Skip to main content
You can also sort pages by filters.
Table of Contents
Download the Full Book

AAA, Advocates for Highway Safety, Governors Highway Safety Association, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety/Highway Loss Data Institute, & National Safety Council. (2021). Automated enforcement program checklist: For red light cameras and automated speed enforcement.

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (2016). Prevalence of self-reported aggressive driving behavior: United States, 2014.

Aarts, L., & van Schagen, I. (2006). Driving speed and the risk of road crashes: A review. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38(2), 215–224.

Abdel-Aty, M., & Wang, L. (2017). Implementation of variable speed limits to improve safety of congested expressway weaving segments in microsimulation. Transportation Research Procedia, 27, 577–584.

Åberg, L., Larsen, L., Glad, A., & Beilinsson, L., (1997). Observed vehicle speed and drivers’ perceived speed of others. Applied Psychology: International Review, 46(3), 287-302.

Akhtar, S. & Ziyab, A. H. (2013). Impact of the penalty points system on severe road traffic injuries in Kuwait. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(7), 743-748.

Alexander, A. (2021, June 6). Death in the fast lane: How can NC curb speeding tickets and deaths? Safety advocates lay out possible solutions. Raleigh News & Observer.

Alexander, A., & Stradling, R. (2021a, June 3). Death in the fast lane: ‘Like NASCAR on the road,’ extreme speeding increasingly brings death to NC highways. Raleigh News & Observer.

Alexander, A., & Stradling, R. (2021b, June 3). Death in the fast lane: NC courts let extreme speeders off easy. ‘They can go out there and do it again.’  Raleigh News & Observer.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2018). A policy on geometric design of highways and streets.

Bham, G. H., Long, S., Baik, H., Ryan, T., Gentry, L., Lall, K., Arezoumandi, M., Liu, D., Li, T., & Schaeffer, B. (2010). Evaluation of variable speed limits on I-270/I-255 in St. Louis (Report No. OR11-014). Missouri Department of Transportation.  

Biding, T., & Lind, G. (2002). Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA), Results of large-scale trials in Borlänge, Lidkoping, Lund and Umeå during the period 1999-2002 (Report No. 2002:89E). Vägverket, Swedish National Road Administration.

Björklund, G. M. (2008). Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(3), 1069-1077.

Blomberg, R. D., Van Houten, R., Thomas, F. D., Korbelak, K. T., & Hilton, B. W. (2015). Automated feedback to foster safe driving in young drivers, Phase 2 (Report No. DOT HS 812 230). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Blomberg, R. D., Thomas III, F. D., & Marziani, B. J. (2012). Demonstration and evaluation of the Heed the Speed pedestrian safety program (Report No. DOT HS 811 515). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Boateng, R. A., Fontaine, M. D., & Khattak, Z. H. (2019). Driver response to variable speed limits on I-66 in Northern Virginia. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, 145(6).

Bobevski, I., Hosking, S., Oxley, P., & Cameron, M. (2007). Generalized linear modeling of crashes and injury severity in the context of the speed-related initiatives in Victoria during 2000-2002 (Report No. 268). Monash University Accident Research Centre.

Bolderdijk, J. W., Knockaert, J., Steg E. M., & Verhoef, E. T. (2011). Effects of pay-as-you-drive vehicle insurance on young drivers’ speed choice: Results of a Dutch field experiment. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 1181-1186.

Bornioli, A., Bray, I., Pilkington, P., & Parkin, J. (2020). Effects of city-wide 20 mph (30km/hour) speed limits on road injuries in Bristol, UK. Injury Prevention26(1), 85–88.

Braga, A. A., Turchan, B., Papachristos, A. V., & Hureau, D. M. (2019). Hot spots policing of small geographic areas effects on crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 15, e1046.

Brewer, M. A., Pesti, G., & Schneider IV, W. (2006). Improving compliance with work zone speed limits. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1948(1), 67-76.

Buddemeyer, J., Young, R. K., & Dorsey-Spitz, B. (2010). Rural, variable speed limit system for southeast Wyoming. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2189, 37-44.

Byrne, A., Petrella, M., & Masucci, C. (2021). High-visibility enforcement: Assessing change and identifying opportunities (Report No. DOT HS 813 066). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Caltrans (2020). Vehicle miles traveled-focused transportation impact study guide. California Department of Transportation.

