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AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (2018a). Leveraging and enhancing alcohol countermeasures to reduce drugged driving: Behavioral and educational interventions. [Research brief].

AAAFTS. (2018b). Leveraging and enhancing alcohol countermeasures to reduce drugged driving: Enforcement, legal and policy-based approaches. [Research brief].

AAAFTS. (2019). 2018 Traffic safety culture index.

 American Geriatrics Society & A. Pomidor, Ed. (2019). Clinician’s guide to assessing and counseling older drivers (4th ed.). American Geriatrics Society.

Arnold, L. S., & Scopatz, R. A. (2016). Advancing drugged driving data at the State level: Synthesis of barriers and expert panel recommendations. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Asbridge, M., Hayden, J. A., & Cartwright, J. L. (2012). Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: Systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 344(e536).

Axel, N. E. (2020). The legalization of marijuana and its impact on traffic safety and impaired driving. Criminal Justice Magazine, 35(1), 8-14.

Baumgartner, F. R., Epp, D. A., & Shoub, K. (2018). Suspect citizens: What 20 million traffic stops tell us about policing and race. Cambridge University Press.

Beaulieu, E., Naumann, R. B., Deveaux, G., Wang, L., Stringfellow, E. J., Hassmiller Lich, K., & Jalali, M. S. (2022). Impacts of alcohol and opioid polysubstance use on road safety: Systematic review. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 173, 106713.

Beirness, D. J., & Porath, A. J. (2019). Drug evaluation and classification: Review of the program and opportunities for enhancement. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Beirness, D. J., Simpson, H. M., & Williams. A. F. (2006). Role of cannabis and benzodiazepines in motor vehicle crashes. In Drugs and traffic: A symposium (Transportation Research Circular, Number E-C096, pp. 12-21). Transportation Research Board.

Bergal, J. (2019, April 19). Police are now taking roadside blood samples to catch impaired drivers. PBS News Hour.

Berning, A., & Smither, D. D. (2014, November). Understanding the limitations of drug test information, reporting, and testing practices in fatal crashes (Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 812 072). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Berning, A., Smith, R. C., Drexel, M., & Wochinger, K. (2022). Drug testing and traffic safety: What you need to know (Report No. DOT HS 813 264). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Bloch, S. (2021, May). States explore oral fluid testing to combat impaired driving. NCSL.

Boddie, A., & O’Brien, A. (2018). 2016 digest of State laws: Driving under the influence of drugs (Report No. DOT HS 812 468). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Brunnauer, A. & Laux, G. (2017). Driving under the influence of antidepressants: A systematic review and update of the evidence of experimental and controlled clinical studies. Pharmacopsychiatry, 50(5), 173-181.

Bunn, T., Singleton, M., & Chen, I.-C. (2019). Use of multiple data sources to identify specific drugs and other factors associated with drug and alcohol screening of fatally injured motor vehicle drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 122, 287–294.

Buzby, D., Mohr, A., & Logan, B. (2021). Evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices (Report No. DOT HS 812 859; Traffic Tech). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Cameron-Burr, K. T., Conicella, A., & Neavyn, M. J. (2021). Opioid use and driving performance. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 17(3), 289–308.

Chandler, R. K., Fletcher, B. W., & Volkow, N. D. (2009). Treating drug abuse and addiction in the criminal justice system: Improving public health and safety. JAMA, 301(2), 183-190.

Chong, Y., Fryer, C. D., & Gu, Q. (2013). Prescription sleep aid use among adults: United States, 2005-2010. NCHS Data Brief, 127, 1–8.

Chow, A., & Leo, Y. S. (2017). Surveillance of disease: Overview. In International Encyclopedia of Public Health (2nd ed., pp. 124–138). Elsevier.

Compton, R. (2017).Marijuana-impaired driving: A report to Congress (Report No. DOT HS 812 440). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Compton, R. P., & Berning, A. (2015). Drug and alcohol crash risk. Journal of Drug Addiction, Education, and Eradication, 11(1), 29-46.

Compton, R., Vegega, M., & Smither, D. (2009). Drug impaired driving: Understanding the problem and ways to reduce it (Report No. DOT HS 811 268; A Report to Congress). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Couper, F. J., & Logan, B. K. (2014). Drugs and human performance fact sheets (Report No. DOT HS 809 725). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Dassanayake, T., Michie, P., Carter, G., & Jones, A. (2011). Effects of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opioids on driving: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological and experimental evidence. Drug Safety, 34(2), 125-156.

