GDL Intermediate License Violation Penalties
A probationary feature is included in the intermediate phase of many graduated licensing systems, which is commonly referred to as contingent advancement. Typically, contingent advancement means that an intermediate license holder must maintain a violation free driving record for a specified amount of time before they can obtain a full license. Almost all States penalize some GDL or traffic law violations by delaying full licensure. The few evaluations of early stand-alone probationary license systems generally found no substantial benefits (McKnight & Peck, 2003; Simpson, 2003). In general, it appears that awareness of penalties for license violations among parents and teens is relatively low, enforcement is rare, and licensing delays are not always applied even when violations are enforced (Goodwin & Foss, 2004; Steenbergen et al., 2001; Williams, 2007).