Cameron, M. H., Cavallo, A., & Gilbert, A. (1992). Crash-based evaluation of the speed camera program in Victoria 1990-91. Phase 1: general effects, Phase 2: effects of program mechanisms (Report No. 42). Monash University Accident Research Centre.

Carsten, O. (2012). Is intelligent speed adaptation ready for deployment? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 1–3.

Carsten, O., & Tate, F. (2001). Intelligent speed adaptation: The best collision avoidance system? Proceedings of the 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Chen, E., & Tarko, A. P. (2012). Best practices for INDOT-funded work zone police patrols (Report No. FHWA/IN/JTRP-2012/36). Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University.

Chen, G. (2005). Safety and economic impacts of photo radar program. Traffic Injury Prevention, 6(4), 299-307.

Chorlton, K., & Conner, M. (2012). Can enforced behavior change attitudes: Exploring the influence of Intelligent Speed Adaptation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 49-56.

Chorlton, K., Hess, S., Jamson, S., & Wardman, M. (2012). Deal or no deal: Can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 73-82.

Cicchino, J. B., Wells, J. K., & McCartt, A. T. (2014) Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in Washington, D.C.  Traffic Injury Prevention, 15(4), 414-423.

Corbett, C., Delmonte, E., Quimby, A., & Grayson, G. (2008). Does the threat of disqualification deter drivers from speeding? (Road Safety Research Report No. 96). Department for Transport.

Davis, J. W., Bennink, L. D., Pepper, D. R., Parks, S. N., Lemaster, D. M., & Townsend, R. N. (2006). Aggressive traffic enforcement: A simple and effective injury prevention program. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 60(5), 972-977.

Decina, L. E., Thomas, L., Srinivasan, R., & Staplin L. (2007). Automated enforcement: A compendium of worldwide evaluations of results (Report No. DOT HS 810 763). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.  

De Leonardis, D., Huey, R., & Robinson, E. (2014). Investigation of the use and feasibility of speed warning systems (Report No. DOT HS 811 996). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

D’Elia, A., Newstead, S., & Cameron, M. (2007). Overall impact during 2001-2004 of Victorian speed-related package (Report No. 267). Monash University Accident Research Centre.

De Pauw, E., Daniels, S., Brijs, T., Hermans, E., & Wets, G. (2014). Automated section speed control on motorways: An evaluation of the effect on driving speed. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 73, 313–322.

District Department of Transportation. (2022). Automated traffic enforcement camera locations.

Donnell, E. T., & Cruzado, I. (2008). Effectiveness of speed minders in reducing driving speeds on rural highways in Pennsylvania (Report No. FHWA-PA-2007-023-510401-12). Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.

Dumbaugh, E. & Li., W. (2011). Designing for the safety of pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments. Journal of the American Planning Association, 77(1): 69-88.

Dumbaugh, E., Merlin, L., Signor, K., Kumfer, W., LaJeunesse, S., & Carter, D. (2019). Implementing safe systems in the United States: Guiding principles and lessons from international practice (Report No. CSCRS-R7). Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety.

Dumbaugh, E., Saha, D., & Merlin, L. A. (2020). Toward safe systems: Traffic safety, cognition, and the built environment. Journal of Planning Education and Research.

Eccles, K. A., Fiedler, R., Persaud, B., Lyon, C., & Hansen, G. (2012). Automated enforcement for speeding and red light running (NCHRP Report No. 729). Transportation Research Board.

Elizer, M., Bockisch, J., Sewell, M., Potts, I., Torbic, D., & Gilpin, J. (2018). Design guide for low-speed multimodal roadways (NCHRP Research Report No. 880). Transportation Research Board.

Elvik, R. (2018). How can the notion of optimal speed limits best be applied in urban areas? Transport Policy, 68, 170-177.

Elvik, R., & Christensen, P. (2007). The deterrent effect of increasing fixed penalties for traffic offences: The Norwegian experience. Journal of Safety Research, 38(6), 689-695.

Elvik, R., Vadeby, A., Hels, T., & van Schagen, I. (2019). Updated estimates of the relationship between speed and road safety at the aggregate and individual levels. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 123, 114–122.

European Commission. (2021). Road safety thematic report - Speed European Road Safety Observatory.

Farmer, C. M. (2019). The effects of higher speed limits on traffic fatalities in the United States, 1993-2017. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

Farmer, C. M. (2017). Relationship of traffic fatality rates to maximum State speed limits. Traffic Injury Prevention18(4), 375-380.

