact of the safe routes to school program on walking and bicycling. Journal of the American Planning Association, 80(2), 153–167. 

McKenzie, B. (2014). Modes less traveled—Bicycling and walking to work in the United States: 2008–2012 (Report No. ACS-25; American Community Survey Reports). U. S. Census Bureau. 

McKenzie, B., Fields, A., Risley, M., & Sawyer, R. C. (2017). 2016 American Community Survey Content Test: Journey to work [Final report]. United States Census Bureau. 

McLeod, Ken. (2013). Bike law university: Vulnerable road user laws. League of American Bicyclists. 

Meggs, J. N. (2010). Bicycle safety and choice: Compounded public cobenefits of the Idaho law relaxing stop requirements for cycling. University of California, Berkley. 

Michael, P. D., Davenport, D. L., & Draus, J. M. (2017). Bicycle helmets save more than heads: Experience from a pediatric level I trauma hospital. The American Surgeon, 83(9), 1007–1011. 

Mitchell, O., & Ridgeway, G. (2018). Assessing the fairness and effectiveness of bicycle stops in Tampa. Police Quarterly, 21(4), 461–485. 

Monsere, C., Wang, H., Wang, Y., & Chen, C. (2017). Risk factors for pedestrian and bicycle crashes (Report No. FHWA-OR-17-13). Oregon Department of Transportation. 

Moudon, A. V., & Kang, M. (2017). Safe main street highways part I: Washington state collision data and geocoding (Report No. WA-RD 862.1). Washington State Transportation Center. 

Muennig, P. A., Epstein, M., Li, G., & DiMaggio, C. (2014). The cost-effectiveness of New York City’s Safe Routes to School Program. American Journal of Public Health, 104(7), 1294–1299. 

Mwakalonge, J. L., White, J., & Siuhi, S. (2014). Distracted biking: A review of the current state-of-knowledge. International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 32(2), 42-51. 

Nachman, E. R., & Rodríguez, D. A. (2019). Evaluating the effects of a classroom-based bicycle education intervention on bicycle activity, self-efficacy, personal safety, knowledge, and mode choice (Report No. UC-ITS-2019-18). The University of California Institute of Transportation Studies. 

National Association of City Transportation Officials. (2016). Equitable bike share means building better places for people to ride (NACTO Bike Share Equity Practitioners’ Paper #3). 

National Center for Safe Routes to School, & FHWA. (2015). Creating healthier generations: A look at 10 years of the Federal Safe Routes to School program

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2022, June). Bicyclists and other cyclists: 2020 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 813 322). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). (2022). Safely passing bicyclists chart. 

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.). Web motion graphics: Fitting a bike helmet [Various formats]. 

NHTSA. (2008). Bicycle helmet use laws (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 810 886W). 

NHTSA. (2011). Cycling skills clinic guide (Report No. DOT HS 811 260). 

NHTSA. (2012). Fitting your bike helmet (Report No. DOT HS 811 568). 

NHTSA. (2023). Fatality and Injury Reporting System Tool (FIRST), Version 5.6.

National Transportation Safety Board. (2019). Bicyclist safety on US roadways: Crash risks and countermeasures (Safety Research Report No. NTSB/SS-19/01). 

Naumann, R. B., Kuhlberg, J., Sandt, L. S., Heiny, S., Apostolopoulos, Y., Marshall, S. W., & Lich, K. H. (2020). Integrating complex systems science into road safety research and practice, Part 1: Review of formative concepts. Injury Prevention, 26(2), 177–183. 

Naumann, R. B., Kuhlberg, J., Sandt, L. S., Heiny, S., Kumfer, W., Marshall, S. W., & Lich, K. H. (2019). Integrating complex systems science into road safety research and practice, Part 2: Applying systems tools to the problem of increasing pedestrian death rates. Injury Prevention, 26(5), 424-431. 

Nehiba, C. (2018). Give me 3’: Do minimum distance passing laws reduce bicyclist fatalities? Economics of Transportation, 14, 9–20. 

Olivier, J., & Creighton, P. (2017). Bicycle injuries and helmet use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(1), 278–292. 

Owen, R., Kendrick, D., Mulvaney, C., Coleman, T., & Royal, S. (2011). Non-legislative interventions for the promotion of cycle helmet wearing by children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(11). 

Peden, M., Scurfield, R., Sleet, D., Mohan, D., Hyder, A. A., Jarawan, E., & Mathers, C. (Eds.). (2004). World report on road traffic injury prevention. World Health Organization. 

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. (2020). Understanding crashes and safe behaviors to help prevent them [video series]. 

Piatkowski, D. P., Marshall, W., & Johnson, A. S. (2017). Bicycle backlash: Qualitative examination of aggressive driver–bicyclist interactions. Transportation Research Record, 2662(1), 22–30. 

Pierce, S. R., Palombaro, K. M., & Black, J. D. (2014). Barriers to bicycle helmet use in young children in an urban elementary school. Health Promotion Practice, 15(3), 406–412. 

Plumert, J. M., & Schwebel, D. C. (1997). Social and temperamental influences on children’s overestimation of their physical abilities: Links to accidental injuries. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67(3), 317–337. 

