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Agimi, Y., Albert, S. M., Youk, A. O., Documet, P. I., & Steiner, C. A. (2018). Mandatory physician reporting of at-risk drivers: The older driver example. The Gerontologist, 58(3), 578–587

Anstey, K. J., Eramudugolla, R., Kiely, K. M., & Price, J. (2018). Effect of tailored on-road driving lessons on driving safety in older adults: A randomised controlled trial. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 115, 1–10.

Bédard, M., Porter, M. M., Marshall, S., Isherwood, I., Riendeau, J., Weaver, B., Tuokko, H., Molnar, F., & Miller-Polgar, J. (2008). The combination of two training approaches to improve older adults’ driving safety. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9(1), 70-76.

Bohensky, M., Charlton, J., Odell, M., & Keefe, J. (2008). Implications of vision testing for older driver licensing. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9(4), 304-313.

Braitman, K. A., Chaudhary, N. K., & McCartt, A. T. (2010). Restricted licensing among older drivers in Iowa. Journal of Safety Research, 41(6), 481–486.

Cicchino, J. B., & McCartt, A. T. (2015). Critical older driver errors in a national sample of serious U.S. crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention80, 211-219.

Classen, S., Jeghers, M., Morgan-Daniel, J., Winter, S., King, L., & Struckmeyer, L. (2019). Smart in-vehicle technologies and older drivers: A scoping review. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 39(2), 97–107.

Classen, S., Medhizadah, S., Romero, S., & Lee, M. J. (2018). Construction and validation of the 21 item Fitness-to-Drive Screening Measure Short-Form. Frontiers in Public Health, 6, 339.

Clearinghouse for Older Road User Safety. (2023). [Untitled web home page and search page].

Cox, C. D., Cox, B. S., & Cox D. J. (2005). Long-term benefits of prompts to use safety belts among drivers exiting senior communities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(4), 533-536.

Cuenen, A., Jongen, E. M. M., Brijs, T., Brijs, K., Van Vlierden, K., & Wets, G. (2019). The effect of a simulator based training on specific measures of driving ability in older drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 64, 38–46.

Donahue, D. (2018, August 7).  AARP driver safety program focuses on tech. AARP.

Dunlap and Associates, Inc. (2019). Driving licensing policies and practices [Data set]. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Eby, D. W., Molnar, L. J., Kartje, P., St. Louis, R. M., Parow, J. E., Vivoda, J. M., & Neumeyer, A. L. (2008). Older driver self-screening based on health concerns, volume I: Technical report  (Report No. DOT HS 811 046A). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Eby, D. W., Molnar, L. J., Zakrajsek, J. S., Ryan, L. H., Zanier, N., Louis, R. M. S., Stanciu, S. C., LeBlanc, D., Kostyniuk, L. P., Smith, J., Yung, R., Nyquist, L., DiGuiseppi, C., Li, G., Mielenz, T. J., Strogatz, D., & LongROAD Research Team. (2018). Prevalence, attitudes, and knowledge of in-vehicle technologies and vehicle adaptations among older drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 113, 54–62.

Edwards, J. D., Leonard, K. M., Lunsman, M., Dodson, J., Bradley, S., Myers, C. A., & Hubble, B. (2008). Acceptability and validity of older driver screening with the DrivingHealth Driving Health Inventory. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(3), 1157-1163.

Enriquez, J. (2020). Occupant restraint use in 2019:  Results from the NOPUS controlled intersection study (Report DOT HS 812 992). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Federal Highway Administration. (2002). Distribution of licensed drivers – 2001: By sex and percentage in each age group and relation to population (Table DL-20) [Data set]. 

FHWA. (2022a, February 15). Engineering guidance and training. [Web page and portal dedicated to older driver issues].

FHWA. (2022b, December). Highway statistics 2021 – policy. Table DL-20.  

Gagnon, S., Stinchcombe, A., Curtis, M., Kateb, M., Polgar, J., Porter, M. M., & Bédard, M. (2019). Driving safety improves after individualized training: An RCT involving older drivers in an urban area. Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(6), 595–600.

Graham, L. A., Darrah, J. R., & Thomas, F. D. (2020). Older driver licensing policies and practices database update. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2021a). License renewal procedures by state. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety/Highway Loss Data Institute.