Farmer, C. M., Kirley, B. B., & McCartt, A. T. (2010). Effects of in-vehicle monitoring on the driving behavior of teenagers. Journal of Safety Research, 41(1), 39-45.

Federal Highway Administration. (2016). Speed limit basics (Report No. FHWA-SA-16-076).

FHWA. (2020). Speed management action plan implementation: The Oregon experience (Report No. FHWA SA 19-022).

Fisher, D. L., Breck, A., Gillham, O., & Flynn, D. (2021). Effectiveness of dynamic speed feedback signs, volume I: Literature review and meta-analysis (Report No. DOT HS 813 170-A). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Fitzpatrick, K., Das, S., Pratt, M. P., Dixon, K., & Gates, T. (2021). Posted speed limit setting procedure and tool: User guide (National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report No. 966). Transportation Research Board.

Flango, V. E., & Keith, A. L. (2004). How useful is the new aggressive driving legislation? Court Review, Winter, 34-41.

Forbes, G. J., Gardner, T., McGee, H., & Srinivasan, R. (2012). Methods and practices for setting speed limits: An informational report (Report No. FHWA-SA-12-004). Federal Highway Administration.

Freedman, M., De Leonardis, D., Polson, A., Levi, S., & Burkhardt, E. (2007, October). Field test of the impact of setting and enforcing rational speed limits; Final report for Gulfport, Mississippi-Demonstration community (Report No. DOT HS 810 849). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Fridman, L., Ling, R., Rothman, L., Cloutier, M. S., Macarthur, C., Hagel, B., & Howard, A. (2020). Effect of reducing the posted speed limit to 30 km per hour on pedestrian motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada – A quasi experimental, pre-post study. BMC Public Health20.

Fuller, R., Bates, H., Gormley, M., Hannigan, B., Stradling, S., Broughton, P., Kinnear, N., & O’Dolan, C. (2008). The conditions for inappropriate high speed: A review of the research literature from 1995 to 2006 (Road Safety Research Report 92). Department for Transport.

Gains, A., Heydecker, B., Shrewsbury, J., & Robertson S. (2004). The national safety camera programme: Three-year evaluation report. PA Consulting Group.

Gambatese, J. A., & Zhang, F. (2014). Safe and effective speed reductions for freeway work zones, Phase 2 (Report No. FHWA-OR-RD-15-04). Oregon Department of Transportation.

Gargoum, S. A., & El-Basyouny, K. (2018). Intervention analysis of the safety effects of a legislation targeting excessive speeding in Canada. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 25(2), 212–221.

Gargoum, S. A., El-Basyouny, K., & Kim, A. (2016). Towards setting credible speed limits: Identifying factors that affect driver compliance on urban roads. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 95(Pt. A), 138-148.

Gayah, V. V., Donnell, E. T., Yu, Z., & Li, L. (2018). Safety and operational impacts of setting speed limits below engineering recommendations. Accident Analysis & Prevention121, 43–52.

Gerber, M. A. (2010). A traffic safety evaluation of California’s traffic violator school citation dismissal policy. Journal of Safety Research, 41(4), 3213-330.

Goldenbeld, C. & van Schagen, I. (2007). The credibility of speed limits on 80 km/h rural roads: The effects of road and person(ality) characteristics. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(6), 1121-1130.

Goldenbeld, C., van Wijk, A. P., & Mesken, J. (2013). Sanctions in traffic: Scientific essays on sanctions in and outside traffic, English summary (Report No. R-2013-10). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.

Gonzales, D. E., & Fontaine, M. D. (2018). Impacts of the I-77 variable speed limit system on speed and crash characteristics during low visibility conditions (Report No. FHWA/VTRC 19-R6). Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Gouda, M., & El-Basyouny, K. (2017a). Investigating distance halo effects of mobile photo enforcement on urban roads. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2660(1), 30–38.

Gouda, M., & El-Basyouny, K. (2017b). Investigating time halo effects of mobile photo enforcement on urban roads. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2660(1), 39–47.

Governors Highway Safety Association. (2018a). Speeding and aggressive driving.

GHSA. (2018b). A guide for effectively partnering with State highway safety offices.

GHSA. (2019). Speed and red light cameras.

Hajbabaie, A., Medina, J. C., Wang, M.-H., Benekohal, R. F., & Chitturi, M. (2011). Sustained and halo effects of various speed reduction treatments in highway work zones. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2265, 118-128.