DEC Program Technical Advisory Panel. (2020). International standards for impaired driving programs (DRE, SFST, ARIDE). International Association of Chiefs of Police.

Dobri, S. C. D., Moslehi, A. H., & Davies, T. C. (2019). Are oral fluid testing devices effective for the roadside detection of recent cannabis use? A systematic review. Public Health, 171, 57-65.

D’Orazio, A. L., Mohr, A. L. A., Chan-Hosokawa, A., Harper, C., Huestis, M. A., Limoges, J. F., Miles, A. K., Scarneo, C. E., Kerrigan, S., Liddicoat, L. J., Scott, K. S., & Logan, B. K. (2021). Recommendations for toxicological investigation of drug impaired driving and motor vehicle fatalities-2021 update. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 45(6), 529–536.

DuPont, R. L., Voas, R. B., Walsh, J. M., Shea, C., Talpins, S. K., & Neil, M. M. (2012). The need for drugged driving per se laws: A commentary. Traffic Injury Prevention13(1), 31-42. 

Elvik, R. (2013). Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from epidemiological studies. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 60, 254-267.

Epp, C. R., Maynard-Moody, S., & Haider-Markel, D. (2017). Beyond profiling: The institutional sources of racial disparities in policing. Public Administration Review, 77(2), 168–178.

Felder, C. C., & Glass, M. (1998). Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 38, 179–200.

Fell, J. C., Kubelka, J., & Treffers, R. (2018). Advancing drugged driving data at the State level: State-by-State assessment. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Fukuda, Y., Ando, S., & Saito, M. (2020). Effect of a Japanese drug alert pictogram on medication-taking/driving behavior. Traffic Injury Prevention, 21(1), 18-23.

Gibson, J. E., Hubbard, R. B., Smith, C. J. P., Tata, L. J., Britton, J. R., & Fogarty, A. W. (2009). Use of self-controlled analytical techniques to assess the association between use of prescription medications and the risk of motor vehicle crashes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(6), 761-768.

Gjerde, H., Ramaekers, J. G., & Mørland, J. G. (2019, July). Methodologies for establishing the relationship between alcohol/drug use and driving impairment - Differences between epidemiological, experimental, and real-case studies. Forensic Science Review, 31(2), 141–160.

Gjerde, H., Strand, M. C., & Mørland, J. (2015). Driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs--An update part I: epidemiological studies. Forensic Science Review, 27(2), 89–113.

Gourdet, C., Vermeer, M. J. D., Planty, M. G., Banks, D., Woods, D., & Jackson, B. A. (2020). Countering drug-impaired driving: Addressing the complexities of gathering and presenting evidence in drug-impaired driving cases. RAND Corporation.

Governors Highway Safety Association. (2017). Drug-impaired driving: A guide for states.

GHSA. (n.d.). Drug impaired driving

Haegerich, T. M., Jones, C. M., Cote, P. -O., Robinson, A., & Ross, L. (2019). Evidence for state, community and systems-level prevention strategies to address the opioid crisis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 204, 107563.

Hansen, R. N., Boudreau, D. M., Ebel, B. E., Grossman, D. C., & Sullivan, S. D. (2015). Sedative hypnotic medication use and the risk of motor vehicle crash. American Journal of Public Health, 105(8), e64-e69.

Hansen, B., Miller, K. S., & Weber, C. (2018). Early evidence on recreational marijuana legalization and traffic fatalities [Working Paper No. w24417]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hartman, R. L., & Huestis, M. A. (2013). Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clinical Chemistry, 59(3), 478–492.

Hawk, M., Coulter, R. W. S., Egan, J. E., Fisk, S., Reuel Friedman, M., Tula, M., & Kinsky, S. (2017). Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(1), 70.

Hetland, A., & Carr, D. B. (2014). Medications and impaired driving. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 48(4), 494-506.

Hill, L. L., Lauzon, V. L., Winbrock, E. L., Li, G., Chihuri, S., & Lee, K. C. (2017). Depression, antidepressants and driving safety. Injury Epidemiology, 4(1), 10.

International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2023). Drug evaluation & classification program: 2021 annual report.

IACP. (n.d.). Drug recognition experts (DRE): Recertification resources.