IIHS. (2021b, August 25). Older drivers. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety/Highway Loss Data Institute.

International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training. (n.d.). Older driver law enforcement training. [Web page and portal].

Janke, M. K. (1994). Mature driver improvement program in California. Transportation Research Record, 1438, 77-83.

Joyce, J., Lococo, K. H., Gish, K. W., Mastromatto, T., Stutts, J., Thomas, D., & Blomberg, R. (2018). Older driver compliance with license restrictions (Report No. DOT HS 812 486). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Keshavarz, B., Ramkhalawansingh, R., Haycock, B., Shahab, S., & Campos, J. L. (2018). Comparing simulator sickness in younger and older adults during simulated driving under different multisensory conditions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 54, 47–62.

Knoefel, F., Wallace, B., Goubran, R., Sabra, I., & Marshall, S. (2019). Semi-autonomous vehicles as a cognitive assistive device for older adults. Geriatrics (Basel, Switzerland), 4(4).

Kochaneck, K. D., Xu, J. Q., & Arias, E. (2020). Mortality in the United States, 2019 (NCHS Data Brief No. 395). National Center for Health Statistics.

Koppel, S., Bugeja, L., Stephens, A., Cartwright, A., Osborne, R., Williams, G., Peiris, S., Di Stefano, M., & Charlton, J. L. (2020). The safety benefits of older drivers attending an in-person licence renewal. Journal of Transport & Health, 17, 100845.

Korner-Bitensky, N., Kua, A., von Zweck, C., & Van Benthem, K. (2009). Older driver retraining: An updated systematic review of evidence of effectiveness. Journal of Safety Research, 40(2), 105-111.

Kua, A., Korner-Bitensky, N., Desrosiers, J., Man-Son-Hing, M., & Marshall, S. (2007). Older driver retraining: A systematic review of evidence of effectiveness. Journal of Safety Research, 38(1), 81-90.

Langford, J., & Koppel, S. (2011). License restrictions as an under-used strategy in managing older driver safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(1), 487-493.

Langford, J., Fitzharris, M., Koppell, S., & Newstead, S. (2004). Effectiveness of mandatory license testing for older drivers in reducing crash risk among urban older Australian drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention, 5(4), 326-335.

Li, G., Braver, E. R., & Chen, L. H. (2003). Fragility versus excessive crash involvement as determinants of high death rates per vehicle-mile of travel among older drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 35(2), 227-235.

Lococo, K. H., Sifrit, K. J., Stutts, J., Joyce, J., & Staplin, L. (2017). Medical review practices for driver licensing, Volume 2: Case studies of medical referrals and licensing outcomes in six states (Report No. DOT HS 812 380). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lococo, K. H., Sifrit, K. J., Stutts, J., & Staplin, L. (2017). Medical review practices for driver licensing, Volume 3: Guidelines and processes in the United States (Report No. DOT HS 812 402). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lococo, K. H., & Staplin, L. (2018). Strategies for medical advisory boards and licensing review (Report No. DOT HS 809 874). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lococo, K. H., & Staplin, L. (2018). Visual scanning training for older drivers: A literature review (Report No. DOT HS 812 514). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lococo, K. H. Staplin, L., & Schultz, M. W. (2018). The effects of medical conditions on driving performance: A literature review and synthesis (Report No. DOT HS 812 526). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lococo, K. H. Stutts, J., & Staplin, L. (2016). The Medical review practices for driver licensing, Volume 1: A case study of guidelines and processes in seven U.S. States (Report No. DOT HS 812 331). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lombardi, D. A., Horrey, W. J., & Courtney, T. K. (2017). Age-related differences in fatal intersection crashes in the United States. Accident Analysis & Prevention99(Pt A), 20-29.

Marottoli, R. A. (2007). Enhancement of driving performance among older drivers. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Mayhew, D. R., Simpson, H. M., & Ferguson, S. A. (2006). Collisions involving senior drivers: High-risk conditions and locations. Traffic Injury Prevention7(2), 117-124.