Hallmark, S. L., Hawkins, N., & Smadi, O. (2015). Evaluation of dynamic speed feedback signs on curves: A national demonstration project (Report No. FHWA-HRT-14-020). FHWA, Iowa DOT, Midwest Transportation Consortium, and Texas DOT.

Harder, K. A., & Bloomfield, J. R. (2007). Evaluating the effectiveness of the Minnesota speed management program (Report No. MN/RC-2007-21).

Hauer, E. (2009). Speed and safety. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2103, 10-17.

Health Resources in Action. (2013). Seattle, Washington: A multi-faceted approach to speed reduction – A community speed reduction case study.

Himes, S., Gross, F., Nichols, M., & Lockwood, M. (2018). Safety evaluation of change in posted speed limit from 65 to 70 mph on rural Virginia interstate system. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board2672(38), 35-45.

Howard, E., Mooren, L., Nilsson, G., Quimby, A., & Vadeby, A. (2008). Speed management: A road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Global Road Safety Partnership.

Høye, A. (2015). Safety effects of fixed speed cameras—An empirical Bayes evaluation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 82, 263-269.

Hu, W., & McCartt, A. T. (2016). Effects of automated speed enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland, on vehicle speeds, public opinion, and crashes. Traffic Injury Prevention, 17(Suppl 1), 53-58.

Ingram, J. R. (2007). The effect of neighborhood characteristics on traffic citation practices of the police. Police Quarterly, 10(4), 371-393.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2019a). Maximum posted speed limits by State.

IIHS. (2019b). Automated enforcement.

IIHS. (2021a). Speed.

IIHS. (2021b). Vehicle size and weight.

International Transport Forum. (2018). Speed and crash risk [Research report]. OECD/ITF.

Ipsos MORI, Barrett, G., & Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. (2018). Impact of evaluation of the national speed awareness course. Department of Transport.

Islam, M. T., & El-Basyouny, K. (2015). Full Bayesian evaluation of the safety effects of reducing the posted speed limit in urban residential area. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 80, 18–25.

Ivan, J. N., Garrick, N. W., & Hanson, G. (2009). Designing roads that guide drivers to choose safer speeds (Report No. JHR 09-32). Connecticut Department of Transportation.

Izquierdo, F. A., Ramírez, B. A., McWilliams, J. M. M., & Ayuso, J. P. (2011). The endurance of the effects of the penalty point system in Spain three years after. Main influencing factors. Accident Analysis & Prevention43(3), 911–922.

Katz, B., O'Donnell, C., Donoughe, K., Atkinson, J., Finley, M., Balke, K., Kuhn, B., & Warren, D. (2012). Guidelines for the use of variable speed limit systems in wet weather (Report No. FHWA-SA-12-022). Federal Highway Administration

Kim, A. M., Wang, X., El-Basyouny, K., & Fu, Q. (2016). Operating a mobile photo radar enforcement program: A framework for site selection, resource allocation, scheduling, and evaluation. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 4(3), 218–229.

Kloeden, C. N., & Hutchinson, T. P. (2019). An examination of offences at South Australian safety camera sites (Report No. CASR146). Centre for Automotive Safety Research.

Kloeden, C. N., Mackenzie, J. R. R., & Hutchinson, T. P. (2018). Analysis of crash data from safety camera intersections in South Australia (Report No. CASR143). Centre for Automotive Safety Research.

Kostyniuk, L. P., Blower, D., Molnar, L. J., Eby, D. W., St Louis, R. M., & Zanier, N. (2014). Evaluation of the Michigan TACT program (Report No. UMTRI 2014-24). University of Michigan.

Kumfer, W., LaJeunesse, S., Sandt, L. S., & Thomas, L. (2019). Speed, kinetic energy, and the Safe Systems approach to safer roadways. ITE Journal, 89(4), 32–36.

Kwayu, K. M., Kwigizile, V., & Oh, J.-S. (2020). Assessing the safety impacts of raising the speed limit on Michigan freeways using the multilevel mixed-effects negative binomial model. Traffic Injury Prevention21(6), 401–406.

Lahrmann, H., Agerholm, N., Tradisauskas, N., Berthelsen, K. K., & Harms, L. (2012). Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: Results and interpretation of speed data. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 17–28.

Lai, F., & Carsten, O. (2012). What benefit does Intelligent Speed Adaptation deliver: A close examination of its effect on vehicle speeds. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 4-9.