Jones, R. K., Shinar, D., & Walsh, J. M. (2003). State of knowledge of drug impaired driving (Report No. DOT HS 809 642). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Kelly, E., Darke, S., & Ross, J. (2004). A review of drug use and driving: Epidemiology, impairment, risk factors and risk perceptions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 23(3), 319-344.

Kelley-Baker, T., Añorve, V., Smith, R. C., & Dunn, N. (2019). Data necessary to develop a sentinel surveillance system for drug use by drivers in crashes: A review of the existing landscape (Research Brief). AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Kelley-Baker, T., Berning, A., Ramirez, A., Lacey, J. H., Carr, K., Waehrer, G., Moore, C., Pell, K., Yao, J., & Compton, R. (2017). 2013-2014 National Roadside Study of alcohol and drug use by drivers: Drug results (Report No. DOT HS 812 411). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Kuhns, J. B. (2012). Drug-impaired driving (No. 69; Problem-Specific Guides Series; Problem-Oriented Guides for Police). Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.

Lacey, J. H., Brainard, K., & Snitow, S. (2010). Drug per se laws: A review of their use in states (Report No. DOT HS 811 317). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lacey, J. H., Kelley-Baker, T., Berning, A., Romano, E., Ramirez, A., Yao, J., Moore, C., Brainard, K., Carr, K., Pell, K., & Compton, R. (2016). Drug and alcohol crash risk: A case-control study (Report No. DOT HS 812 355). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lacey, J. H., Kelley-Baker, T., Furr-Holden, D., Voas, R. B., Romano, E., Ramirez, A., Brainard, K., Moore, C., Torres, P., & Berning, A. (2009). 2007 National Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Drug results (Report No. DOT HS 811 249). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lam, L. T., Norton, R., Connor, J., & Ameratunga, S. (2005). Suicidal ideation, antidepressive medication and car crash injury. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 37(2), 335-339.

Lancet. (2001).  Rethinking America's "War on Drugs" as a public-health issue. The Lancet, 357(9261), 971.

Lane, T. J., & Hall, W. (2019). Traffic fatalities within U.S. states that have legalized recreational cannabis sales and their neighbours. Addiction, 114(5), 847-856.

Legrand, S-A., Boets, S., Meesman, U., & Verstraete, A. G. (2012). Medicines and driving: Evaluation of training and software support for patient counseling by pharmacists. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 34(4), 633-643.

Leung, S. Y. (2011). Benzodiazepines, opioids and driving: An overview of the experimental research. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(3), 281-286.

Lipari, R. N., Hughes, A., & Bose, J. (2016). Driving under the influence of alcohol and illicit drugs (The CBHSQ Report). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Lococo, K., & Tyree, R. (2007). Module 2: Potentially driver-impairing prescription medications. MedScape Education Pharmacists.

Logan, B., Kacinko, S. L., & Beirness, D. J. (2016). An evaluation of data from drivers arrested for driving under the influence in relation to per se limits for cannabis. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Maust, D. T., Lin, L. A., & Blow, F. C. (2019). Benzodiazepine use and misuse among adults in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 70(2), 97–106.

Monteiro, S. P., Huiskes, R., Van Dijk, L., Van Weert, J., & De Gier, J. J. (2013). How effective are pictograms in communicating risk about driving-impairing medicines? Traffic Injury Prevention, 14, 299-308.

Moore, T. P., & Moore, A. (2019). It’s high time: A common sense approach to marijuana-impaired driving. Reason Foundation.

Moskowitz, H., & Wilkinson, C. J. (2004). Antihistamines and driving-related behavior: A review of the evidence for impairment (Report No. DOT HS 809 714). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Myers, M. (2021, August 30). Antidepressants and driving [Webinar]. TRB Standing Committee on Impairment in Transportation (ACS50) Webinar Series, Virtual.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2019). Linking information for nonfatal crash surveillance: a guide for integrating motor vehicle crash data to help keep Americans safe on the road (Report No. CS 302338-A). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2019). Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) analytical user’s manual, 1975-2018 (Report No. DOT HS 812 827). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2020). Drugged driving: Marijuana impaired driving.

NCSL. (2022). State medical cannabis laws.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1996). Drug evaluation and classification program (Unnumbered flyer).

NHTSA. (2010). The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) and applications to improve traffic safety decision-making (Report No. DOT HS 811 181).

NHTSA. (2018a). Advanced Roadside Impaired Driving Enforcement (ARIDE): Instructor guide.

NHTSA. (2018b). Drug evaluation and classification (Preliminary school): Instructor guide.