McCarthy, D. P., Mann, W. C., & Lanford, D. (2009). Process and outcomes evaluation of older driver screening programs: The assessment of driving-related skills (CADReS) older-driver screening tool (Report No. DOT HS 811 113). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

McGwin, G., Sarrels, S. A., Griffin, R., Owsley, C., & Rue, L. W. (2008). The impact of a vision screening law on older driver fatality rates. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(11), 1544-1547.

Merickel, J., High, R., Dawson, J., & Rizzo, M. (2019). Real-world risk exposure in older drivers with cognitive and visual dysfunction. Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(sup2), S110–S115.

Meuser, T. M., Carr, D. B., Irmiter, C., Schwartzberg, J. G. & Ulfarsson, G. F. (2010). The American Medical Association older driver curriculum for health professionals: Changes in trainee confidence, attitudes, and practice behavior. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 31(4), 290-309.

Meuser, T. M., Carr, D. B., & Ulfarsson, G. F. (2009). Motor-vehicle crash history and licensing outcomes for older drivers reported as medically impaired in Missouri. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(2), 246-252.

Meuser, T.M., Carr, D.B., Unger, E.A., and Ulfarsson, G.F. (2015). Family reports of medically impaired drivers in Missouri: Cognitive concerns and licensing outcomes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 74, 17-23.

Molnar, L. J. & Eby, D. W. (2008). 2008 North American license policies workshop recommendations. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Molnar, L.J., Eby, D.W., Zhang, L., Zanier, N., St. Louis, R. M., & Kostyniuk, L. P. (2015). Self-regulation of driving by older adults: A LongROAD study. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Morrisey, M. A., & Grabowski, D. C. (2005). State motor vehicle laws and older drivers. Health Economics, 14(4), 407-419.

Nasvadi, G. E., & Vavrik, J. (2007). Crash risk of older drivers after attending a mature driver education program. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(6), 1073-1079.

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2012). Older population: 2010 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 811 640). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.). Older drivers. [Web page].

NHTSA. (2009, September). Driver fitness medical guidelines (Report No. DOT HS 811 210).

NHTSA. (2013). Traffic safety for older people — 5-year plan (Report No. DOT HS 811 837).

NHTSA. (2014). Highway safety program guideline no. 13: Older driver safety (Report No. DOT HS 812 007D; Uniform guidelines for state highway safety programs).

NHTSA. (2017). Driver medical review practices across the United States (Traffic Tech: Technology Transfer Series. Report No. DOT HS 812 403).

NHTSA. (2022). Driver involvement rates per 100,000 licensed drivers by age, sex, and crash severity, 2020 (Table 62). In Traffic safety facts annual report tables.

NHTSA. (2023). Fatality and Injury Reporting System Tool (FIRST), Version 5.6. Custom data run.

Owsley, C., McGwin, G., Jr., Phillips, J. M., McNeal, S. F., & Stalvey, B. T. (2004). Impact of an education program on the safety of high-risk, visually impaired, older drivers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(3), 222-229.

Pomidor, A. (Ed.). (2019). Clinician’s guide to assessing and counseling older drivers (4th ed.). American Geriatrics Society.

Potts, I., Stutts, J., Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, K. L, & Hardy, K. K. (2004). A guide for reducing collisions involving older drivers (NCHRP Report 500, Vol. 9, Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO strategic highway safety plan). Transportation Research Board.

Rahman, M. M., Deb, S., Strawderman, L., Smith, B., & Burch, R. (2020). Evaluation of transportation alternatives for aging population in the era of self-driving vehicles. IATSS Research, 44(1), 30–35.

Robertson, R. D., Woods-Fry, H., Vanlaar, W. G. M., & Mainegra Hing, M. (2019). Automated vehicles and older drivers in Canada. Journal of Safety Research, 70, 193–199.

Romoser, M. R. E., & Fisher, D. L. (2009). The effect of active versus passive training strategies on improving older drivers’ scanning in intersections. Human Factors, 51(5), 652-668.

Rosenbloom, S., & Santos, R. (2014). Understanding older drivers: An examination of medical conditions, medication use, and travel behavior. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Sall, R., Choi, H., & Feng, J. (2018). Bringing older drivers up to speed with technology: Cognitive changes, training, and advances in transportation technology. In Aging, technology and health (pp. 81–111). Elsevier.