La Torre, F., Meocci, M., & Nocentini, A. (2019). Safety effects of automated section speed control on the Italian motorway network. Journal of Safety Research, 69, 115–123.

Lawpoolsri, S., Li, J., & Braver, E. R. (2007). Do speeding tickets reduce the likelihood of receiving subsequent speeding tickets? A longitudinal study of speeding violators in Maryland. Traffic Injury Prevention, 8(1), 26-34.

Lee, C., Lee, S., Choi, B., & Oh, Y. (2006). Effectiveness of speed-monitoring displays in speed reduction in school zones. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1973(1), 27-35.

Lee, Y. M., Chong, S. Y., Goonting, K., & Sheppard, E. (2017). The effect of speed limit credibility on drivers’ speed choice. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 45, 43–53.

Li, J., Amr, S., Braver, E. R., Langenberg, P., Zhan, M., Smith, G. S., & Dischinger, P. C. (2011). Are current law enforcement strategies associated with a lower risk of repeat speeding citations and crash involvement? A longitudinal study of speeding Maryland drivers. Annals of Epidemiology, 21(9), 641-647.

Li, J., Perrine, K., Wu, L., & Walton, C. M. (2019). Cross-validating traffic speed measurements from probe and stationary sensors through State reconstruction. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 8(3), 290-303.

Li, R., El-Basyouny, K., & Kim, A. (2015). Before-and-after empirical Bayes evaluation of automated mobile speed enforcement on urban arterial roads. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2516(1), 44–52.

Li, R., El-Basyouny, K., Kim, A., & Gargoum, S. (2017). Relationship between road safety and mobile photo enforcement performance indicators: A case study of the city of Edmonton. Journal of Transportation Safety & Security, 9(2), 195–215.

Liu, C., & Chen, C.-L. (2009). An analysis of speeding-related crashes: Definitions and the effects of road environments (Report No. DOT HS 811 090). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Luoma, J., Rajamäki, R., & Malvivuo, M. (2012). Effects of reduced threshold of automated speed enforcement on speed and safety. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 15(3), 243-248.

Maisel, M. S. (2013). Slave to the traffic light: A road map to red light camera legal issues. Rutgers Journal of Law and Public Policy, 10, 401–434.

Mammen, K., Shim, H. S., & Weber, B. S. (2020). Vision Zero: Speed limit reduction and traffic injury prevention in New York City. Eastern Economic Journal46, 282–300.

Mannering, F. (2009). An empirical analysis of driver perceptions of the relationship between speed limits and safety. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 12(2), 99-106.

Masten, S. V., & Peck, R. C. (2004). Problem driver remediation: A meta-analysis of the driver improvement literature. Journal of Safety Research, 35(4), 403-425.

Mattox, J. H. III, Sarasua, W. A., Ogle, J. H., Eckenrode, R. T., & Dunning, A. E. (2007). Development and evaluation of a speed-activated sign to reduce speeds in work zones. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2015, 3-11.

Mazureck, U., & van Hattem, J. (2006). Rewards for safe driving behavior: Influence on following distance and speed. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1980, 31-38.

McCartt, A. T. & Hu, W. (2017). Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds. Traffic Injury Prevention, 18(5), 500-507.

McCartt, A. T., Leaf, W. A., Witkowski, T. L., & Solomon, M. G. (2001). Evaluation of the aggression suppression program, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Report No. DOT HS 809 395). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Miller, R. J., Osberg, J. S., Retting, R., Ballou, M., & Atkins, R. (2016). System analysis of automated speed enforcement implementation (Report No. DOT HS 812 257). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Mitra-Sarkar, S., & Andreas, M. (2009). Driving behaviors, risk perceptions, and stress: An examination of military personnel during wartime deployment. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2138(1), 42-45.

MMUCC. (2017). MMUCC guideline: Model minimum uniform crash criteria (Fifth Edition) (Report No. DOT HS 812 433). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Monfort, S. S., Reagan, I. J., Cicchino, J. B., Hu, W., Gershon, P., Mehler, B., & Reimer, B. (2022). Speeding behavior while using adaptive cruise control and lane centering in free flow traffic. Traffic Injury Prevention, 23(2), 85-90.

Montella, A., Imbriani, L. L., Marzano, V., & Mauriello, F. (2015). Effects on speed and safety of point-to-point speed enforcement systems: Evaluation on the urban motorway A56 Tangenziale di Napoli. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 75, 164-178.