NHTSA. (2018c). Drug recognition expert course: Instructor guide.

NHTSA. (2019). Law enforcement phlebotomy toolkit: A guide to assist law enforcement agencies with planning and implementing a phlebotomy program (Report No. DOT HS 812 705).

NHTSA, GHSA, & Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. (2017). Impact of the legalization and decriminalization of marijuana on the DWI system: Highlights from the expert panel meeting (Report No. DOT HS 812 430).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2019). Drugged Driving DrugFacts.

NIDA. (2018). Prescription CNS Depressants DrugFacts.

NIDA. (2021). What are prescription opioids? DrugFacts.

Novak, K. J., & Chamlin, M. B. (2012). Racial threat, suspicion, and police behavior. Crime & Delinquency, 58(2), 275–300.

Otto, J., Finley, K., & Ward, N. J. (2016). An assessment of traffic safety culture related to driving after cannabis use (Report No. FHWA/MT-16-010/8882-309-02). Western Transportation Institute.

Peaire, A., Filbert, A., Smith, D., Beirness, D., Viel, E., & Copley, H. (2018). Report on drug screening equipment – Oral fluid. Canadian Society of Forensic Science.

Pearlson, G. D., Stevens, M. C., & D’Souza, D. C. (2021). Cannabis and driving. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 689444.

Perttula, A., Pitkäniemi, J., Heinonen, O.-P., Finkle, W. D., Triche, T., Gergov, M., & Vuori, E. (2014). Second-generation antihistamines exhibit a protective effect on drivers in trafficA preliminary population-based case-control study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15(6), 551–555.

Peterman, D. R. (2019). Marijuana use and highway safety (No. R45719). Congressional Research Service (CRS).

Pollini, R. A., Waehrer, G., & Kelley-Baker, T. (2017). Receipt of warnings regarding potentially impairing prescription medications and associated risk perceptions in a national sample of U.S. drivers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 78(6), 805–813.

Preuss, U. W., Huestis, M. A., Schneider, M., Hermann, D., Lutz, B., Hasan, A., Kambeitz, J., Wong, J. W. M., & Hoch, E. (2021). Cannabis use and car crashes: A review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 643315.

Rapoport, M. J., Chee, J. N., Prabha, T., Dow, J., Gillespie, I., Koppel, S., Charlton, J. L., O’Neill, D., Donaghy, P. C., Ho, A. O., Taylor, J.-P., & Tant, M. (2022). A systematic review of the risks of motor vehicle crashes associated with psychiatric disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

Rapoport, M. J., Lanctôt, K. L., Streiner, D. L., Bédard, M., Vingilis, E., Murray, B., Schaffer, A., Shulman, K. I., & Herrmann, N. (2009). Benzodiazepine use and driving: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 663-673.

Ramirez, A., Berning, A., Carr, K., Scherer, M., Lacey, J. H., Kelley-Baker, T., & Fisher, D. A. (2016). Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State (Report No. DOT HS 812 299). Office of Behavioral Safety Research, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Reisfeld, G. M., Goldberger, B. A., Gold, M. S., & DuPont, R. L. (2012). The mirage of impairing drug concentration thresholds: A rationale for zero tolerance per se driving under the influence of drugs laws. Journal of Analytical Toxicology36(5), 353-356.

Ritter, A. & Cameron, J. (2006). A review of the efficacy and effectiveness of harm reduction strategies for alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25(6), 611-624.

Robertson, T., Kokesch, D., & Thomka, J. (2016). Traffic safety resource prosecutor manual, 2nd edition  (Report No. DOT HS 812 313). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Robertson, R. D., Woods-Fry, H., Vanlaar, W. G. M., Brown, T. G., & Moore, C. (2019). Drug impaired driving research needs (Report No. E-C250; Transportation Research Circular). The National Academies of Science.

Scherer, M., Romano, E., Voas, R., & Taylor, E. (2018). Latent classes of polydrug users as a predictor of crash involvement and alcohol consumption. The Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Risk, 79(3), 481-489.

Sewell, R. A., Poling, J., & Sofuoglu, M. (2009). The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving. The American Journal on Addictions, 18(3), 185-193.

Shinar, D., Schechtman, E., & Compton, R. P. (2000). Signs and symptoms predictive of drug impairment. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety, Stockholm.