Pollatsek, A., Narayanaan, V., Pradhan, A., & Fisher, D. L. (2006). Using eye movements to evaluate a PC-based risk awareness and perception training program on a driving simulator. Human Factors, 48(3), 447–464. 

Porter, K. P. (2018). Examining the impacts of universal bicycle helmet laws on injury, helmet use, and ridership: Findings from a systematic literature review [Poster PW 1821]. Injury Prevention, 24, A183.3–A184. 

Pradhan, A. K., Fisher, D. L., & Pollatsek, A. (2006). Risk perception training for novice drivers: Evaluating duration of effects of training on a driving simulator. Transportation Research Record, 1969(1), 58–64. 

Prati, G. (2018). The effect of an Italian nationwide mandatory visibility aids law for cyclists. Journal of Transport & Health, 9, 212–216. 

Prati, G., Marín Puchades, V., De Angelis, M., Fraboni, F., & Pietrantoni, L. (2018). Factors contributing to bicycle–motorised vehicle collisions: A systematic literature review. Transport Reviews, 38(2), 184–208. 

Puder, D. R., Visintainer, P., Spitzer, D., & Casal, D. (1999). A comparison of the effect of different bicycle helmet laws in 3 New York City suburbs. American Journal of Public Health, 89(11), 1736–1738. 

Raborn, C., Torbic, D. J., Gilmore, D. K., Thomas, L. J., Hutton, J. M., Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, K. L., Bond, V., & Hardy, K. K. (2008). A guide for reducing collisions involving bicycles (NCHRP report 500, Vol. 18). Transportation Research Board.  

Reish, L. (2021). Comparing demographic trends in vulnerable road user fatalities and the U.S. population, 1980-2019 (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 813 178). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Richmond, S. A., Zhang, Y. J., Stover, A., Howard, A., & MacArthur, C. (2014). Prevention of bicycle-related injuries in children and youth: A systematic review of bicycle skills training interventions. Injury Prevention, 20(3), 191-195. 

Rivara, F. P., & Metrik, J. (1998). Training programs for bicycle safety. Washington Traffic Safety Commission. 

Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D. C., Patterson, M. Q., & Thompson, R. S. (1998). Prevention of bicycle-related injuries: Helmets, education, and legislation. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 293–318.

Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D. C., & Thompson, R. S. (2015). Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury. Injury Prevention, 21(1), 47–51. 

Road to Zero. (2021). Road to Zero safety priority statement: Vulnerable road users. National Safety Council. 

Rodgers, G. B. (2002). Effects of state helmet laws on bicycle helmet use by children and adolescents. Injury Prevention, 8(1), 42–46. 

Rouzier, P., & Alto, W. A. (1995). Evolution of a successful community bicycle helmet campaign. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 8(4), 283–287. 

Royal, S., Kendrick, D., & Coleman, T. (2007). Promoting bicycle helmet wearing by children using non-legislative interventions: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Injury Prevention, 13(3), 162–167. 

Safe Kids Worldwide. (2019) Bike safety tips

Safe Routes Partnership. (n.d.). Safe routes partnership.

Sandt, L., Brookshire, K., Heiny, S., Blank, K., & Harmon, K. (2020). Toward a shared understanding of pedestrian safety an exploration of context, patterns, and impacts. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. 

Sandt, L., LaJeunesse, S., Cohn, J., & Pullen-Seufert, N. (2015). Watch for Me NC bicycle and pedestrian safety, education and enforcement campaign: 2014 program summary (Report No. NCDOT 2014-45). NC Department of Transportation. 

Sandt, L., & Owens, J. M. (2017). Discussion guide for automated and connected vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. 

Sandt, L., Thomas, L., Langford, K., & Nabors, D. (2015). A resident’s guide for creating safer communities for walking and biking (Report No. FHWA-SA-14-099). Federal Highway Administration. 

Sandt, L., West, A., Harmon, K. J., Bryson, M., Gelinne, D., Cherry, C. R., Sexton, E., Shah, N., Sanders, R., Brown, C. T., Seki, S., & Clewlow, R. (2022). E-Scooter safety: Issues and solutions. Transportation Research Board. 

Schneider, R. J., & Stefanich, J. (2016). Application of the location–movement classification method for pedestrian and bicycle crash typing. Transportation Research Record, 2601(1), 72–83. 

Schneider, R. J., Vargo, J., & Sanatizadeh, A. (2017). Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 106, 82–98. 

Schroeder, P., & Wilbur, M. (2013). 2012 National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior. Volume 2: Findings report (Report No. DOT HS 811 841 B). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Schwebel, D. C., Davis, A. L., & O’Neal, E. E. (2012). Child pedestrian injury: A review of behavioral risks and preventive strategies. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 6(4), 292–302. 

Schwebel, D. C., & McClure, L. A. (2014). Training children in pedestrian safety: Distinguishing gains in knowledge from gains in safe behavior. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35, 151–162. 

Sersli, S., Scott, N., & Winters, M. (2019). Effectiveness of a bicycle skills training intervention on increasing bicycling and confidence: A longitudinal quasi-experimental study. Journal of Transport & Health, 14, 100577. 

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