Moon, J.-P., & Hummer, J. E. (2010). Speed enforcement cameras in Charlotte, North Carolina: Estimation of longer-term safety effects. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2182, 31-39.

Mouter, N., van Cranenburgh, S., & van Wee, B. (2018). The consumer-citizen duality: Ten reasons why citizens prefer safety and drivers desire speed. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 121, 53–63.

National Center for Rural Road Safety. (n.d.). Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) toolkit. (n.d.).

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2022). Speeding: 2020 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 813 320). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2013). Summary of state speed laws, 12th ed (Report No. DOT HS 811 769).

NHTSA. (2018). National traffic speeds survey III: 2015 (Traffic Tech: Technology Transfer Series. Report No. DOT HS 812 489).

NHTSA & FHWA. (2008). Speed enforcement camera systems: Operational guidelines (Report No. DOT HS 810 916).

NHTSA & FHWA. (2023, January). Speed safety camera program planning and operations guide.

NHTSA, FHWA, & Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. (2014). Speed management program plan (Report No. DOT HS 812 028). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Sheriffs’ Association. (n.d.). Google Waze app information.

National Transportation Safety Board. (2017). Reducing speeding-related crashes involving passenger vehicles (Report No. NTSB/SS-17/01; PB2017-102341; Safety Study).  

Nerup, P., Salzberg, P., VanDyk, J., Porter, L., Blomberg, R., Thomas, F. D., & Cosgrove, L. (2006). Ticketing aggressive cars and trucks in Washington State: High visibility enforcement applied to share the road safety (Report No. DOT HS 810 603). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Neuman, T. R., Pfefer, R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., Raub, R., Lucke, R., & Wark, R. (2003). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, volume 1: A guide for addressing aggressive-driving collisions. Transportation Research Board.

Neuman, T. R., Pfefer, R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., & Waller, P. (2003). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, volume 2: A guide for addressing collisions involving unlicensed drivers and drivers with suspended or revoked licenses. Transportation Research Board.

Neuman, T. R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., Bond, V. L., Potts, I., & Lerner, N. (2009). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, volume 23: A guide for reducing speeding-related crashes. Transportation Research Board.

Newnam, S., Lewis, I., & Warmerdam, A. (2014). Modifying behaviour to reduce over-speeding in work-related drivers: An objective approach. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 64, 23-29.

Newstead, S. V., Cameron, M. H., & Leggett, L. M. W. (2001). The crash reduction effectiveness of a network-wide traffic police deployment system. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33(3), 393-406.

New York City Mayor’s Office of Operations. (2015). Vision Zero: One year report.

O'Brien, S. W., & Simpson, C. L. (2012). Use of “Your Speed” changeable message signs in school zones: Experience from North Carolina Safe Routes to School program. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2318(1), 128-136.

Office of Highway Policy Information. (2016). Highway performance monitoring system field manual. Federal Highway Administration.

Office of Operations. (2016). Active transportation and demand management deployments (as of January 2016). Federal Highway Administration.

Office of Safety. (2021). Proven safety countermeasures: Speed safety cameras (Report No. FHWA-SA-21-070). Federal Highway Administration.

Otto, J., Finley, K., Green, K., & Ward, N. (2019). Understanding law enforcement attitudes and beliefs about traffic safety (Report No. FHWA/MT-19-003/8882-309-08). Montana Department of Transportation.

Paaver, M., Eensoo, D., Kaasik, K., Vaht, M., Mäestu, J., & Harro, J. (2013). Preventing risky driving: A novel and efficient brief intervention focusing on acknowledgement of personal risk factors. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 430-437.

Park, E. S., Park, J., & Lomax, T. J. (2010). A fully Bayesian multivariate approach to before–after safety evaluation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(4), 1118-1127.

Peden, M., Scurfield, R., Sleet, D., Mohan, D., Hyder, A. A., Jarawan, E., & Mathers, C. (Eds.) (2004). World report on road traffic injury prevention. World Health Organization.

Phillips, R. O., Ulleberg, P., & Vaa, T. (2011). Meta-analysis of the effect of road safety campaigns on accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 1204-1218.

Poole, B., Johnson, S., & Thomas, L (2017). An overview of automated enforcement systems and their potential for improving pedestrian and bicyclist safety [Research Brief]. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center.

Preusser, D. F., Williams, A. F., Nichols, J. L., Tison, J., & Chaudhary, N. K. (2008). Effectiveness of behavioral highway safety countermeasures (NCHRP Report No. 622). Transportation Research Board.  