Sangrar, R., Mun, J., Cammarata, M., Griffith, L. E., Letts, L., & Vrkljan, B. (2019). Older driver training programs: A systematic review of evidence aimed at improving behind-the-wheel performance. Journal of Safety Research, 71, 295–313.

Sawula, E., Polgar, J., Porter, M. M., Gagnon, S., Weaver, B., Nakagawa, S., Stinchcombe, A., & Bédard, M. (2018). The combined effects of on-road and simulator training with feedback on older drivers’ on-road performance: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19(3), 241–249.

Schulz, P., Beblo, T., Spannhorst, S., Labudda, K., Wagner, T., Bertke, V., Boedeker, S., Driessen, M., Kreisel, S. H., & Toepper, M. (2019). Avoidance behavior is an independent indicator of poorer on-road driving skills in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences.

Shimada, H., Hotta, R., Makizako, H., Doi, T., Tsutsumimoto, K., Nakakubo, S., & Makino, K. (2019). Effects of driving skill training on safe driving in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Gerontology, 65(1), 90–97.

Skufca, L. (2011). 2010 driver safety program evaluation: A comparison of baseline and follow-up findings. AARP.

Snyder, K. M., & Ganzini, L. (2009). Outcomes of Oregon’s law mandating physician reporting of impaired drivers. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 22(3), 161-165.

Staplin, L., & Lococo, K. H. (2003). Model driver screening and evaluation program. Volume 3: Guidelines for motor vehicle administrators (Report No. DOT HS 809 581). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Staplin, L., Lococo, K. H., Gish, K. W., & Decina, L. E. (2003a). Model driver screening and evaluation program. Volume 1: Project summary and model program recommendations (Report No. DOT HS 809 582). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Staplin, L., Lococo, K. H., Gish, K. W., & Decina, L. E. (2003b). Model driver screening and evaluation program. Volume 2: Maryland pilot older driver study (Report No. DOT HS 809 583). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Staplin, L., Lococo, K., Mastromatto, T., Gish, K. W., Golembiewski, G., & Sifrit, K. J. (2019). Mild cognitive impairment and driving performance (Report No. DOT HS 812 577). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Stewart, T. (2023, April). Overview of motor vehicle traffic crashes in 2021 (Report No. DOT HS 813 435). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Stutts, J. C., Martell, C., & Staplin, L. (2009, June). Identifying behaviors and situations associated with increased crash risk for older drivers (Report No. DOT HS 811 093). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Stutts, J. C., & Wilkins, J. (2012). Keeping seniors safe and mobile: An evaluation of a local drive test option. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Tefft, B. C. (2014). Driver license renewal policies and fatal crash involvement rates of older drivers, United States, 1985–2011. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Training, Research and Education for Driving Safety. (2023). TREDS Law Enforcement Programs. [Web page and portal]. University of California San Diego.

Transportation Research Board. (2005). Improving the safety of older road users.

Transportation Safety Institute. (n.d.). Educating law enforcement officers on older driver issues. [Online web course].

Urlings, J. H. J., Roelofs, E., Cuenen, A., Brijs, K., Brijs, T., & Jongen, E. M. M. (2019). Development of single-session driving simulator-based and computer-based training for at-risk older drivers. Educational Gerontology, 45(4), 283–296.

U.S. Census Bureau (2010-2021). American Community Survey 1- year estimates 2010-2021 (DP05) [Data Set].

U.S. Census Bureau (2011). Table 1. Intercensal Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex and Age for the United States: April 1, 2000, to July 1, 2010 (ES-EST00INT-01) [Data Set].

U.S. Census Bureau (2021). Age and sex composition in the United States: 2021. Table 1. Population by age and sex.

Vespa, J., Lauren M., & Armstrong, D. M. (2020). Demographic turning points for the United States: Population projections for 2020 to 2060 (Report No. 25-1144; Current Population Reports). U.S. Census Bureau.

Vernon, D. D., Diller, E., Cook, L., Reading, J., & Dean, J. M. (2001). Further analysis of drivers licensed with medical conditions in Utah (Report No. DOT HS 809 211). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.