Smiley, A. (1999). Marijuana: Onroad and driving-simulator studies. In H. Kalant, W. A. Corrigall, W. Hall, & R. G. Smart (Eds.), The Health Effects of Cannabis (pp. 171–191). Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Smith, R.C., Turturici, M. & Camden, M.C. (2018). Countermeasures against prescription and over-the-counter drug-impaired driving. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Smith, R.C., Turturici, M., Dunn, N., & Comer, C. (2019). Assessing the feasibility of evaluating the legal implications of marijuana per se statutes in the criminal justice system. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Smyth, T., Sheehan, M., & Siskind, V. (2013). Hospital outpatients’ responses to taking medications with driving warnings. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(1), 18-25.

Stewart, K. (2006). Overview and summary. In: Drugs and Traffic: A Symposium (Transportation Research Circular, Number E-C096, pp. 2-10.) Transportation Research Board.

Strand, M. C., Gjerde, H., & Mørland, J. (2016). Driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs—An update. Part II: Experimental studies. Forensic Science Review, 28(2), 79-101.

Thacker, S. B., Qualters, J. R., Lee, L. M, & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Public health surveillance in the United States: evolution and challenges. MMWR, 61(3), 3-9.

Thomas, F. D., Berning, A., Blomberg, R., Graham, L. A., Darrah, J. A., & Tippets, A. S. (2022). A how-to guide for conducting a statewide roadside survey of alcohol and other drugs (Report No. DOT HS 813 198). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Thomas, F. D., Berning, A., Darrah, J., Graham, L. A., Blomberg, R. D., Griggs, C., Crandall, M., Schulman, C., Kozar, R., Neavyn, M., Cunningham, K. W., Ehsani, J., Fell, J. C., Whitehill, J., Babu, K., Lai, J. S., & Rayner, M. (2020). Drug and alcohol prevalence in seriously and fatally injured road users before and during the COVID-19 public health emergency (Report No. DOT HS 813 013). Office of Behavioral Safety Research, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Thomas, F. D., Darrah, J., Graham, L., Berning, A., Blomberg, R., Finstad, K., Griggs, C., Crandall, M., Schulman, C., Kozar, R., Lai, J., Mohr, N., Chenoweth, J., Cunningham, K., Babu, K., Dorfman, J., Van Heukelom, J., Ehsani, J., Fell, J., Whitehill, J., Brown, T., & Moore, C. (2022). Alcohol and drug prevalence among seriously or fatally injured road users (Report No. DOT HS 813 399). Office of Behavioral Safety Research, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

United States Food and Drug Administration. (2021, March 9). Some medicines and driving don’t mix.

Verster, J. C., & Roth, T. (2013). Blood drug concentrations of benzodiazepines correlate poorly with actual driving impairment. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 17(2), 153–159.

Voas, R. B., DuPont, R. L., Shea, C. L., & Talpins, S. K. (2013). Prescription drugs, drugged driving and per se laws. Injury Prevention19(3), 218-221.

Walsh, J. M. (2009). A state-by-state analysis of laws dealing with driving under the influence of drugs (Report No. DOT HS 811 236). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Watson, T. M. & Mann, R. E. (2018). Harm reduction and drug impaired driving: Sharing the road? Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 25(2), 105-108.

Wickens, C. M., Flam-Zalcman, R., Stoduto, G., Docherty, C., Watson, T. M., van der Maas, M., Brands, B., Ilie, G., Matheson, J., Mann, R. E., & Thomas, R. K. (2017). The impact of remedial programme participation on convicted drinking drivers’ alcohol and other drug use 6 months following programme completion. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 16(3), 1-19.

Wickens, C. M., Mann, R. E., Brands, B., Ialomiteanu, A. R., Fischer, B., Watson, T. M., Matheson, J., Stoduto, G., & Rehm, J. (2018). Driving under the influence of prescription opioids: Self-reported prevalence and association with collision risk in a large Canadian jurisdiction. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 121, 14-19.

Wong, K., Brady, J. E., & Li, G. (2014). Establishing legal limits for driving under the influence of marijuana. Injury Epidemiology, 1(1), 26.

Wood, E., McKinnon, M., Strang, R., & Kendall, P. R. (2012). Improving community health and safety in Canada through evidence-based policies on illegal drugs. Open Medicine: A peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal, 6(1), e35-e40. 

Zvonarev, V., Fatuki, T. A., & Tregubenko, P. (2019). The public health concerns of marijuana legalization: an overview of current trends. Cureus, 11(9), e5806.