Reagan, I. J., Bliss, J. P., Van Houten, R., & Hilton, B. W. (2013). The effects of external motivation and real-time automated feedback on speeding behavior in a naturalistic setting. Human Factors55(1), 218–230.

Richard, C. M., Campbell, J. L., Lichty, M. G., Brown, J. L., Chrysler, S., Lee, J. D., Boyle, L., & Reagle, G. (2012). Motivations for speeding, volume I: Summary report (Report No. DOT HS 811 658). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Richard, C. M., Divekar, G., & Brown, J. L. (2016). Motivations for speeding – Additional data analysis (Report No. DOT HS 812 255). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Rodier, C., Shaheen, S., & Cavanagh, E. (2007). Automated speed enforcement for California: A review of legal and institutional issues. Institute of Transportation Studies.

Rose, E. R., & Ullman, G. L. (2003). Evaluation of dynamic speed display signs (DSDS) (Report No. FHWA/TX-04/0-4465-1). Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A & M University System.

Sagberg, F., & Ingebrigtsen, R. (2018). Effects of a penalty point system on traffic violations. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 110, 71–77.

Saleem, T., Srinivasan, R., Levitt, D., Vann, M., Worzella, A., & Storm, R. (2020). Speed limit change (55 mph to 60 mph) safety evaluation (Report No. MN 2020-06). Minnesota Department of Transportation.

Sanders, R. L., Judelman, B., & Schooley, S. (2019). Pedestrian safety relative to traffic-speed management: A synthesis of highway practice (NCHRP Synthesis 535). Transportation Research Board.  

Schechtman, E., Bar-Gera, H., & Musicant, O. (2016). Driver views on speed and enforcement. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 89, 9–21.

Schroeder, P., Kostyniuk, L., & Mack, M. (2013). 2011 National survey of speeding attitudes and behaviors (Report No. DOT HS 811 865). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Seattle Department of Transportation. (2017). Vision Zero 2017 progress report.

Sharma, A., Huang, T., Roy, S., & Savolainen, P. (2017). Setting work zone speed limits. Iowa Department of Transportation.

Shin, K., Washington, S. P., & van Schalkwyk, I. (2009). Evaluation of the Scottsdale Loop 101 automated speed enforcement demonstration program. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(3), 393-403.

Shinar, D. (2007). Traffic safety and human behavior. Emerald Publishing Group, Ltd.

Shinar, D., & Compton, R. (2004). Aggressive driving: An observational study of driver, vehicle, and situational variables. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(3), 429-437.

Soole, D. W., Watson, B. C., & Fleiter, J. J. (2013). Effects of average speed enforcement on speed compliance and crashes: A review of the literature. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 54, 46-56.

Sprattler, K. (2012). Survey of the States: Speeding and aggressive driving. Governors Highway Safety Association.

Stamatiadis, N., Kirk, A., Hartman, D., Jasper. J., Wright, S., King, M., & Chellman, R. (2018). An expanded functional classification system for highways and streets (NCHRP Research Report 855. Project 15-52). Transportation Research Board.  

Stewart, T. (2023, April). Overview of motor vehicle traffic crashes in 2021 (Report No. DOT HS 813 435). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Stuster, J. (2004). Aggressive driving enforcement: Evaluation of two demonstration programs (Report No. DOT HS 809 707). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Sultana, S. (2019). Trends in driver speed behaviours on rural road network 2000 to 2018. Road Safety Commission.

Tang, C. K. (2017). Do speed cameras save lives? London School of Economics.

Tapp, A., Pressley, A., Baugh, M., & White, P. (2013). Wheels, skills and thrills: A social marketing trail to reduce aggressive driving from young men in deprived areas. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 58, 148-157.

Tefft, B. C. (2013). Impact speed and a pedestrian’s risk of severe injury or death. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 871–878.

Theeuwes, J., van der Horse, R., & Kuiken, M. (2012). Designing safe road systems: A human factors perspective. Ashgate Publishing Limited. 

Thomas, F. D., Blomberg, R. D., Peck, R. C., Cosgrove, L. A., & Salzberg, P. M. (2008). Evaluation of a high visibility enforcement project focused on passenger vehicles interacting with commercial vehicles. Journal of Safety Research39(5), 459-468.

Thomas, L., Srinivasan, R., Lan, B., Hunter, W., Martell, C., & Rodgman, E. (2013). Speed and safety in North Carolina (Report No. FHWA/NC/2011‐08). NCDOT.

Thomas, L. J., Srinivasan, R., Decina, L. E., & Staplin, L. (2008). Safety effects of automated speed enforcement programs: Critical review of international literature. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2078, 117-126.

Transportation Research Board (TRB). (1984). 55: A decade of experience (TRB Special Report 204). Transportation Research Board.  

TRB. (1998). Managing speed: Review of current practice for setting and enforcing speed limits (TRB Special Report 254). National Academy Press.  

TRB. (2006). Safety impacts and other implications of raised speed limits on high-speed roads (NCHRP Research Results Digest 303). Transportation Research Board.  

Ullman, G. L., Brewer, M. A., Bryden, J. E., Corkran, M. O., Hubbs, C. W., Chandra, A. K., & Jeannotte, K. L. (2013). Traffic enforcement strategies for work zones (NCHRP Report No. 746). Transportation Research Board.  

U.S. Department of Transportation. (2022). National roadway safety strategy.

Vaa, T., Assum, T., & Elvik, R. (2014). Driver support systems: Estimating road safety effects at varying levels of implementation (TØI Report No. 1304/2014). Institute for Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre for Transport Research.

Vadeby, A., & Forsman, Å. (2018). Traffic safety effects of new speed limits in Sweden. Accident Analysis & Prevention114, 34–39.

van der Pas, J. W. G. M., Kessels, J., Veroude, B. D. G., & van Wee, B. (2014). Intelligent speed assistance for serious speeders: The results of the Dutch Speedlock trial. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 72, 78-94.

van der Pas, J. W. G. M., Marchau, V. A. W. J., Walker, W. E., van Wee, G. P., & Vlassenroot, S. H. (2012). ISA implementation and uncertainty: A literature review and expert elicitation study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 83-96.

Várhelyi, A., & Mäkinen, T. (2001). The effects of in-car speed limiters: Field studies. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 9(3), 191-211.

Várhelyi, A., Hjälmdahl, M., Hydén, C., & Draskóczy, M. (2004). Effects of an active accelerator pedal on driver behaviour and traffic safety after long-term use in urban areas. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(5), 729-737.

Vision Zero Network (2022). Vision Zero communities.

Vision Zero SF. (2020). Executive summary: Safe speeds SF high visibility enforcement campaign findings. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Authority (SFMTA).

Visnic, B. (2019). European Union approves mandatory vehicle speed-limiting feature. SAE International.

Walter, L., & Broughton, J. (2011). Effectiveness of speed indicator devices: An observational study in South London. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(4), 1355-1358.

Walter, L., Broughton, J., & Knowles, J. (2011). The effects of increased police enforcement along a route in London. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 1219–1227.

Warner, J., Chawla, H., Zhou, C., & Savolainen, P. T. (2019). Analysis of rural interstate fatality rates in consideration of recent increases in maximum statutory speed limits. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2673(11), 48-58.

Washington, S., & Shin, K. (2005). The impact of red light cameras (automated enforcement) on safety in Arizona (Report No. FHWA-AZ-05-550). Arizona Department of Transportation.  

Watson, B., Siskind, V., Fleiter, J. J., Watson, A., & Soole, D. (2015). Assessing specific deterrence effects of increased speeding penalties using four measures of recidivism. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 84, 27–37.

Wilson, C., Willis, C., Hendrikz, J. K., Le Brocque, R., & Bellamy, N. (2010). Speed cameras for the prevention of road traffic injuries and deaths. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11.  

World Health Organization. (2017). Managing speed (Report No. WHO/NMH/NVI/17.7).

Wong, S. C., Sze, N. N., Lo, H. K., Hung, W. T., & Loo, B. P. Y. (2005). Would relaxing speed limits aggravate safety? A case study of Hong Kong. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 37(2), 377-388.

Wrapson, W., Harré, N., & Murrell, P. (2006). Reductions in driver speed using posted feedback of speeding information: Social comparison or implied surveillance? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38(6), 1119-1126.

Yannis, G., Louca, G., Vardaki, S., & Kanellaidis, G. (2013). Why do drivers exceed speed limits. European Transport Research Review, 5(3), 165–177.

[1] Ipsos MORI is now just known as Ipsos, as of February 2022. MORI is the acronym of Market and Opinion Research International that was merged with Ipsos in 2005.